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Class _JTlai_£i- 

Book >N'^ 'x(q 

CopightN" 1^5 J 





















Entered according to the Act of Congress, in the Year 1847, 


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of 


Entered according to the Act of Congress, in the Year 1857, 




In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of 



The author of the American Dictionary of the English Language has been 
prevented, by the state of his health, from attending, in person, to its abridgment 
into the octavo form. The work has, therefore, been committed, for this purpose, 
to Mr. J. E. Worcester, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, who has strictly adhered 
to the general principles laid down for his direction by the author. Cases of doubt, 
arising in the application of these principles, and such changes and modifications 
of the original as seemed desirable, in a work of this kind, intended for general 
use, have been referred, for decision, to Prof. Goodrich, of Yale College, who 
was requested by the author to act, on these subjects, as his representative. 
The Synopsis of words of disputed pronunciation has been prepared by the former 
of these gentlemen ; Walker's " Key to the Classical Pronunciation of Greek, Latin 
and Scripture Proper Names" has passed under the revision of the latter. 

The following are some of the most important principles on which the Abridg- 
ment has been conducted. 

The vocabulary has been considetably enlarged. It here embraces all the words 
contained in the original work, and in Todd's edition of Johnson's Dictionary, to- 
gether with such additional ones as have appeared to the author to be worthy of 

The leading and most important etymologies, as given in the quarto edition, are 
here retained. 

The definitions remain unaltered, except by an occasional compression in their 
statement. All the significations of words, as exhibited in the larger work, are 
here retained ; and new ones have, in some instances, been added by the author's 
direction, as deficiencies, in this respect, have been discovered. The illustrations 
and authorities are generally omitted: In doubtful or contested cases, however, 
they are carefully retained. 

In cases of disputed orthography, the principle, adopted in the quarto edition, of 
introducing into the vocabulary the different forms in question, has been carried, in 
the Abridgment, to a considerably greater extent. In most instances of this kind, 
the old orthography takes the lead, and is immediately followed by the one pro- 
posed. The u and k, however, are entirely excluded from such words as honor 
and music, in accordance with the decided tendency of later usage, both in this 
country and in England. In derivative words, the final consonant of the primitive 
is doubled only when under the accent, in conformity with one of the best established 
principles of the language. On this subject. Walker observes, in his Rhyming Dic- 
tionary, " Dr. Lowth has justly remarked, that this error (that of doubhng the final 
consonant when not under the accent) frequently takes place in the words worship- 
ping, counselling, etc., which, having the accent on the first syllable, ought to be 
vm'meu worshiping, counseling, etc. An ignorance of this rule has led many to 
write bigotted for bigoted, and from this spelling has arisen a false pronunciation ; 
but no letter seems to be more frequently doubled improperly than Z. Why w6 
should write libelling, revelling, and yet offering, suffering, reasoning, I am at a loss 
to determine ; and unless I can give a better plea than any other letter in the alpha- 
bet for being doubled in this situation, I must, in the style of Lucian, in his trial of 
the letter t, declare for an expulsion." In this expulsion, it is believed, the public 
will finally concur, when they reflect, that this violation of analogv takes place in 


the derivatives of comparatively few words, in opposition to multitudes of instances 

in which the general rule prevails. 

As a guide to j)ronunciation, the words have been carefully divided into syllables. 
This, in the great majority of instances, decides at once the regular sound of the 
vowels in the respective syllables ; and wherever the vowels depart from this regu- 
lar sound, s. pointed letter is used, denoting the sound which they receive in such 
cases. When under the accent, the regular long sound of the vowels is also indi- 
cated by a pointed letter. Thus, by means of pointed letters, the necessity of re- 
spelling the words, as a guide to pronunciation, is chiefly obviated. In cases of 
disputed pronunciation, the different forms are frequently given. But the Synopsis 
of Mr. Worcester exhibits these diversities much more fully, and gives, in one 
view, the decisions of the most approved Pronouncing Dictionaries respecting about 
eight hundred primitive words, which, of course, decide the pronunciation of a great 
number of derivatives. Those who are interested in such inquiries are thus pre- 
sented, at a single glance, with nearly all the important points of difference in 
EngUsh orthoepy, and are enabled to decide for themselves, without the expense 
or trouble of examining the several authorities. 

Li some instances, vowels have a fluctuating or intermediate sound ; and hence 
there is a great diversity" among orthoepists in their manner of indicating the sound 
in question. Thus the sound of a, in monosyllables, in ass, asi, ask, ance, ant, etc., 
is marked by some with the short sound of a in fat, and by others with its Italian 
sound, as in father. In this work, the latter is given as the prevailing sound both in 
this country and in England. Mitford, indeed, observes, in his work on Har- 
mony in Language, " No English voice fails to express, no English ear to perceive, 
the difference between the sound of a in passing and passive ; no colloquial famihar- 
ity or hurry can substitute the one sound for the other." The true sound, how- 
ever, is not so long as that of a in father, but corresponds more exactly to the final a 
in umbrella. Being thus short, it is often mistaken for the sound of a mfat. There is 
another intermediate sound of a, between its ordinary sound in fall on the one hand, 
and in what on the other. This is heard in such words as salt, malt, etc. As this 
sound seems to incline, in most cases, towards the short rather than the long sound 
in question, it is here marked with the sound of a in what, though in many cases it 
is somewhat more protracted. The sound of o, in such words as lost, loft, toss, etc., 
is not so short as in lot ; but, like the o in nor, though slightly protracted, it should 
by no means be prolonged into the full sound of a in tall. In monosyllables endmg 
m are, as hare, fare, the a is slightly modified by the subsequent r. Such words 
ought not to be pronounced as if spelled hay-er,fay-er, but hair, fair. Perry alone, 
of all the Enghsh orthoepists, has introduced a distinct character to indicate this 
sound ; but it is well ascertained that Walker and others coincided with Perry in 
their pronunciation, in accordance with the general pronunciation of England in this 
respect. These remarks apply likewise to the words parent, apparent, transparent, 
etc. In respect to accent, there are many words in which the primary and secon- 
dary accent are nearly equal in force ; such as complaisant, caravan, etc. In such 
cases, the accent is here thrown towards the beginning of the word, in accordance 
with the general tendency of our language. 

In laying this work before the public in its present form, no efforts have been 
spared to make it a complete defining and pronouncing dictionary for general use. 
About sixteen thousand words, and between thirty and forty thousand definitions are 
contained in this dictionary, which are not to be found in any similar work within 
the author's knowledge. These additions do not principally consist of obsolete 
terms, or uncommon and unimportant significations of words. In most cases, on the 
contrary, they are terms and significations which are in constant use in the various 
departments of science and the arts, in commerce, manufactures, merchandise, the 
liberal professions, and the ordinary concerns of life. They mark the progress 
which the English language has niade during the seventy years which have elapsed 


nee the publication of Dr. Johnson's Dictionary. Within that period, a complete 
revolution has taken place in almost every branch of physical science. New de- 
partments have been created, new principles developed, new modes of classification 
and description adopted. More rigid principles of definition have been gradually 
introduced into almost every department of human knowledge. In these respects, 
however, our dictionaries have remained almost stationary. The labors of our lexi- 
cographers, since the time of Johnson, have been chiefly confined to the introduc- 
tion of new words into the vocabulary. In the work of which this is an abridgment, 
the words have all been defined anew. The explanations given are adapted to the 
advanced state of knowledge at the present day, and to the changes which seventy 
years have made in the use of terms. In the definitions of the leading and im- 
portant words, the signification is explained by enumerating the properties of the 
object in question, and not merely by a reference to other words of a similar im- 
port. In numerous instances, the distinctions between words which are apparendy 
synonymous are traced with great minuteness; and it is hoped that the present work 
may supply, to a considerable extent, the place of a regular treatise on English 
synonyms. In a work of this kind, however, embracing, as it does, the whole circle 
of ideas embodied in tiie language of a nation, the utmost efforts of the lexicogra- 
pher are only an approximation towards the end in view. No single mind can 
enter, with perfect exactness, into all the multiplied distinctions of thought and lan- 
guage, among a highly civilized people. The author of such a work may, therefore, 
confidently hope for the candor and indulgence of an enlightened public. 

As the author of the original work has intrusted the superintendence of the 
Abridgment to another person, he is not to be considered as responsible for any of 
the modifications already alluded to. The quarto edition will, of course, be con- 
sidered a^ presenting his exact views of the proper arrangement and exhibition 
of words, in respect to their orthography and pronunciation. 

JVew; Haven, June 1, 1829. 

SYNOPSIS '-^Ci^ &^ 




The object of this Synopsis is to exhibit, at one view, the manner in which words 
of doubtful, disputed, or various pronunciation, are pronounced by the most eminent 
English orthoepists. To these words a star is prefixed, as they occur in the Dictionary. 

The six Pronouncing Dictionaries which have been made use of in the Synopsis, 
namely, those of Sheridan, Walker, Perry, Jones, Fulton and Knight, and Jameson, 
were originally published in the order of time in which they are here exhibited, 
Sheridan's being the first, and Jameson's the last. 

The work of Perry, which has been made use of, is his " Synonymous, Etymological 
and Pronouncing English Dictionary," in royal 8vo., which was first published in 
1805, and which differs, in the pronunciation of many words, from Perry's " Royal 
Standard English Dictionary," which appeared many years earlier. 

These orthoepists have each his own peculiar system of notation ; but as their sev 
eral systems could not be exhibited in the Synopsis without much inconvenience, and 
without causing great confusion and perplexity to the reader, their respective pronun- 
ciations have been represented by one method of notation. As these authors do not 
agree with each other with respect to the number and quality of the sounds of the 
English vowels, it is impossible, by the notation here used, to represent, in every 
instance, their precise difference. The cases of failure, however, are not important. 

Perry alone makes a distinction between the sound of long a as in fate, and of a as 
mfare, which last is marked by him thus (a). Sheridan, Perry, Fulton and Knight, and 
Jameson, make no distinction between the short sound of o as in not, and the sound of 
as in nor ; and Sheridan makes none between the sound of short a as in fat, and of 
what is called the Italian sound of a as in far and father. Fulton and Knight, on the 
contrary, not only make a distinction between the sound of a in fat and in far, but 
designate an intermediate sound, as in fast, not so short as a in fat, nor so broad as a 
in far. It is probable, however, that these orthoepists agreed in practice, in many 
cases, in which they differed in marking the pronunciation of words ; and that, in va- 
rious instances, they omitted to mark the discriminations in their dictionaries, which 
they were in the constant habit of making in reading and speaking. 

With regard to what is called the Italian sound of the letter a as in father, (in the 
Synopsis marked thus, a), there is a great diversity among the different orthoepists. 
Sheridan has npt used it at all, and Walker and Jameson are more sparing in the use 
of it than Perry, Jones, and Fulton and Knight. Dr. Webster has made more use 
of it than any of them. But this difference of sound is not deemed to be so impor- 
tant as to render it expedient *o introduce the words which are affected by it into the 

With regard to the mode of representing the sound of the letter t, when it comes 
after the accent, and is followed by u, as in the words nature and natural, there is a 
great diversity in the Pronouncing Dictionaries ; and this applies to a numerous class 
of words. It has been thought necessary to give only a few of these words, merely 
enough to show the diiTerent modes of different orthoepists. 

There is a class of words, in which the letter d is followed by one of the vowels e, z, 
or ?/, as arduous, hideous, obedience^ &c., respecting which there is a diversity of pro- 

viii , SYNOPSIS. 

nunciation. A,j)art ^nly of \these -have been insertvCd, but enough to exhibit this 
di^CTte%, lild »iri$icaJte whaf other*'^5^ds imi^lb3^a?fie*^e^ by it. 

Th^e are some words of three syllables, which we hear pronounced sometimes with 

the secondary accent on the first, and the primary accent on the third ; and sometimes 

IC vj^^j^iA^is qrdpjL reversed ; as, ambuscade, caravan, and partisan. Dr. Webster inclines 

V^^ generally to place the primary accent, in such words, on the first syllable; but the 

difference is not thought to be important enough to render it advisable, in all cases, to 

exhibit them in the Synopsis. 

With regard to the quantity of the last syllable of many words which end in He and 
ine, diS, juvenile and vulpine, there is a great diversity in the Pronouncing Dictionaries ; 
and there are some cases in which it is difficult to say whether the long or the short 
sound is to be preferred, and respecting which every one may, without impropriety, 
be permitted to follow his own taste or the usage to which he is accustomed. Some 
of the words of this sort stand in the Dictionary without having the quantity of the last 
syllable marked ; and but few of them have been inserted in the Synopsis. 

A considerable number of words are inserted, with regard to which there is only one 
uniform pronunciation exhibited by Dr. Webster and the several authorities made use 
of It has, nevertheless, been thought advisable to insert them, because a different pro- 
nunciation from the one here given is countenanced by other authorities, or, to a greater 
or less extent, by usage ; and it may, therefore, be satisfactory to many to see the 
authorities exhibited. The words accessory, centrifugal, centripetal and repertory are 
examples of this class. 

Some words are inserted, of which the pronunciation is, at present, well set- 
tled ; as, for example, break, covetous, hydrophobia and the noun defile. But with 
regard to these words, a different pronunciation from that which is now established 
formerly prevailed, and is supported by Sheridan. 

It will be seen that, in many instances, there are several words of the same class oi 
family, to which a star is prefixed in the Dictionary, though only one of them is found 
in the Synopsis. In these cases, the leading or primitive word is inserted, which gov- 
erns the rest of the same class ; as, for example, the pronunciation of acceptable and 
fearful determines the pronunciation of their derivatives, acceptably, acceptableness, 
fearfully a.ndfearfulness. 

In the Synopsis, the vowels are marked, in many instances, by a period under them, 
to denote an indistinct sound. These syllables are differently designated by the or- 
thoepists here made use of; though they all doubtless agreed in their manner of 
pronouncing them. In the word celibacy, for example, the vowels in the second and 
fourth syllables, which are represented, in the Synopsis, by the indistinct sound of e (e), 
are represented by Walker, Fulton and Knight, and Jameson, by the long sound of e, 
and by Sheridan and Jones by the short sound of y. Perry marks the i in the second 
syllable short, and leaves the y unmarked, as he does also the a in the third syllable, 
which all the rest designate as short, and which has, in the Synopsis, the mark of 
the indistinct sound of a. 

Those words which, in the first column of the Synopsis, have not the pronunciation 
marked, are pronounced in two different modes in the Dictionary. 

Those words which are so long as not to admit of being displayed, at length, in the 
body of the page, are there placed only in the first column, with Dr. Webster's pro- 
nunciation ; and the pronunciation of the other orthoepists is given at the bottom of 
the page. 


To the Sounds of the Vowels as used in the Synopsis. 


A, fate, fat, far, fail, don'9-tive 

E, mete, met, rev'?-ry. 

I, pine, pin, clial'i9e. 

O, note, not, ntr, mSve, tri'pod. 

U, tube, tub, sat'urn. 
\h as in tkin ; th as in this. 



Webster. Sheridan. 

A»DI-€A-T1VE, ?b-dik'k?i-tiv, 

ABDOMEN, ?ib-do'men, 

AB'SO-LU-TO-RY, ab'so-lu-tijr're, 

AB'STRACT, a. SLb'strakt, 

A€-CEPT'A-BLE, Sk'sep-tEi-bl, ~ 

Ae-CESS*, ak'ses, 

A€'CES-SO-RY, ak'ses-sur-re, 

AD-DIT'A-MENT, ad'de-tJi-ment, 

AD-JU'VANT, ad'ju-vant, 

A'E-RIE, a're, 

A-GAIN', (a-gen') si-gen', 

A-GAINST', } , 

(a-gensf) 5 ' ^ 


AL'COVE, 9]-kove', 

AL'KA-Ll, al'k?i-le, 

AL-MOST', Oil-most', 



AM'BUS-€ADE, &ra-bijs-kade', 

A-MEN', a-men', 

ANCHOVY, 9n-cho've, 

aN'CIENT, ane'shent, 

A-NEM'0-SeOPE, an'e-mos-k5pe' 

aN'GEL, ane'j?l, 

AN-TI-Fe'BRILE, an-t?-feibrile, 

AN'TI-NO-MY, iin'te-no-me, 

AN'TI-PODES, an-tip'o-dez, 

AN-TIP'TO-SIS, an-tip-to'sis, 

AP-PULSE', ap'puls, 

A'PRON, a'prun, 

AU'UI-LINE, ak'w?-line, 


AR'DU-OUS, ar'du-us, 

AR'I-E-TATE, ar'e-e-tate, 

AR'ITH-MAN-CY, n-rith'man-se, 

AR'0-MA-TlZE, 5r'9-m?i-tize, 

AT-TRa HENT, at'tra-hent, 

A-VANT' GUARD, st-vgLunt'gSlrd, 

A-VOW'EE, ?i-vow'e, 

AZURE, a'zhur, 







































Fulton S( Knight 









































am-bus-kade , 






















ak'ses, ak-ses' 














an-tip o-dez. 







at'tra-hent, at'tra-b^nt, at'tr?i-hent. 

a-vant'gard, ^-vaat'gyard, ?i-vant'gyard. 




?i-ritfi man-s?. 










I b5il-k5'n?. 
( b51'k9-nt. 

I ^d-ver'tjz-raSnt, 




Jones. Fulton ^ Knight. 

^d-ver'tjz-mSnt, ^id-ver'tjz-ment, 

1 ad-v?r-tize'm?nt, ad-v?r-tize'm?nt, j '^^ "-^ ■•'" "* ' < 5d-v?r-tize'ra?nt, &d-v?r-tlze'm?nt, 

ag'gran-dlze-m^nt, ag'grsin-dlze-m?nt i ^^ gr^n-dize-m^nt, ^g/gr^n-dize-ment, ag'gr?n-dize-m?nt, ?«-gran'diz-mSnt 

i ag-gran'djz-ment, ) 

&n-5i-m9r-fb'ai3, an-?i-m9r-fb's}S, 5n-^-mor'f9-sis, an-si-rnqr-fo'sja, &n-si-in9r-f5'9is, 5n-?k-m8rf<Mil« 








Fulton 8f Knight. Jamesou 






















BEARD, (berd) 

. berd. 








. bel-la'tur. 

























' besfty^l. 










1 bi-tu'm?n, 








{ bote'swane. 







/ bo'sn. 






1 bum-bast' 













j boo'zum, 
( buz'um, 

j boo'zum. 









b66m, home. 


BOWL, (bole) 





boul, bole. 





















brsi-zeel! , 









BREECH, (brich) 
























































, 1 












, k^i-mel'o-pard 





, kan'§il-k6le. 







( k^-prees', 
I kap'rees. 













j kach'up, 



























oc; in. LUiCj 
















sen-trip'?-tjl, , 


































CIIAM'OIS, (sham'e 

i) sha-mo?'. 








sham 'pane. 






. shap-?r-66n', 


kart, chart. 


kSrt, chart, 

kart, chart. 

kart, chart. 

chart, kart, 

CHaS'TEN, (cha'sn; 

) cha'stn, 







, chas'tjz-ment. 


chase^iz-ment, ) 




chase 't?-t?. 








( cheer'ful, 
i cher'ful. 

1 cheer'ful. 


( cher'ful, 
( cheer'ful. 

1 cheer'ful. 










cha'na, chi'nii, 



chl'n?, cha'n?, 






Fulton Sr Wnight. 






. . . 

^ . . . . k5il-sJn'5i-tvr-r 

CHOIR, (quire) 







CL6UGH, (kluf ) 



















CON'GE, n. 

eON-NOlS-SEtJR', k5-nis-so6r', 

€ON-SIST'0-RY, kon'sis-tur-e, 

€ON-SOL'A-TO-RY, kon-s6'la-tur-e, 

eON'STEL-LATE, kon-stel'late, 

€ON'STI-TU-TlVE, kon-stit'tu-tiv, 

CON'STRUE, kon stur, 





















CON-SULT', n. 


CONSUMMATE, v. kon-sum'met, 
CONTEMPLATE, kon-tem'plate, 

CON'TENT, 71. 












CREEK, (krik) 





1 kon'ver-sent, 
' kon-ver'sfnt, 











Walker. Perry. Jones. Fulton 4' Knight. Jameson. 

kir'9-man-s?, kj-rom'an-s?, kir'9-man-se, kir'9-man-s?, ki'ro-m5n-s?. 

chiv'al-re, shiv'al-re, chiv'al-re, chiv'al-re, shiv'al-re 

chivz, cliivz, chivz, chlvz, chivz 

kwire, koir, kwire, kwire, kae'ur, kwire, koir, kwire 

cho-peen', chop'in, ch9-peen', chop'in, ch9-peen' 

kwir'}S-ter, \ ^or'is-ter, | kg^'is-ter, kwir'is-ter, kor'is-t?r 

( kwir'is-ter, ) 

kris-che-an'?-t?, kris-te-an'e-te, kris-che-&n'?-t?, kris-tye-Sn'f-t?, kris'be-SLn'e t§ 

klare'yun, klar'e-un, klar'e-un, kla're-un, klar'e-un 

klark, klark, klark, klark, klark. 

kloze, klotnz, klothz, kl5ze, klottz, klot&z, kloze. 

klou, klof, klof, #lof, kluf. 

klis'ter, klis'ter, glis'ter, glis'ter, klis'ter. 

k9-ad'ju-t^nt, ko-Eid-ju'taint, k9-ad'ju-tjnt. 

kob'alt, kob'alt, kob'ult, kob'alt, kobilt. 

kuch'in-eel, kuch'e-ngSl, koch'in-eel, kiich'in-eel, koch-in-eel'. 

, -, , . «, , ( kok'swane, 

kok'sn, kok'sn, < , -, , 

' ' I kok'sn. 

kog'ne-z^ns, J ks^'e-z^ns, \ kSg'n^-^vns, j kSg/^e-zans, kon'e-z^s. 

kon'e-zsins, ) " ( kon'e-zuns, ) 

kiim'bat, kom'bEit, kiim'but, kiim'bat, kom^bat. 

kom'ment, kom-ment', k9m-ment', kom'ment, kom'm?nt. 

kom-mish'Qre, kom-mis'shiire, k9m-mish'iire, kom-mish'Qre, I<9m-iiiis Qre. 

om-mo e-us, I kom-mo'de-us, kom-mo'de-us, kom-mo'dyus, kom-mo'de-us. 

kora-m5'j?-us, ) ' ' ' 

kom-pa'tre-ut, kom-pa'tre-ut, k9m-pa'tre-ut, k9m-pa'tre-ut, k9m-pa'tre-ut. 

kom-pen'sate, kom-pen'sate, kom-pen'sate, kom-pen'sate, kom-pen'sate 

kom'plot, kom-plot', kom'plot, kom'plot, kom-plbt'. 

kom'pSrt, kom-pojt', kom'port, kom'port, kom'port. 

kiim'rade, kiim'rade, kiim'rade, kiim'rade, kom'rade. 

kon'fes-sur, kon-fes'sur, kon'fes-sur, kon'fes-sur, kon'fes-sur. 

kon-fe-dant', kon'fe-dant, kon'fe-dant, kon-fe-dSnt', kon-fe-dant'. 

k9n-fis'kate, kon-fis'kate, kon-fis'kate, kon-fis'kate, kon-fis'kate. 

k9n-front', kun-fi-iint', kon-friint', ken-front', kon-fronl'. 

k9n-jee', kon'je, kon-jee', i f °"^.'J^' f"^''>.-, 

( kon-jSe', kong-zha' 

ko-nis-saxe', kon-nis-silre', kon-nis-sure', kon-nis-siire', ko-nis-sare'. 

kon'sjs-tur-e, kon'sis-to-re, kon'sis-tur-e. kon'sjs-tur-e, kon'sjs-tur-e. 

k9n-sol'a-tur-e, kon-so'la-to-re, kon-sol'a-tur-e, kon-sol'a-tur-e, kon-sol a-tur-? 

k9n-stel'late, k9n-stel'late, kon-stel'late, kon-stel'late. 

kon'ste-tu-tiv, kon'ste-tu-tiv, kon'ste-tu-tiv, kon'ste-tii-tiV, kon'ste-tu-tiv. 

i kon'stru, ) kSn'strii, kon'stru, kon'strii, kon'strii. 

! kon'stur, ) 

I ^°"'^""' '^°"'^^"' \ kon'sult, kon'siilt. 

! k9n-sult', k9n-siilt', ) 

kon-siim'mate, k9n-siim'mate, k9n-siim'met, k9n-siim'mate, kon-siim'mate. 

k9n-tem'plate, kon-tem'olate, ±9n-tem'plate, kon-tem'plate, kon-tem'plate. 

|k9n-tent', | k9n-tent', k9n-tent', kon-tent', k9n-tent'. 

i kon'tent, ) ' 

kon'trite, kon-trite', kon'trite, kon'trite, kon'trite. 

kon-ve'ne-ent, kon-ve'ne-ent, kon-ve'ne-ent, kon-ve'nyent, kon-ve'ne-em, 

k9n-ven'te-kl , k9n-ven'te-kl, kon'ven-te-kl, kon-ven'te-kl, kon-ven'te-ki 

kon'ver-sctnt, / kon-ver'sant, j kon'ver-sunt, kon'vers-ant, | kon'ver-sant. 

k9n-ver's^nt, ) ( kon-ver'sunt, k9n-vers'ant, ) " ' 

kiin'ne, kun'ne, kiin'ne, kun'ne, kiin'ne. 

ko-ket're, k9-ket're, k9-ket're, k9-ket're, k9-ket're. 

kor'je-al, kor'de-al, kor'de-ul, kor'dyal, kor'de-al. 

kor'9-lar-e, kbr'o-la-r?, kor'9-lar-e, kor'ol-lar-e, kor'o-lar-e. 

koo'reer, koo're-a, koo-reer', k66'reer, k6o-reer'. 

kiir'che-us, kiir'clie-us, kur'te-us, kiirt'yus, kore'te-us. 

kuv'e-tiis, kiiv'et-iis, kQv've-tiis, kiiv'et-iis, kiiv'e-tiis. 

kreek, kreek, kreek, kreek, kreek. 

krok'9-dil, krok'o-dil, krok'9-dil, krok'o-dil, krok'9-dllo 


1 kli-mak-ter'rik 

2 kom-men'da-bl 
2 kom'm?n-d9-bl 
^ kon't?m-pla-tur, 




Fulton Sf Knight. 



Webster Sheridan. 

€RIJP'PER, krup'per, 

€3d<€UM-BER, kow'kum-b?r, 
€UI-RASS',(kwe-rasi) ku'ras, 

€UiSH, (kwis) kush, 

eu'NEI-FORM, ku-ne'e-form, 

eUP'BoARD, kub'burd, 

CYN'0-SURE, si'no-sure, 



. si'no-shure, 



■ sin'9-sure. 

Pulton ^ Knight. Jameson. 

krup'per, krup'pfr. 




I sin'9-sure, 
I si'no-sure. 


























































E€-€HYM'0-SIS, ek-k?-mo'sis 
E€H'I-NUS, §-ki'nus, 

E-eLAT', (e-kla') e-kliw', 

EM'PIR-ie, n. 


EN-FEOFF', (fef) 






' dek'r?-tal, 

dawnt, ddnt, dant. 












de-mon'strate, de-raon'strate, d§-mon'strate, d?-mon'strate, 










den'e-grate, j den'e-grate, d?-ni'grate, de-ni'grate, den'e-grate. 

de-ni'grate, ) 

de-pil'fi-tur-e, de-pil'a-to-rf, de-pi'l?.-tvr-f. 

dern-yare', der'ne-er, dern-yare', dern-yare'. 

de-sik'kate, de-sik'kate, de-sik'kate, de-sik'kate, de-sik'kate 

d?-sine', de-sine', de-sine', df-sine', de-zine'. 

des'ul-tur-e, des'ul-to-re, des'ul-tur-?, des'ul-tur-e, des'ul-tur-e 

di'a-mund, di'$i-mund, di'mund, j di'*-™'^']^*^' \ di'si-mund. 

■ 'I di'raund, ) 

dim'j3-sur-§, dim'is-sur-?, dim'is-sur-e, diro'le-siar-* 

di-03'Sf-san, di-os'e-ssin, di-os'se-sun, di-os'?-san, di-os'se-san 

dis-kount', dis-kount', dis-kount', dis-kount', dis-kount'. 

dis'kre-pans, dis'kre-pans, dis'kre-puns, dis'kre-pcins, dis'kre-pan^ 

dis'kre-pant, dis'kre-pant, dis'kre-pant 

dis-kre'tiv, dis-kre'tiv, dis-kre'tiv. 

I dis'pu-ta-bl, Kj -,t^_^j dis'pu-ta-bl, dis'py-tgt-bl, [dis'pu-ta-bl, 

' dis-pu'ta-bl, ^ • f • ' f. . , i-v v , ^ dis-pu'ta-bL 

dis'sil-la-bl, dis-sil'la-bl, dis'sil-lfi-bl, dis-sil'l?t-bl, dis-sil'lj-bl 

de-ver'tiz, de-ver'tiz, di-ver'tiz 

dos'e-bl, do'se-bl, dos's?-bl, dos'e-bl, dos'e-bL 

dos'sil, do'si!, dos'il, dos'sil. 

don'si-tiv, don'a-tiv, don'si-tiv, don'a-tiv, don'gi-ti^ 

dra'ma, dram'ma,dr'a'ma, dra'ma, dra'msi, dra'mji. 

dii'res, du'res, du'res, dii'r?s. 

jdi'nas-te, | di'nas-t? , din'^is-t?, j din'?s-t?, j din'as-t* 

Idin'as-te, ) ' "" ^ ^' < di'nas-te, ) 

dis'pep-se, dis'pep-se, dis'pep-s« 

ek-k?-m6'sis, ek-kl-m5's}3 


e-kl3.w', e-kla', ek-kla', ?-kl§Lw', ek-kla' 

e'djkt, ed'ikt, e'dikt, 5'dikt, 5'dikt, e'dpct. 

el-e-ji'^k, i!:^^'-'-:^'^' lel-e-ji'ak, gl-?-ji'§tk, gI-?-ji'?k. 

( el-e-ji'ak, ) 

em-bra'zhiire, em'bra-zure', em-bra'zhQre, em-bra'zhur, ?m-bra'zhure 

j em'pe-rik, em'pe-rik, J g^, jk j gm'pe-rik, L^.pjr/ife. 

f em-pir'ik, em-pir'ik, ) ( em-pir'ifc, ) 

I em-pe-re'an, ?m-pir'e-an, ; ( em-pe-re'^n, em-pe-re'an, 

! em-pir'e-an, em-pe-re'an, ) ( em-pir'e-jn, ?m-pir'e-^n 

ong-kore', on-k5re', ong-kore', ang-kore', ong-kore'. 

?-ner'vate, ?-ner'vate, ?-ner'vate, e-ner'vate, e-ner'vate. 

en-feef, en-fef, ?n-fef', en-fef, en-feef. 

on-ve-lope', en'v?-lope, 6n-ve-lope', an-ve-l6pe', ong-ve-lope'. 

j on-ve-ronz', ^n.^j^runz, on-v?-ronz', anVe-ronz, I en've-runz, 

[ en-vi'runs, > ( en-vi'runz. 

1 d€m'un-6tra-tyr 

{ dem-m9n-stra'tur. 


( d?-mon'stra-tur 
8 ?k-W^"'siz-ni!5pt, fk-klare's}z-ment, a-klare'sjs-nion, fk-klare's^z-Tnong, e-klaxe'sjz-mang, ?k 

Jones. Fulton ^ Knight. Jameson. 











Fulton ![ Knight. Jameson. 



ef'od, e'fod, 














ep'ok, e'pok. 







ep'ode, e'pode. 

ep'ode, e'pode. 





f Kwer'?, 











( er'rund, 
( ar'r^md, 

j er'rand. 










j yu-ry-p5'an. 

I yu-ro-pe'an. 


l yu-ro'pe-an, 























( eks-pe'de-ent, 

1 eks-p2'Je-ent, 








( eks-pe'je-eiit, 
eks-pro bra-tiv, 





































f ab'rik, f a'brjk 

, fab'rik, 



< fab'rik, 
\ f a'brjk. 

FAC-ADE', (fas-sade 






































( far-wel', 
•( f are-wel', 




















fa wit, 













feer'ful, fer'ful 



feer'ful, fer'ful 

, feer'ful. 














FEOFF, (fef ) 






























f eers, f ers. 



feers, fers. 

































































frunt, front, 







( fron'cheer, 
( front'yeer, 

I fron'teer. 

























































. j6r'e-gl. 







. jT'ra-sole. 



gla'sis, gla-segz 

, gla'sis. 


gla'sjs, gla-sgez', gla'sjs. 














Fulton 4- Knii 

rht. Jameson. 



gold, goold. 

gold, goSId, 


gold, goold, 











gord, goord. 



goord, gord, 




















































. ffin sum . 














ilALE, V. 


hale, h^l, 



hale, hMl, 









(hap- or ha'pen-ne) 


HAli'LOO, V. i. 




. hcil-lo6' 


hak'kl, ' 







hant, haunt. 











. herd. 

















\ he-ji'ra, 
( hed'je-ra. 

1 he-ji'ra. 



( he-ji'r?, 
\ hed>je-rsi 



hite, hate, 













he-mis' tjk, 







































1 hik'kup, 

( hik'kup, 
( hik'kof. 

1 hik'kof. 



1 hik'kup. 
/ hik'kof. 



( hid'e-us, 
( hid'je-us. 

1 hid'e-iis. 













ho-mog ge-ne, 









( hg-ri'zun, 
I hor'e-zun. 

1 ho-ri'zun, 














. h9-rol'o-je 








HOS'TLER, (hosier) 












































( hun'dred, 
I hun'durd, 
































HYP-0-€H0N'DRI-A€. 3 








hi sup. 

hiz'zup, hi'sup 



his'sup, hi'sup 


















( im-bes'sil, 


1 im-bes'sil. 



i im-be-seel', 







Fulton ^ 

Knight. Jameson. 

1 he-red'e-ta-ment, her-e-dit'a-ment. 

her-e-dit'Ei-ment, her-e-dit'si-ment, her-e-dit'a-ment, he- 


2 het-er-o-ge'nyus, h 


l)dt-e-ro-je'ne-us, het-e-ro-je' 

le-us, het-?-r9- 

je'nyus, het 


3 hip-9-k9n-dri'?k, h 



ak, hip-o-kon^dr?-ak, hip-o-kon'dre-ak, hi-p9-kon'dre-ak . 








Fulton 4- Knight. Jameson. 



1 ira-me'de-9it, 
1 jm-me'je-at. 










. jm-peer'sgi-bl 



{ im-p6r'tant, 
I jm-por't^int. 

1 im-por'tiint, 




























{ in-sen'de-£i-re, 
/ in-sen'je-a-re, 















. jn-klin'a-tur-e. 



. 4 









. 6 



{ in-de-ko'rus, 
( in-dek'o-rus, 

> in-dek'o-rus. 


( in-dek'o-rus, 
I in-de-ko'rus. 

j in-de-k5^rus. 



( in-dis'pu-ta-bl, 
i in-dis-pu'ta-bl, 







( in-de-vid'ju-aJ, 
( in-de-vid'u-jl, 

1 in-df-vid'u-sil, 



































All 1 CIV UliU. 


















( in-hab'il, 
I in-a-beel', 


1 in-hab'il. 




1 in-im'e-kal. 

( in-im'e-kul, 
I in-?-rai'kul, 





{ in-sid'e-us, 

( in-sid'je-us, 


1 in-sid'e-ug. 





















. in-ter'ka-late. 










, in-ter'po-la-tur, 








( in'ter-stis, 
I in-ter'stis, 

1 in'ter-stis, 













j in-vid'e-us, 
( in-vid'je-us, 














{ ir-ref fra-ga-bl, 
( ir-re-frag'a-bl. 







1 ir-re-fu'ta-bl, 
( ir-refu-ta-bl, 

' ir-re-fu'ta-bl, 

ir-ref 'fu-t^-bl. 

ir-ref y-ta-bl. 





jak-ail , 





















ju ne-ur, 















Fulton §• Knight. 


! jm-prek'Hur-e, im'pre-ka-tur-e, 


irti'pr§-kfi-tur-?, im'pre-ka-tur-e, im' 


2 im-pro-pr?-a'tur, im-pro-pre-a'tur, 

im-pro'pr?-a-tur, im-pro-pre 

a'tur, im-pro-pre-a'tur, im- 


in-kom-men'su- i in 


) in-kom-men'shy- | in-kom-men'shu- i in-kom-men'shu- ) in-kom-men'su- j 

ra-bl, ■ 1 


\ rsi-bl. 

) r^-bl. 

S r^bl, i 

n-h\. \ 

4 in-kom-m5'dyus, i 5n-kom-mo'de-us, 
( in-kora-mo'je-us, 

in-kom-mo'de-us, in-kom-mc 

'd?-us, in-kgm 

-mo'dyus, in-kom-m6'd?-us. 

5 in-kon-ve'nyent, in-kon-ve'ne-ent, 

in-kon-ve'ne-ent, in-kon-ve'ne-ent, in-kon-vg'ny?nt, in-kpn-ve'ne-^nt. 

6 in-eks-pe'dyent, in-eks-pe'de-ent, 


, in-fks-pe'd?-ent, in-?x-pe'dyent, in-?ks-pe'de-?nt. 

• • M in-ter-lo-ku'tur, 

j in-ter-Iok'u-tur 

, . . . in-ter-1 

5k'u-tur, in-tcr-lok'ku-tur. 









Fulton S[ Knight 

. Jameson. 


1 keel'sun. 


[ keel'sun, 
( kel'sun. 

I kelsun, 













j nol'ljdzh. 


1 nol'ledje. 


\ nol'lej, 
I no'lej. 

1 nbl'lfdje. 


















































LE6'IS-La riVE, 

. led'jen-dEi-re, 
















, lej-is-la'tur. 



















lest, leest. 

lest, leest. 



















LIE, or LYE, 











1 liv-ten'^nt, 
\ lu-ten'?nt. 

I lu-ten'sint. 


















. lus'tring. 













, mal-kon-tent'. 




MALT., (raawl) 






mail, mel. 



mam 'mil-la-re. 

( m^m-mil'a-re, 
( mam'rail-8i-re. 

mam mil-la-re. 














man'tu -a, 






. mar-ft-nath'a. 




. ma-ro'dur, 







mar 're-gold, 























( ma-the'sis, 
( math'e-sis. 

















( mat'ro-nal, 
( ma-tro'nal. 



( mat'ro-n^il, 
( m^i-tro'n^il. 

I ma'trp-nal. 





































( me-dis'in-el, 


( me-dis'e-nal, 

( me-dis'?-nal, 
( med-e-si'nal. 

i me-dis'e-nal. 

( me-dis'e-nal. 

( med-e-si'nel, 


1 **.Y u«u Y "'a^*. 

( med-e-si'nal 


















5 me-lo'de-us, 
( me-lo'je-us. 

j m?-lo'd?-us. 





( me-moir', 
( mfi mwsLr, 



> mem'WoLr, 

( me-mwar', 




( mera'war. 



. men-azhe-ur-e' 

, me-na'zhje-rpj 










. mer'kun-til. 





( me-rid'e-an, 
( iae-rid'je-?tn. 

> rae-rid'e-ain. 






{ mesh'shoorz, 
( mesli-shoorz', 

1 mes'seerz, 






inei I'^l-line, 




j rae-tal'line, 
I met'^l-llne. 

















MOB'LE, ' 




me-tyur, | 

met'o-nim-e, j 







inid'wif r^, 



min'nit, ' 






monn^d, J 


mon'nop-tote, < 
mi, me, 


, met'tal-lur-jf, 

1 min'nit, 

! min'nute, 








I m6n'n9p-t5te, 
! mo-nop't5te, 

mi, me, 



m?-tal'iii j?, 


I^itlton Sf Knight, 












; mis'che-vus, 
' mis-cheev'us, 
















mon'as-ter-e, mon'na-str§. 












mi, me, 




me, mi. 


m?-t6n'e-me . 
m€t-z9-tin'to . 














NArriON-AL, nSsh'un-ul, 

NAT'U-RAL, nat'chur-el, 

Na'TURE, na'chur, 

NE'ER, neer, 

NE-Go'TIA-TOR, n?-g9-sha'tur, 

NEP'0-TISM, ne'p9-tizrn, 

NONE, nun, 

NOOSE, (nooz) nS&z, 

NOT'A-BLE, not't9-bl. 










I no't^-bl, 
I not'^-bl, 










• no'ta-bl, 










































I ob'ju-rate, j 

I ob-du'rate, i 









o'df-ijLS, o'je-us, 




9p-pug'ner, 9p-pune'fr, 



1 9ir'd?-n?r-r?, 
' §ir'ner-r?. 




, 6r'de-?l, 
! 6r'je-^l, 



9b-du'rat, 9b-du'rft, j ob'du-rate, | ob-du'rate. 

' V V ) J 9b-du'rate, S 

9-be'de-ens, 9-be'd?-?ns, 9-be'dyens, o-be'de-ens. 

o-be'sEins, 9-ba'zuns, o-ba'sans, o-ba'sans. 

ob'l?-g^-to-r?, ob'le-ga-tur-e, ob'l?-gEi-tur-e, 6b'le-gsi-tur-e 

o-bleedje , j o-bleedje', \ ^'^^^^^^ ' 1 9-blidje.' 

o-blidje', ) ( 9-bleedje', ) 

ob-leek', 9b-like',9b-leek', 9b-like', 9b-leek'. 

^b's9-let, ob'so-lete, ob's9-lete, 5b'so-lete. 

ok-todje'?-n?i-re, ok'to-je-nai-r?. 

6'de-u3, 6'de-us, 6'dyus, 6'de-us. 

ale'ysid, e-il'?-ad, f-il'y^d. 

op-thal'mik, op-thai'mjk, op-thal'mjk 


9p-pun'er, op-pune'?r. 

op'ta-tiv, op'tai-tiv, op't?L-tiv, bp't§i-tiv. 

or'|in-j?-re, 9-r3,n'zh?r-?, o-ra,wn'zh?r-?, or'gin-j?r-e. 
or'kes-tra, 9r-kes'tr^. 

or'de-£tl, 6r'de-ul, or'd^^l, or'd?-ai!. 

or'd?-n,-re, j 6r'de-n,-re, Sr'd,.n,r-?, U,,^.^^.,,, 

( ord'n§i-r?, Srd'n^i-r?, ) 

Sheridan. Walker. Perry. Jbnes. Fulton ^ Knight. Jameson. 

n5-m§n-kla'cl.ijir, n5m-?n-kla'chure, n»-men-kla'ture, no-m^n-kla'ture, nom-?n-kla'tur, nS-mfn-klate'yyr 






Walker. Perry. 

6r'tho-e-pe, or'tho-e-pe, 

6-yis', 5-ye8', 

Jones. Fulton ^ Kmght. Jameson. 
o-yes', 6'ya. 

PAC-IF-I-€A'TOR, p?is-siPe-ka-tur, pas-sjf-fe-ka'tur, pas-e-fe-ka'tur, * psi-sif ?-ka-tus 

Pa'6EANT, padzh'ent, pad'junt, pa'jant, pad'junt, paj'^nt, j pa'j?-^nt, 

( pad'jent. 

Pa'GEANT-RY, padzh'en-tre, pad'jun-tre, paj'?nt-re, pad'jun-tre, paj'ant-re, j pa'je-jn-tre, 

( pad'jen-tre. 

PAN-E-6YR'I€, pan-ne-dzer'rik, pan-ne-jer'rik, pan-e-jir'ik, pan-e-jir'jkj pan-e-jir'ik, pan-e-jer'ik. 

PAP'IL-LA-RY, p5i-pil'ler-e, pap'il-la-re, pa-pil'la-re, pap'pil-^-re, pap'il-lar-e, pap'pil-Ji-rf. 

PAP'IL-LOUS, pa-pil'lus, pa-pil'lus, pa-pil'lus, p§i-pil'lus. 

PA-RAL'O-GISM par'ia-]?-dzhizin,par-ral'o-jizm, pa-ial'9-jizm, p^ir-ral'o-jizm, pstr-al'o-jizm, par-al'o-jizm. 

PaST'Y, pas'te, pas'te, pas'te, pas't?, pas'te, pas'te. 

PAT'ENT, pat'ent, j pat'ent, | pSt'ent, pat'tent, pat'ent, j P^t'ent, 

<pa'tent, i "^ ' ' i- ■ •> f . > I pa't?nt. 

PATRIOT, pa'tryut, pa'tre-ut, pa'tre-ut, pa'tre-ut, pa'tr?-ut, pa'trf-ut. 

PATRON, pa'trun, pa'trun, pa'trun, pa'truii, pa'trun, pa'trun. 

PAT'RO-NAL, pa-tro'nal, pat'ro-n^l, pat'run-al, pat'ro-nul, pat'ro-nal, psi-tro'nal. 

PAT'RON-ESS, pat'tro-nis, p3.'trun-es, pa'trun-?s, pa'trun-es, pa'trun-es, pa'trun-es. 

PAUNCH, pa.wnch, p'ansh, pansh, panel), pansh, pansh. 

PE-€uL'IAR, pe-ku'lyer, pe-ku'le-ur, pe-ku'le-ur, pe-ku'le-ur, pe-ku'lyar, pe-ku'le-er, 

PE-€uN'IA-RY, pe-ku'nyer-e. pe-ku'ne-ur-e, pe-ku'ne-^-rg, pe-ku'ne-er-e, pe-ku'nyar-e, pe-ku'ne-ai-r$. 

PED'ALS, pe'dels, j ped'dals, | pg/dalz, ped'dulS, ped'alz, j pS'dalz, 

' y . ^ <pe'dals, i^ • ' F . , y . , / ped'dalz. 

PE-DO-BAP'TISM, pe-do-bap'tizm, ped-do-bap'tizm,pe-do-bap'tizm, pe-dQ-bap'tizm 

PEN'NY-WORTH, pen'n^-wurth, j Pen'ne-wurtli, ) pgn;„e.wurth, \ Pe^'ne-wurth, pen'ne-wurth, ) pgn,ne-warth. 

( pen'nurth, ) f pen'nuith, pen'nurth, ) 

PEN'TE-€OST, pen'te-koste, pen'te-koste, pen'te-kost, pen'te-koste, pen'te-koste, pen'te-kost. 

PER-DU'RA-BLE, per'du-ia-bl, per'du-ra-bl, per'du-ra-bl, per'du-ra-bl. 

PER'EMP-TO-RY, per'rera-tur-e, \ P§r'rem-tur-e, per-emp'to-re, ) pgr/rem-tur-e, per'em-tur-e, \ Per'?mp-tur-c, 

( per-rem'to-re, per'emp-to-re, ) • ■ • " " ( per-em'to-re. 

PER'FE€T, V. ■ per'fjkt, per'fekt, per'fekt, per'fekt, per'fekt, \ Pe''f?J^t> 

( per-fekt'. 

PER-FuME', per'fume, per'fume, j per-fume', | pgr'f ilme, per'fume, perfume. 

t per'fume, ) 

PER-FUN€'TO-RY, per'funk-tur-9, per-fiink'tur-e, per-f unk'to-re, per-funk'tur-e, per-funk'tur-? 

PER-MIT', per'mit, per'mit, per-mit', per'mit, per'mit, per-mit'. 

PER'SPI-RA-BLE, per-spi'rebl, per-spi'ra-bl, p?r-spl'ra-bl, per-spi'rai-bl, per-spira-bl, per-spI'ra-bL 

PER'SPI-RA-TlVE, per-spl're-tiv, per-spi'r^-tiv, per-spi'ra-tiv, per-spi'r^i-tiv, p^r-spi'rsi-tiv. 

PER'TUR-BATE, per-tur'bate, p?r-tur'bate, per-tiir'bate, per-tur'bate, per-tur'bate, per-tur'bate. 

Pe'TAL, pet'al, pe'tal, pet'sil, pet'al, pS'tul, pet'ul, pet'al, pe'tal, pe'ta!. 

PHALANX, f a'lanks, \ f ^'lanks, f al'^nks, f a'lanks, f a'lanks, ) f a/lanks. 

' ( f al'anks, f a'lanks, f al'anks, f al'^inks, ) 

PHAR-MA-CEU'TI€, f ar-ma-kii'tik, f ar-m^-su'tik, far-ma-su'tjk 

PHT'LO-MEL, fil'o-mel, fil'o-mel, fil'9-mel, fil'o-mel, fil'o-mel, fi'lo-mel. 

PHLEG-MAT'I€, fleg'msi-tik, fleg'raa-tik, fleg-mat'ik, fleg'ma-rtkj fleg-mat'ik, fleg'ma-tik^ 

PHL0-6IS'T0N flo-gis'ton Uo-jis'ton, flo-jis'tun, flo-jis'tgn, flp-jis'ton, flo-jis'tgn, 

' ■ ■ ' ( flo-gis'ton, flo-gis'tun, flo-gis'ton, flo-gis'ton, flo-gis'ton. 

PHRE-NET'I€, fren'e-tik, fre-net'ik, fr?-net'ik, fr?-net'ik, fre-net'ik, fre-net'jk. 

PHYS-I-OG'NO-MY, fiz-?-6g'no-me, f izh-e-og'no-me, f iz-e-og'no-me, fiz-e-og'nQ-me, fiz-?-og'no-m?, K^^'^'°^'"°'™^ 

( f iz-e-5n'9-me 

PHYS-I-OL'O-GY, f iz-e-Sl 9-je, fizh-e-ol'9-j?, fiz-e-ol'9-je, fiz-e-ol'9-je, fiz-e-ol'o-je, fiz-e-ol'o-je 

FIERCE, pers, peers, pers, peers, peers, pers, peers, pers, peers. 

PLa'CA-BLE, pla'kabl, pla'kai-bl, plak'a-bl, pla'kgi-bl, pla'ka-bl, pla'ka-bl. 

PLa'GIA-RY, pla'dzh?r-e, pla'JEi-re, pla'je-a-re, pla'dje-a-r?, pla'je-^r-e, pla'je-a-re. 

PLA-Tl'NA, plat'e-na, plat'?-na. 

PLa'TO-NIST^ plat'9-nist, plat'9nist, pla't9-nist 

PLe'IADS, (ple'yadz) pli'adz, ple'y^idz, ple'yadz, ple'adz, ple'y?dz, pla'y$tdz. 

PLe'NA-RY, plen'ner-?, i P^en'^-re, j p]gn'^-re, plen'si-re, plen'^-r?, ple'n^i-re. 

( ple'na-re, ) 

PLEN'TE-OUS, plgn'chus, plen'che-us, plen'te-us, plen'tg-us, plen'tyus, plen'tf-us. 

PLTC'A-TURE, pli'ka-choor, plik'si-chure, pli'k§i-ture, plik'91-ture. 

' I pwoe'nent, poe'nant, pSe'nant, pw6e'n?int, pwoe'nant, pof'njnt. 

(poin'ant) ) 

POL'Y-THE-ISM, pol-l?-the'izm, pbl'le-the-izm, pol-le-the'izm, pol'le-the-Izm, pol'?-the-izni, pol'le-th?-izra 

POS-SESS', puz-zes', poz-zes', p9Z-zes', p9Z-zes', poz-zes', p9Z-zes'. 

POS-SESS'0-RY, poz'zes-sur-e, poz'zes-sur-e, poz'zes-so-re, poz-zes'sur-e, poz'z?s-sur-e, poz'zfS-siir-?. 

POST'HU-MOUS, post'hu-mus, post'hu-mus, post'hu-mu3, post'hu-mus, post'hu-mus, post'hu-mus. 

PoS-TILL'ION, ) p5s-til'lyun, pos-til'yun, pos-tll'yun, pos-til'yun, pos-til'yun, pos-ta'ytin 

(pos-til'yun) ) ' ' , 

POTH'ER, putb'er, putfi'er, putft ft, putfi'er, puth'?r, potfi'?r. 

POUR poo'ur, pour, pdSr p8dr, pBr, pore, pawr, pore. 


























\ prol'lug, 

PRO-MUL-Ga'TOR, pr9-mul'ga-tur, 


(piro-pis-e-a'shun) ) 

S"V;j\Uibxfe. XIX 

Walker. Perry. Jones. Fulton t[ Knight. Jameson. 

pref'fek-ture, pre-fek'ture, pref'fek-tQre, pref'ek-ture, pre'fek-ture 

prel'la-se, prel'a-se, prel'lai-se, prel'si-se, prel'la-se. 

prel'lat, prel'at, prel'let, prel'fit, prel'lat. 

prel'ude, prel'ude, prel'ude, prel'ude, prel'flde. 

preme'yer, pre'me-er, prem'yer, pre'myer, • prem&'yer. 

prem'mu-ni-re, prem'u-ni-re, prem'mu-ni-re, prem'u-ni-re, prem'mu-ni-re. 

pres'sadje, " pres'aje, j prSs'sadje, pres'aje j prgs'saje. 

^ •' ' i- J ' I pre'sadje, pr^-saje', ) 

pre'she-ens, presh'ens, pre'she-ens, pre'she-ens, pre'she-ens. 

pr?-tekst', pre-tekst', j pr?-teksi', j pr^.tekst', pre-tSkst'. 
' pre teKStj / 

I pri-mor'de-al, ) pix-mor'de-al, pri-mor'de-ul, pri-mor'de-el, pri-mor'de-jl. 

pri-mor'je-^1, ) 

jpri'v^-se, |pri,va-se, j Pri'va-se, pri'va-se, J p.j/^a-se. 

( priv'a-se, ) ' ' I priv'a-se, priv'ei-se, ) 

priv'^-tiv, pri'vEi-tiv, prlv'a-tiv, priv'a-tiv, priv'va-tiv. 

prob'a-tur-e, pro'ba-to-re, prob'a-tur-e. 

pro-seedz', pr5'seedz. 

prok'u-ra-se, prok%-ra-se, prok'u-ra-se. 

pro'fil, pro-feel', pro-feel', pro-feel', pro-feel', pro'feel. 

prog-'gres, prog'res, prog'gres, prog'res, pro'gres. 

pro-liks', prg-liks', pro-liks', pro-liks', pro-liks'. 

prol-o-ku'tur, pr5-lo-ku'tur, pro-lok'ku-tur, pro-lok'u-tur, pro-lo-ku'tur. 

pr61'l9g, prol'og, prol'log, prol'og, pro'log. 

prom-ul-ga'tur, \ P^o-^vl-ga'tur, | prgm-ul-ga'tur, prom-ul-ga'tur, pro-mul-ga'tur. 
( pro-mul'ga-tur, ) 








, pro-ta'sis, 





pro-test', prot'est, pro-test', 




PRO-VoST', (pro-vo'; 

( prov'vust, 


i prov'ust, 



I prov'vust. 








prou, pro, 







prou'es, pro'js, 





PTIS'AN, (tiz'an) 









j pu'is-sans, 
( pu-is'sans, 







pu'mis, piim'mis, pum'is, 













put, put, 





( pe-ri'tez, 
( pir'e-tez, 






1 pe-ri'tez, 





( pe-rom'^n-se, 
( pir'9-man-s?. 

> pir'o-man-se, 

















aUALM, (quam) 





















aUAY, (ke) 








, kwin'tis-s?ns, 

( kwin'tcs-sens, 
( kwin-tes's?ns, 

> kwint'es-sens, 













kwiith, kwoth. 

, koth, kQth, 




















( ra'de-fint, 
( ra'je-Eint, 

j ra'de-ant. 




Sheridan. Walker. Perry. Jones. Fulton Sf Knight. Jameson. 

1 prQ-nun-sha'shan, pro-niin-she-a'shun, pro-nun-se-a'shun, pro-niin-se-a'shun, pro-niin-she-a'shun, pro-niin-she-a'shun 

2 pro-p?-shd.'shun, pro-pish-e-a'shun, pro-pish-e-a'shun, pro-pish-e-a'shun, pro-pish-e-a'shun, pro-pish-e-a'shun 
pr9-pish'?-tur-e pro-pish'e-?i-tur-e, pro-pish'f-a-tur-e, pro-pish e-ai-Pur-e, org-pish'e-^i-tur-e, pro-pish '^-j-tur-p. 


Websitr. Sheridan. Walker. Perry. Jones. Fulton ^ Knight. Jameson. 

Ra'DI-ATE, r&'dzhate, j ^a'df-ate, j ra'd?-ate, ra'de-ate, ra'df-ate, ra'd?-at« 
I ra'je-ate, ) 

Ra'DI-US, ra'dzhua, < ra'de-us, j ra'de-us, ra'de-us, ra'df-ns, ra'de-us. 

< ra'j?-us, ) 

RAILLERY, rai'l^r-?, r&l'ler-e, ral'ler-e, ral'ler-re, ral'lgr-?, rai'ler-e. 

RAIS'IN, ra'zn, re'zn, ra'zin, le'zn, razn, rezn, ra'zin. 

RAR'I-TY, ra'rit-e, | rar'e-te, j rir'e-t?, rar'e-te, j rar'?-te, j ra're-te. 

' • ■' < ra're-te, ) ' ^' /rar'e-te, ) 

RASE, rase, raze, rase, raze, rase, raze, rase^ raze. 

RASP'BER-RY. ras'ber-e, ras'ber-e, rasp'ber-e, ras'ber-e, rasTj^r-e, ras'ber-?. 

RAT-A-FIA, jrat-?-fe'9, j rat-a-fe'?, Uat-a-fe'?,, rat-ci-fe', rat-?-fe'a, r&t-|i-fe'a. 

(rat-a-fee') 1 ' *' < rat-a-f e', ) " '' '^ • 

RATII'ER, ratfi'er, ratfi'er, ra'ther, rath'er, rath'er, rat&'er, ra'tfier. 

Ra'TION-AL, rash'un-el, rash'un-al, rash'un-al, rash'un-fil, rSsh'un-^il, rash'un-?!. 

RA-TION-a'LE, rash-e-o-na'le, ra-she-o-na'le 

RE-CEP'TA-€LE, res'sep-tekl, j res'sep<a-kl, | re-sep'ta-kl, res'sep-ta-kl, res'sep-ta-kl, re-sep'ta-kl. 

( rf-sep'ta-kl, ) 

RE-CEP'TO-RY, res'sep-tur-e, res'sep-tur-e, re-sep'to-re, res'sep-tur-?, res's?p-tur-e 



RECOGNIZE, re-kog-nize', rek'kog-nize, rek'on-Ize, rek'k9g-nize, rek'9g-nize, rek'kog-nize. 

RECOGNIZOR, re-kon-e-zor', re-kog-ne-z6r', r?-kon-e-zor', rc-kog-ne-zSif' 

REC'ON-DITE, re-kon-dite' rek'kon-dlte, re-kon'dit, rek'kon-dlte, j rek'on-dite, ) igj^/fcon-dite. 

( re-kon'dit, ) 

RECORD, re-k3,rd', rek'grd, re-kord', rek'ord, rek'ord, re-k§ird', rek'ord, re-kord', rek'prd. 

RE-CtJ'SANT, rek'ku-zant, j r?-ku'zant, j re-ku'zant, re-ku'zunt, j ''i'^^^^"^' j re-kuzant. 

( rek'ku-zant, ) ( rek'ku-zant, ) 

RE-FECT'0-RY, ref'fek-tur-e, j re-fek'tur-e, [ te-f ek'to-r?, ref'fek-tur-?, refek-tyr-e, re-fek'tur-e. 
( ref ek-tur-e, * 

REFRAGABLE, rePfrsi-ga-bl, ref'fr^i-ga-bl, \ r^-fr^g'^-bl, ) _ _ reffra-ga-bl. 

' refra-ga-bl, ) ' "• 

REF'USE, reffuze, refuse, refuze, ref'fuse, reffuse, refuse. 

RE-Me'DI-A-BLE, re-me'dyebl, re-me'de-51-bl, re-med'e-a-bl, re-me de-?-bl, re-me'dyabl, re-me'de-a-bl 

RE-MED'I-LESS, rem'e-de-lis, rem'e-de-les, re-med'e-l?s, \ rem'e-de-les, ) j-g^fnie-de-lg? 

( re-med'e-les, ) ' ' 

RE-MORSE', re-mars', j re-mors', re-morse', j re-m3Lrs', re-m6rs', re-mois'. 

( re-morse', re-mors', ) 

REN'DEZ-V5US, ron'de-voo, ren-de-vo6z', ren'de-v68z, ren-da-vo6', ren-de-vuz', rln-de-v66z'. 

REN'I-TEN-GY, re-nl'ten-se, re-nl'ten-se, ren'e-ten-se, r?-ni'ten-s?, re-ni'ten-se, re-nl'ten-se 
RE-x,"UN-ClA'TION. 4 

REP'ER-TO-RY, rep'per-tur-e, rep'per-tur-e, rep'er-to-re, rep'per-tur-e, rep'er-tur-e, rep'per-tur-? 

RE-SIL'I-ENCE, re-sil'yens, re-zil'e-ens, re-zil'e-ens, re-sil'e-^ns, r?-sil'yens, re-zxl'e-?ns 

EES'O-LU-BLE, re-sol'u-bl. rez'o-lfl-bl, rez'o-lu-bl, rez'o-lu-bl, rez'o-lu-bl, rez'o-lu-bl. 

RES'PI-RA-BLE, res'pe-r?i-bl, re-splr'^-bl 

RETAIL, V. re-tale', re-tale', re-tale', r?-tale', re-tale', r?-tale'. 

RE'TAIL, n. re-tale', re'tale, re'tale, re-tale', re-tale', re'tale. 

RET'I-NUE, re-tin'nu, ~ Uet'e-nu, j rgt'e-nu, j ret'e-nu, ret'e-nu, ret'e-na, 

I re-tin'nu, ) ( re-tin'nu, re-tin'u, re-tin'nu. 

RE-TRIB'UTE, ret'tre-bute, r?-trib'ute, re-trib'ute, re-trib'ute, I re-tnb'ute, ) le-trib'ute 

( ret're-bute, ) ' 

REV'E-NUE, |rev'e-nu, rev'e-nu, | rev'e-nii, j rev'e-nu, rev'e-nu, rev'e-nu, 

( re-ven'u, re-ven'nu, ) ( re-ven'nu, re-ven'u, re-ven'nu. 

REV'ER-Y, rev'-'fr-?, rev'er-e, \ *®^ ^"''^' { rev'?-re, rev'er-e, rev-er-e'. 

( rev-e-re', ) 

RE-VOLT', re-volt', j ''•'^!!^'' j re-volt', r?-v6lt', r?-volt', re-volt' 
( re-volt'; ) 

RHOMB, romb, rumb, rumb, riimb, rumb. romb. 

uivin± juxjuci, J rl'chus, ri'che-us, « ri'che-us, ri'che-us, rit'yus, ri'te-us. 

(ri'cbus) ) ... 

IIT'SI-BLE, ris'ibi, riz'e-bl, riz'e-bl, riz'e-bl, riz'e-bl, riz'e-bl. 

ROMANCE, r9-mans', ro-mans', ro-mans', ro-mans', ro-mans', r9-mans'. 

ROa'UE-LAUR, rok'kl?, rok-e-lor', rok'e-16, rok'e-Jo, rok'e-lo. 

RO'SE-ATE, ro'zyft, r3'zhe-at, ro'zhe-at, ro'zhe-at, rS'zhyate, ro'zhe-at. 

ROUTE, r6ot, rout, root, rout, root, root, rout, root. 

RUF'FIAN, riiffyan, rufyan, riifyan, rufyun, riiffyan, rufy^n. 

Sheridan, Walker. Perry. Jones. Fulton Sf Knight. Jameson. 

1 r?i-sh&-se-na'shun, raeh-e-os-e-na'shun, rSsh-e-os-e-na'shun, rash-e-os-^-na'shun, rSsh-?-os-e-na'shun, ra-she-os-e-na'shun 

2 re-k9g-nish'un, rek-k9g-ni3h'un, rS-kog-nish'un, rek-kog-nish'un, rek-og-nish'un, rek-k9g-nish'un. 

s r?-kon'e-z?ng, rf-kog'n?-zans, re-kon'e-zfins, r?-kog'ne-zuns, rf-kog'ne-zans, S ^^'*^°^ ne-z^ns, 

I re-kon'e-ZEins. 
4 r5-nun-sha'sljHn, re-nun-sh?-a'shun, re-niin-she-a'shun, r?-nun-s?-a'sliun, re-iiQn-abe a'shun, r^-nfin-she-a'shun 








Fulton ^ Knight. Jameson 





















SEi-line', sa'line 

, sa-line', 






1 sal'e-v^l, 
I sHi'v?l, 








( sa-li'vus, 
( sal'e-vus. 






SALVE, (sav) 






saiv, sar. 






















( sa'tur, sat'ur, 
I sa'tire, sat'iie, 

1 sa'tur. 






sa'turn, sat'urn 

, sat'urn. 






sa'tur, sat'ur. 





SAUN'TER, (san'ter] 

1 s^wn'ter. 

san'tur, SELwn'tur,sawn'tur, 






1 saw'sidje, 
I sas'sidje. 

1 sa.w'saje, 






( sed'jule, 
I sked'jule. 




j sed'ule, 


( sked'ule, " 
( shed'ule. 

















, se-mip'f-dal, 











,, sek'wes-tra-tur 

, sek-wes-tra'tur 

, se-kwes-tra'tur, 

, sek-wfs-tra'turj 

, sek-w?s-tra'tur 

, se'kwes-tra-tur 



1 ser-pi'go, 
1 ser-pe'go. 

j ser'pe-g5, 


ftJXJXV X X \JV^, 



, ses-kwip'pe-d^l, . 












SHAM'OIS, (e) 

sham 'me, 











shire, shere. 














































siab'bur, slob'bur,slob'ber, 





















so'jurn, so-jurn 

', so'jurn. 



























. sou-chong" 







souse, s6o, 








j suth'er-l?. 



. sutn'eHe. 



( south'urn, 
( sutii'urn. 

j sutn'ern, 

I soutfi.'?rn, 
i suth'frn, 

) soutn'em, 
) sutft'em. 



< soutri'w?trd, 
I suth'urd. 

1 suth'sird, 


< south' wyrd, 
1 suth'urd, 

1 soutfi'w9rd. 






































' sti-pen'j?-fi-r?, 

j sti-pen'd?-?-r?. 


, sti-pen'dy^-r?. 






stur'rup, • 






stru, stro, 




Sheridan. Walker. Perry. Jones. Fulton tf Knight. Jameson. 

ifki-adzh'en-er-e, seks-Sd'jen-jr-f , sfks-adljen-^r-ei sek9-&d'jen-^-re, seks-Sj'e-njr-e, s?ks-ad'jen-?r-t. 








Fulton Sc Knight, jameson 



{ stu 'de-US, 
I stu'j?-us. 

j stu'de-us. 













( sub-sid'e-Ei-re, 
( sub-sid'je-51-re. 

1 sub-sid'e-?-re, 










. . . 




sub'til, sut'tl. 







( sut'tl-ize, 
I sub'til-ize. 


. sub'til-ize. 




1 suk's^s-sur, 
( suk-ses'ur, 

I suk-ses'ur. 


























SUR'VEY, n. 


sur-va', sur'va. 


• sur'plus-aj©. 













{ taps'tre, 
l tap'es-tre, 

1 tap'?s-tre. 

. sis'tem-9-tize. 















fant, t^iwnt. 




tant, tawnt. 



te'de-us, te'je-us 

5, te'de-us, te'je-us, te'de-us, 















ten'et, te'net. 











. te'trark, tet'r^irk, te'trark. 



^ te'trark, 
c tet'rjirk. 



the, the. 

the, the. 

. tet'rar-k?. 


tlie, the. 

the, the. 

the, the. 

the, th?. 



j thgr'f ore. 






j thrip'ens, 

thi, the. 



































tu, t66, 

tu, tSS, 

tu, t86. 


















( toor'nei-ment, 
« tur'n?-ment. 





To'WARBS, prep. 



j to'urdz, 
( to-wardz', 

j to'rdz, 



TO'WARD, a. 








tra, trate. 



trate, tra, 

tra, trate. 





. tranz-la'tur-e . 






TRAY iBRSE, prep. 




. trav'ers. 

TREB'LE, (trib'bl) 




. . 

. treb'bl. 





. trig'o-nail. 





. . 

. . . 

. trip'e-dal. 



tri'pod, trip'od, 

trip'ud, tri'p9d. 









tris'sn-la bl, 



















































Fulton t[ Knight. 


I 3h&&-p?r-er'ro-ga- | s„.per-er'ro-ga-tur 
tur-9, ' 

-e, su-per-er'o-gai- 



a tl-p9-gi-!lf ?-k?l Hp-9-graf ?-kfil, 


tip-o-gr&P?-kul, tip-9-grSP?-k?il, ti-] 










Fulton 4r Knight. Jameson. 


























va-let', vol'le, 

val'et, V5i-let', 




vSl'et, vol'la. 














vaze, vS,z. 



vtwlt, vSlwt, 





















ven'zn, ven'?-zn,ven'zn. 

















, ver-m?-chel'lf. 



, ver-ti'go, 






J ver-te'go. 

> ver'te-go, 




' ver'te-go, 





















, ve-9-l9n-cheI'lo 

', ve-9-l9n-stel'.9 















viz'yer, v?-zyer',viz'yeer. 



















wast'kot, wes'k9t 














wor r§-ar. 






























wind, wind, 

wind, wind. 


wind, wind, 

wind, wind. 

wind, wmd. 



wSQnd, wound. 

, woond, wound. 

, wound, wS6nd, 

, w66nd, 




roth, rath, 




rawth, rath 


reeth, reetfi, 




reeth, rSetfi. 


YEA, (ya) 





ya, ys, 




yeest, yest. 







yelk, yoke, 
















yes, yis. 

















zel'us, zS'lus, 










































the long sound of a, as in fate. 

the Italian sound of a, as in far. 

the sound of aw, as hi fall. 

the short sound of aw, as in what. 

the long sound of e, as in mete. 

the sound of long a, as in vein, and in there 

the long sound of i, as in pine. 

the short sound of i, as in pin. 

the sound of long e, as in marine. 

the sound of short m, as in bird. 

the long sound of o, as in note. 

O has the sound of oo, as in food. 

O has the sound of oo, as in good, the same as u in/vZi 

6 has the sound of short u, as in do»e. 

tj has the long sound of «, as in tube. 

[J has the sound of M, as in duZZ. 

U has the sound of yu, as in union. 

€ hard c, the same as k. 

(5 soft g, the same as j. 

S soft s, the same as z. 
OH have the French sound, the same as sh. 
TH have their vocal sound, as in this. 


a. stands for adjective. 

Eth. stands 

for Ethiopic. 

ado. , 

, for adverb. 


for Frejich. 

eon. , 

, for connective, or conjunction. 

O. or Oer. „ 

for German. 

exclam. , 

, for exclamation, or interjection. 


for Greek. 

l.u. , 

, for little used. 


for Gothic. 

It. , 

, for name, or noun. 


for Hebrew. 


, for obsolete. 

Ice. „ 

for Icelandic. 


, for preposition. 


for Irish, Hiberno-Celtic, and Gaelic 

PP' , 

, for participle passive. 

It. ., 

for Italian. 

ppr. , 

, for participle of the present tense. 

Lat. or L. „ 

for Latin. 

pret, , 

, for preterit tense. 


for Persic, or Persian 

pron. , 

, for pronoun. 


for Portuguese. 

e.i. , 

, for verb intransitive. 

Russ. „ 

for the Russ language, or Russian. 

V. t. , 

, for verb transitive. 


for Samaritan. 

J3r. , 

for Arabic. 

Sans. „ 

for Sanscrit. 

w9nn. , 

, for Armoric. 


for Saxon, or Anglo-Saxon. 

Ch. , 

, for Chaldee. 


for Spanish. 

Gom. , 

, for Cornish. 

Sw. „ 

for Swedish 


, for Danish. 

Syr „ 

for Syriac. 


, for Dutch, or Belgic. 

Jr „ 

for Welsh. 


, for England, or English. 





A is the first letter of the alphabet in most of the known 

tv languages of the earth : in the Ethiopic, however, it is 
the thirteenth, and in the Runic the tenth. It is naturally 
the first letter, because it represents the first vocal sound 
naturally formed by the human organs ; being the sound 
uttered with a mere opening of the mouth, without con- 
straint, and without any effort to alter the natural posi- 
tion or configuration of the lips. 

A lias, m English, three sounds ; the long or slender, as 
in place, fate ; the broad, as in xcall,fall, which is short- 
ened in salt, ichat ; and the open, as in father, glass, 
which is shortened in rather, fancy. Its primitive sound 
was probably aw. A is also an abbreviation of the Saxon 
an or ane, one, used before words beginning with a con- 
sonant 3 as, a table, instead of an table, or one table. 
This is a modern change ; for, in Saxon, an was used 
before articulations as well as vowels ; as, an tid, a time, 
an gear, a year. See An. 

This letter serves as a prefix to many English words ; as in 
asleep, awake, afoot, aground, agoing. 

A is also used for anno, or ante ; as in amio Domini, the 
year of our Lord 5 anno mundi, the year of the world ; 
ante meridiem, before noon ; and for ai-ts, in artium ma- 
gister, master of arts. Among the Romans, A U C stood 
for anno ab urbe condita, from the building of the city, or 

AAM, n. [Ch. ncN, or NcN.] A Dutch measm-e of liquids, 
equal to 288 English pints. 

A A-RON I€, } a. Pertaining to Aaron, or to the priest- 

AA-RON I-€AL, \ hood of which he was the head. 

AB, in English names, is an abbreviation of abbeij or ab- 
bot : as Abbingdon, Abbeytown. 

AB, a prefix to words of Latin origin, and a Latin preposi- 
tion, as in abscond, is the Greek a-xo, and the Eng. of, Ger. 
ab, D. af, Sw. Dan. af, written in ancient Latin, of. It 
denotes /ro7n, separating or departure. 

AB. The Hebsew name of/atAer. See Abba. 

AB. A name of one of the Jewish months. 

AB'A-CIST, n. ffrom abacus.'] One that casts accounts ; a 

A-BACK', adi. Towards the back ; on the back part •, back- 
ward. — In seamen's language, it signifies the situation of 
the sails, when pressed back against the mast by the 

AB'A-€OT, 71. The cap of state, formerly used by English 

A-BA€'TOR, n. [L.] In laiv, one that ffeloniously drives 
away or steals a herd or numbers of cattle at once, in 
distinction from one that steals a sheep or two. 

AB'A-€US, 71. [L.] 1. Among the Romans, a cupboard or 
buffet. 2. An instrument to facilitate operations in arith- 
metic. — 3. In architecture, a table constituting the upper 
member or crowning of a column and its capital. 

AB'A-€US PYTH-A-GOR'I-€US. The multiplication ta- 
ble, invented by Pythagoras. 

AB'A-eUS HAR-MON'I-€US The structure and disposi- 
tion of the keys of a musical instrument. 

AB'A-€US Ma-JOR. A trough used in mines, to wash i^re 

AB'A-DA, n. A wild animal of Africa. 

A-BAD'DON, n. [Heb. na«.] 1. The destroyer, or angel of 
the bottomless pit. 2. The bottomless pit. Milton. 

A-B AFT , adv. or prep. [Sax. ceftan.] A sea-term, signify- 
ing in or at the hinder part of a ship, or the parts which 
lie towards the stern 5 opposed to afore. Relatively, it 
denotes /wrt/ter aft, or towards the stem. It is often con- 
tracted into aft. 


ABA-GUN, n. The name of a fowl in Ethiopia 

A-BAI'SANCE. See Obeisance. 

AB-aL'IEN-ATE, (ab-ale'yen-ate) v. t. To transfer tha 
title of property from one to another— a term of the civil 

AB-aL-IEN-a'TION, (ab-ale-yen-a'shun) n. The trans- 
ferring of title to property. See Alienation. 

t A-BAND', V. t. To forsake. Spenser. 

A-BAN'DON, V. t. [Ft. abandonner.] 1. To forsake entire- 
ly •, as, to abandon a hopeless enterprise. Dr. Mason. 2 
To renounce and forsake ; to leave with a view never 
to return ; to desert as lost or desperate. 3. To give up 
or resign without control , as when a person yields him- 
self, without restraint, to a propensity. 4. To resign ; 
to yield, relinquish, or give over entirely. 

t A-BAN'DON, 7?. 1 One who totally forsakes or deserts 
2. A relinquishment. 

A-BAN'DONED, pp. 1. Wholly forsaken or deserted. 2 
Given up, as to a vice ; extremely wicked. 

A-BANDON-ER, n. One who abandons, 

A-BAN'DON-ING, ppr. Forsaking or deserting wholly ; 
yielding one's self without restraint. 

A-BAN'DON-ING, n. A forsaking ; total desertion. 

A-BAN'DON-MENT, n. A total desertion ; a state of being 

A-BAN'GA, n. The ady ; a species of palm-tree. 

t AB-AN-Ni"TION, n. A banishment for one or two years 
for manslaughter. 

A-BAP-TIS'TON, 7z. The perforating part of the trephine, 
an instrument used in trepanning. 

fABARE', v.t. [Sax. abarian.] To make bare; to un- 

AB-AR-TI€-U-La'TION, n. In anatomy, that species of 
articulation, or structure of joints, which admits of man 
ifest or extensive motion. 

A-BAS', n. A weight in Persia. Encyc. 

A-BaSE', v. t. [Ft. abaisser.] To cast down ; to reduce 
low ; to depress 5 to humble ; to degrade ; applied to the 
passions, rank, office, and condition in life. 

A-BaSE'D, (a-baste') pp. Reduced to a low state, humbled, 
degraded. — In heraldry, it is used of the wings of ea- 
gles, when the tops are turned downwards towards the 
point of the shield ; or when the wings are shut. 

A-BaSE'MENT, n. The act of humbling or bringing low ■ 
also a state of degradation . 

A-BASH', v. t. [Heb. C'U.] To make the spirits to fail , to 
cast down the countenance ; to make ashamed ; to con- 
fuse or confound, as by exciting suddenly a conscious 
ness of guilt, error, inferiority, &c. 

A-BASH'ED, (a-basht') pp. Confused with shame ; eon- 
founded ; put to silence : followed by at. 

A-BASH'ING, ppr. Putting to shame or confusion. 

A-BASH'MENT, n. Confusion from shame. 

A-BaS'ING, ppr. Humbling, depressing, bringing low. 

A-BAS'SIj or A-BAS'SIS, n. A silver coin of Persia, of the 
value of twenty cents. 

A-BaTA-BLE, a. That may or can be abated. 

A-BaTE', v. t. [Fr. abattre.l 1. To beat down ; to pull 
down ; to destroy in any manner ; as, to abate a nui- 
sance. 2. To lessen ; to diminish ; to moderate ; as, to 
abate a demand. 3. To lessen ; to mitigate j as, to abate 
pain. 4. To overthrow ; to cause to fail ; to frustrate by 
judicial sentence ; as, to abate a writ. 5. To deject ; to 
depress •, as, to abate the soul. Obs. 6. To deduct. Pope. 
7. To cause to fail ; to annul. 

A-BaTE', v. i. 1. To decrease, or become less in strength 
or violence ; a>?, pain abates 2. To fail ; to be defeated 

See Synopsis. A, E, T, o, tj, Y, long.— FAR, FALL, WHAT ;— PREY ;— PIN, MARINE, BIRD ;— t Obsolete 
MOVE, BQQK, D6VE •,— B^LL, UNITE.— € as K; 6 as J , S as Z } CH as SH ; TH as in this* 



or come to naught •, as, a writ abates.— 3. In law, to en- 
ter into a freehold after the death of the last occupant, 
and before the heir or devisee takes possession. — 4. In 
horsemanship, to perform well a downward motion. A 
horse is said to abate, or take down his curvets, when, 
working upon curvets, he puts both his hind legs to the 
ground at once, and observes the same exactness in all the 

A-BaT'ED, pp. Lessened ; decreased ; destroyed ; mitigat- 
ed ; defeated ; remitted ; overthrown. 

A-BZTE'MENT, 71. 1. The act of abating ; the state of 
being abated. 2. A reduction, removing, or pulling down, 
as of a nuisance. 3. Diminution, decrease, or mitigation, 
as of grief or pain. 4. Deduction, smn withdrawn, as 
from an account. 5. Overtln-ow, failure, or defeat, as of 
a writ. 6. The entry of a stranger into a freehold after 
the death of the tenant, before the heir or devisee. — 7. In 
heraldry, a mark of dishonor in a coat of arms, by which 
its dignity is debased for some stain on the character of 
the wearer. 

A-BaT'ER, n. The person or thing that abates. 

A'BaT'ING, ppr. Pulling down, duninishing, defeating, 

A-BaT'OR, n. A person who enters into a freehold on the 
death of the last possessor, before the heir or devisee. 

AB'A-TIS, )n. [Ft.] Rnhhish.— In fortification, piles of 

AB'AT-TIS, \ trees, or branches of trees sharpened, and 
laid with the points outward, in front of ramparts, to pre- 
vent assailants from mounting the walls. 

t AB A-TUDE, n. Any thing diminished. 

ABA-TURE, n. [from abate.] Grass beaten or trampled 
down by a stag in passing. Vict. 

ABB, n. [Sax. ab or ob.] Among weavers, yam for the 
warp. Encyc. 

AB'BA, n. In the Chaldee and Syriac, a father, and figu- 
ratively, a superior. 

AB'BA-CY, [Low Lat. abbatia.] The dignity, rights, and 
privileges of an abbot. 

AB-BAFI^AL, | "' belonging to an abbey. 

AB'BE, (ab'by) n. [fi-om abba.] In a monastic sense, the 
same as an abbot ; but, more generally, a title, in Catho- 
lic countries, without any determinate rank, office, or 

AB'BESS, n. [from abba.] A female superior or governess 
of a nunnery, or convent of nuns. See Abbey. 

AB'BEY, (ab-by) n., plu. Abbeys, [from abba.] A mon- 
astery or society of persons, of either sex, secluded from 
the world, and devoted to religion. The males are called 
monks, and are governed by an abbot ; the females are 
called nuns, and are governed by an abbess. 

AB'BEY-LUB-BER, n. A name given to monks, in con- 
tempt for their idleness. 

AB'BOT, Ti.. [formerly abbat, from abba. Latinized abbas.] 
The superior or governor of an abbey or monastery. Ency. 

AB'BOTSHIP, n. The state of an abbot. 

AB-BREU-VOIR', (ab-bru-vwor') n. [Fr.] A watering-place ; 
among inasons, the joint between stones in a wall, to be 
filled with mortar. 

AB-BRe'VI-ATE, v. t. [It. abbreviare.] I. To shorten ; 
to make shorter by contracting the parts. 2. To shorten ; 
to abridge by the omission or defalcation of a part ; to re- 
duce to a smaller compass 5 as, to abbreviate a writing. — 
3. In mathematics, to reduce fractions to the lowest terms. 

t AB-BRe'VI-ATE, n. An abridgment. Elyot. 

AB-BRe'VI-A-TED, pp. Shortened ; reduced in length 5 

AB-BRe'VI-A-TING, ppr. Shortening ; contracting in 
length, or into a smaller compass. 

AB-BRE-VI-a'TION, 71. 1. The act of shortening or con- 
tracting. A letter, or a few letters, used for a word ; es. 
Gen. for Genesis. 3. The reduction of fractions to the 
lowest terms. 

AB-BRe'VI-A-TOR, 71. One who abridges or reduces to a 
smaller compass. 

AB-BRe'VI-A-TORS. a college of seventy-two persons in 
the chancery of Rome. 

AB-BRe'VI-A-TO-RY, a. Shortening, contracting. 

AB-BRe'VI-A-TURE, 71. A letter or character for shorten- 
ing •, an abridgment, a compend. 

A. B. C. The three first letters of the alphabet, used for the 
whole alphabet. Also a little book for teaching the ele- 
ments of reading. 

AB'DALS, n. The name of certain fanatics in Persia. Enc. 

AB'DE-RlTE, n. An inhabitant of Abdera. Whitaker. 

AB'DI-€ANT, a. Abdicating ; renouncing. 

AB'DI-€ATE, v. t. [L. abdico.] l.To abandon an office or 
trust, without a formal resignation to those who conferred 
it, or without their consent ; also, to abandon a throne, 
without a formal surrender of the crown. Blackstone. 
2. To reject ; to renounce ; to abandon as a right.— 3. In 
the civil law, to disclaim a son, and expel him from the 
family, as a father ; to disinherit during the life of the 

AB'D1-€ATE, v. i. To renounce ; to abandon ; to cast ofFj 
to relinquish, as a right, power, or trust. Burke. 

AB'DI-€A-TED, pp. Renounced ; relinquished without 
a formal resignation ; abandoned. 

AB'DI-eA-TING, ppr. Relinquishing without a formal res- 
ignation ; abandoning. 

AB-DI-€a'TION, n. 1. The act of abdicating ; the aban- 
doning of an office or trust, without a formal surrender. 

2. A casting off; rejection. 

*AB DI-€A-TiVE, a. Causing or implying abdication. [Lit- 
tle used.] 

AB'DI-TiVE, a. [L. abdo ] Having the power or quality of 
hiding. [Little used.] 

AB'DI-TO-RY, n. A place for secreting or pr-eserving goods. 

*AB'DO-MEN, or AB-Do'MEN, n. [L. perhaps abdo and 
omentum.] 1. The lower belly, or that part of the body 
which lies between the thorax and the bottom of the pel 
vis. — 2. In insects, the lower part of the animal, united to 
the corslet by a thread. 

AB-DOM'I-NAL, a. Pertaining to the lower belly 

AB-DOM'I-NAL, n. ; plu. Abdominals. In ichthyo^'igy, 
the abdominals are a class of fish, whose ventral fins are 
placed behind the pectoral, and which belong to the di- 
vision of bony fish. 

long, tendinous ring in both groins. 

AB-DOM'I-NOUS, a. Pertaining to the abdomen ; having 
a large belly. 

AB-DuCE , V. t. [L. abduco.] To draw from ; to withdraw, 
or draw to a different part ; used chiefly in anatomy. 

ABDU'CENT, a. Drawing from, pulling back ; used of 
those muscles which pull back certain parts of the body, 
for separating, opening, or bending them. 

AB-DU€'TION, n. 1. In a general sense, the act of drav/ing 
apart, or carrying away. — 2. In surgery, a species of frac- 
ture, in which the broken parts recede "from each other. — 

3. In logic, a kind of argumentation, called by the Greeks 
apagoge, in which the major is evident, but the minor is 
not so clear as not to require farther proof. — 4. In law, the 
taking and carrying away of a child, a ward, a wife, &;c., 
either by fraud, persuasion, or open violence. 

AB-DUCTOR, 71. In anatomy, a muscle which serves to 
withdraw, or pull back a certain part of the body. 

t A-BEaR', (a-bare') v. t. [Sax. abcBran.] To bear ; to be- 
have. Spenser. 

A-BEaR'ANCE, 7t. [from abear.] Behavior, demeanor. 
Blackstone. [Little used.] 

A-BE-CE-Da'RI-AN, 71. [a word formed from the first four 
letters of the alphabet.] One who teaches the letters of 
the alphabet, or a learner of the letters. 

A-BE-Ce'DA-RY, a. Pertaining to, or formed by the letters 
of the alphabet. 

A-BED', adv. On or in bed. 

A-BeLE', or a'BEL-TREE, n. An obsolete name of the 
white poplar. 

church history, a sect in Africa which arose in the reign 
of Arcadius. 

a'BEL-MOSK, n. A trivial name of a species of hibiscus, or 
Syrian mallow. 

t AB-ERR', v. i. [L. aberro.] To wander. 

AB-ER'RANCE, ) n. [L. aberrans.] A wandering or devi- 

AB-ER'RAN-CY, \ ating from the right way ; an error, 
mistake ; a fault, a deviation from rectitude. 

AB-ER'RANT, a. Wandering, straying from the right way. 
[Rarely used.] 

AB-ER-Ra'TION, n. [L. aberratio.] 1. The act of wan- 
dering from the right way 5 deviation from truth or moral 
rectitude ; deviation from a strait line. — 2. In astronomy, 
a small apparent motion of the fixed stars, occasioned by 
the progressive motion of light and the earth's annual 
motion in its orbit. — 3. In optics, a deviation in the rays 
of light, when inflected by a lens. — Crown of aberration, 
a luminous circle surrounding the disk of the sun, de- 
pending on the aberration of its rays. Cyc. 

AB-ER'RING, paj't. a. Wandering ; going astray. 

t AB-ER-RUN'€ATE, v. t. [L. averrunco.] To puU up by 
the roots ; to extirpate utterly. 

A-BET', V. t. [Sax. hetan, gebetan.] 1. To encourage by 
aid or countenance, but now used chiefly in a bad sense. 
— 2. In law, to encourage, counsel, incite, or assist in a 
criminal act. 

t ABET', n. The act of aiding in a crime 

A-BET'MENT, n. The act of abetting. 

A-BET'TED, pp. Incited, aided, encouraged to a crime. 

A-BET'TING, ppr. Counseling, aiding, or encouraging to a 

A-BET'TOR, n. One who abets, or incites, aids or encourages 
another to commit a crime. 

AB-E-VA€-U-A'TION, 71. [ab and evacuation.] In medicine. 
a partial evacuation of morbid humors of the body, either 
by nature or art. 

A-BEY'ANCE, (a-bay'-ance) n. [Norm, abbaiaunce, or 
abaizance.] In expectation or contemplation of law. The 

* See Synopsis. 5, E, I, o, 0, Y, long.— FAR, FALL, WH^T ;— PRgY ;— PIN, MARINE, BIRD ;— f Obsolete. 



fee simple or inheritance of lands and tenements is in | 
abeijance, wben there is no person in being in whom it 
can vest. 

t AB GRE-GATE, v. t. To lead out of the flock, 

t AB-GRE-Ga'TION, n. A separation from the flock. 

AB-HOR', V. t. [L. abhorreo.] I. To hate extremely, or 
Tvitli contempt ; to lothe, detest, or abommate. 2. To 
despise or neglect. 3. To cast off or reject. 

AB-HOR 'RED, (ab-hord') pp. Hated extremely, detested. 

AB-HOR RENCE, } n. Extreme hatred, detestation, great 

AB-HOR REN-CY, \ aversion. 

AB-HOR RENT, a. 1. Hating, detesting, struck with ab- 
horrence. 2. Contrary, odious, inconsistent with, ex- 
pressive of extreme opposition. 

AB-HOR'RENT-LY, adv. With abhorrence. 

AB-HOR'RER, n. One who abhors. 

AB-HOR'RING, ppr. Having great aversion, detesting. As 
a noun, it is used in Isaiah Ixvi. for the object of hatred— 
" An abhorring to all flesh." 

A'BIB, 71. [Heb. 2H.] The first month of the Jewish ecclesi- 
astical year, called also JVisan. It begins at the spring 
equinox, and answers to the latter part of March and be- 
ginning of April. 

A-BlDE', V. i. pret. and part, abode. [Sax. bidan, abidan.] 

1. To rest or dwell. 2. To stay for a short time. 3. To 
continue permanently, or in the same state ; to be firm 
and immovable. 4. To remain, to continue. 

A-BlDE', V. t.l. To wait for ; to be prepared for ; to await. 

2. To endure or sustain. 3. To bear or endure ; to bear 

A-BlD'ER, n. One who dwells or continues. 

A-BlD'ING, ppr. Dwelling ; remaining ; continuing ; en- 
during ; awaiting. 

A-BiD'ING, n. Continuance ; fixed state ; residence ; an 

A-BiiyiNG-LY, adv. In a manner to continue ; perma- 

t A-BIL'I-MENT, n. Formerly used for ability. 

A-BIL'I-TY, n. [Fr. habileti.] 1. Physical power, whether 
bodily or mental, natural or acquired ; force of under- 
stand'ing ; skill in arts or science. In the plural, abilities 
is much used for the faculties of the mind. 2. Riches, 
wealth, substance. 3. Moral power, depending on the 
will — a metaphysical and theological sense. 4. Civil or 
legal power ; the power or right to do certain things. It 
is opposed to disability. Cyc. 

AB-IN-TEST'ATE, a. [L. ab and intestatus.] In the civil 
law, inheriting the estate of one dying without a wUl. 

t AB-JECT', V. t. To throw awaj-^ ; to cast out. Spenser. 

AB'JECT, a. [L. abjectus.] 1. Sunk to a low condition. 2. 
Worthless, mean, despicable, low in estimation, without 
hope or regard. 

AB'JECT, n. A person in the lowest condition, and despi- 

C£ll)l6* Ps* XXXV. 

AB-JECT'ED-NESS, n. A very low or despicable condition. 

[Little used.] 
AB-JE€'TION, n. A state of being cast away •, hence a low 

state ; meanness of spirit •, baseness. 
AB'JECT-LY, adv. In a contemptible manner ; meanly j 

AB'JECT-NESS, n. The state of being abject ; meanness ; 

AB-JU-Ra'TION, n, 1. The act of abjuring ; a renunciation 

upon oath. 2. A rejection or denial with solemnity ; a 

total abandonment. 
AB-Ju'RA-TO-RY, a. Containing abjuration. 
AB-JuRE', V, t.Jh.] 1. To renounce upon oath ; to 

abandon. 2. To renounce or reject with solemnity ; to 

reject. 3. To recant or retract. 4. To banish. [JVot 

t AB-JtfRE', V. i. To abjure the realm. Burnet, 
AB-JuR'ED, (ab-jurd')>^. Renounced upon oath 5 solemn- 
ly recanted, 
t AB-JtJRE'MENT, n. Renunciation. J. Hall. 
AB-JuR'ER, n. One who abjures. 
AB-JuR'ING, ppr. Renouncing upon oath ; disclaiming 

with solemnity. 
AB-LAOTATE, v. t. [L. ablacto.] To wean from the 

AB-LA€)-Ta'TION, n. 1. In medical authors, the weaning 

of a child from the breast. 2. Among ancient gardeners, 

a method of grafting, now called grafting by approach, or 

AB-LACl-UE-A'TION, n. [L. ablaqueatio.] A laying bare 

the roots of trees to expose them to the air and water. 
AB-La'TION, n. [L. ab and latic] A carrying away.— In 

medicine, the taking from the body whatever is hurtful ; 

evacuations in general. 
AB'LA-TiVE, a. [L. ablativus.] A word applied to the 

sixth case of nouns in the Latin language. 
ABLE, a. [L. habilis ; Norm, ablei.] 1. Having physicr.l 

power sufiicient ; having competent power or strength, 

bodily or mental. 2. Having strong or unusual powers of 

mind, or intellectual qualifications ; as, an able minister. 

a ABO 

3. Having large or competent property 5 or simply naving 
property, or means. 4. Having competent sUength or 
fortitude. 5. Having sufiicient knowledge or skill. 6 
Having competent moral power or qualifications. 

t A'BLE, V. t. To enable. B. Jonson. 

A'BLE-BOD-IED, a. Having a sound, strong body, or a 
body of competent strength for service. 

t AB'LE-GATE, v. t. [L. ablego.] To send abroad. 

t AB-LE-GS TION, n. The act of sending abroad. 

AB'LEN, or ABLET, n. A small fresh-water fish, the 

A BLE-NESS, n. Ability of body or mind ; force ; vigor ; 

AB'LEP-SY, n. [Gr. a^XeiPia.] Want of sight ; blindness. 

A'BLER, and A'BLEST, corap. and superl. of ablei. 

t AB-LI-GU-Rl"TION, n. [L. abliguritio.] Prodigal ex 
pense on meat and drink 

t AB'LI-GATE, v. t. [L. abligo.] To tie up from. 

AB'LO-CATE, v. t. [L. abloco.] To let out : to lease. 

AB-LO-€a'TION, n. A letting to hire. 

t AB-LuDE', v. i. [L. abludo.] To be unlike : to differ 

AB'LU-ENT, a. [L. abluo.] Washing clean ; cleansing by 
water or liquids. 

AB'LU-ENT, n. In medicine, that which thins, purifies, or 
sweetens the blood. Quincy. 

AB-Lu'TION, n. [L. ailutio.] 1. In a general sense, the 
act of washing ; a cleansing or purification by water. 2. 
Appropriately, the washing of the body as a preparation 
for religious duties.— 3. In chemistry, the purification of 
bodies by the affusion of a proper liquor, as waver to dis- 
solve salts. — 4. In medicine, the washing of the body ex- 
ternally, as by baths ; or internally, by diluting fluids. — 

5. Pope has used ablution for the water used in cleansing. 

6. The cup given to the laity, without conse«ation, in 
popish churches. Johnson. 

a'BLY, adv. In an able manner ; with great ability. 
t AB'NE-GATE, v. t. To deny. 

AB-NE-Ga'TIOx"^, n. [L. abnego.] A denial ; a renuncia- 
tion ; self-denial. 
AB NE-GA-TOR, 7!. One who denies, renounces, or opposes 

any thing. Sandys. 
AB-NO-Da'TION, n. [L. abnodo.] The act of cutting away 

the knots of trees. 
AB-NORM'I-TY, n. Irregularity ; deformity. 
AB-NORM'OUS, a. [L. abnormis.] Irregular ; deformed. 

[Little used.] 
A-BoARD', adv. [a and board.] Within a ship, vessel, or 

boat. — To go aboard, lo enter a ship ; to embark To fall 

aboard, to strike a ship's side. 
A-BoARD', prep. On board ; in ; with. 
t A-BoD'ANCE, n. An omen. 
A-BqDW,pret. of abide. 
A-BoDE', n. 1. Stay : continuance in a place ; residence 

for a longer or shorter time. 2. A place of continuance ; 

a dwelling ; a habitation. 3. To make abode, to dwell or 

A-BoDE', V. t. To foreshow. ShaJc. 

A-BoDE', v. i. To be an omen. Dryden. 

A-BoDE'MENT, n. A secret anticipation of something fu- 
ture. Shak. 

A-B5D'ING, 71. Presentiment ; prognostication. 

AB-O-LeTE' a. [L. abolitu^.] Old ; out of use. 

A-BOL'ISH, v. t. [Fr. abohr.1 1. To make void ; to annul 
to abrogate ; applied chiefly and appropriately to estab- 
lished laws, contracts, rites, customs, and institutions ; 
as, to abolish laws by a repeal. 2. To destroy, or put an 
end to ; as, to abolish idols. I<>a. ii. To abolish death 
2 Tim. 1. This sense is not common. 

A-BOL'ISH-A-BLE, a. That may be annulled, abrogated, 
or destroyed. 

A-BOL'ISHED, pp. Annulled ; repealed 5 abrogated, or de- 

A-BOL'ISH-ER, w. One who abolishes. 

A-BOL'ISH-ING, ppr Making void ; annulling ; destroy- 

A-BOL'ISH-MENT, n. The act of annulling ; abrogation ; 
destruction. Hooker. 

AB-0-LI"TI0N, (ab-o-lish'un) n. The act of abolishing ; or 
the state of being abolished ; an annulling ; abrogation 5 
utter destruction. 

AB-O-Ll 'TION-IST, n. One who is desirous to abolish any 

A-BOM'IN-A-BLE, a. Very hateful ; detestable ; lothe- 
some ; unclean. Levit. vii. 

A-BOM'IN-A-BLE-NESS, n. The quality or state of being 
very odious ; hatefulness. 

A-BOM'IN-A-BLY, adv. l.Very odiously ; detestably ; sin- 
fully. — 2. In vulgar language, extremely, excessively. 

A-BOM'IN-ATE, v. t. [L. abomino.] To hate extremely ; 
to abhor ; to detest. 

A-BOM'IN-A-TED, pp. Hated utterly ; detested ; abhoi.-' 

A-BOMaN-A-TENG, ppr. Abhorring j hating extremely. 

♦ See Synopsis. MOVE, BOOK, DoVE ;— ByLL, UNITE.— € as K j 6 as J ; S as Z ; CH as SH ; TH asinthis. f Obsolete 



A-BOM-IN-A'TION, n. 1. Extreme hatred ; detestation. 
Swift. 2. The object of detestation ; a common significa- 
tion in Scripture. 3. Hence, defilement, pollution, in a 
physical sense, or evil doctrines and practices, which are 
moral defilements, idols, and idolatry, are called abomina- 
tions. Whatever is an object of extreme hatred is called 
an abomination. 

A-BOON', prep. Above. Provincial. 

A-BoRD', «. [Fr.] Literalhj, arrival 5 but used for first ap- 
pearance, manner of accosting, or address ; but not an 
English word. 

t A-BoRD', V. t. To accost. 

A-Bo'RE-A, n. A species of duck. 

AB-O-RIG'I-NAL, a. [L. ab and origo.] First ; original ; 
primitive ; aboriginal people are the first inhabitants of a 

AB-O-RIG'I-NAL, n. An original, or primitive inhabitant. 
The first settlers in a country are called aboriginals. 

AB-0-Rl6'I-NES, n. plu. Aboriginals ; but not an English 

t A-BORSE'MENT, n. Abortion. 

t A-BORT', V. i. [L. aborto.] To miscarry in birth. 

t A-BORT', 71. An abortion. Burton. 

A-BOR'TION, n. [L. abortio.] 1. The act of miscarrying, 
or producing young before the natural time. — 2. In a. fig- 
urative sense, any fruit or produce that does not come to 
maturity, or any thing which fails in its progress. 3. The 
fetus brought forth before it is perfectly formed. 

A-BOR'TIVE, a. 1. Brought forth in an immature state ; 
failing, or coming to naught, before it is complete. 2. 
Failing in its effect; miscarrying; producing nothing; 
as, an abortive scheme. 3, Rendering abortive. 4. Per- 
taining to abortion. — 5. In botany, an abortive flower is 
one which falls without producing fruit. 

A-BOR'TIVE, n. That which is brought forth or born pre- 
maturely. [Little used.'] 

A-BOR'TIVE-LY, adv. Immaturely ; in an untimely man- 

A-BOR'TIVE-NESS, n. The state of being abortive ; a fail- 
ing in the progress to perfection or matmlty ; a failure of 
producing the intended effect. 

A-BORT'MENT, n. An untimely birth. Bacon. 

A-BOUND', V. i. [L. abundo.] 1. To have or possess in great 
quantity ; to be copiously supplied ; followed by with or in. 
2. To be in great plenty ; to be very prevalent. 

A-BOUND'ING, JW- Having in great plenty; being in 
great plenty ; being very prevalent. 

A-BOUND'ING, n. Increase. South. 

A-BOUT', prej). [Sax. abutan.] 1. Aroimd ; on the exterior 
part or surface. 2. Near to in place, with the sense of 
circularity. 3. Near to in time. 4. Near to in action, or 
near to the performance of some act. 5. Near to the per- 
son ; appended to the clothes. 6. Concerned in, engaged 
in, relating to, respecting. 7. In compass or circumfe- 
rence ; as, two yards about the trunk. 

A-BOUT', adv. 1. Near to in number or quantity. 2. Near 
to in quality or degree ; as, about as high, or as cold. 3. 
Here and there ; around ; in one place and another. 4. 
Round, or the longest way, opposed to across, or the 
shortest way ; as, a mile about, and half a mile across. 

A-BoVB', prep. [Sax. abufan.] 1. izieraZZ?/, higher in place. 

2. Figuratively, superior in any respect. 3. More in 
number or quantity. 4. More in degree ; in a greater de- 
gree. 5. Beyond ; in excess. 6. Beyond ; in a state to 
be unattainable ; as, things above comprehension. 7. Too 
proud for. 8. Too elevated in mind or rank ; having too 
much dignity for. 9. It is often used, elliptically, for 
heaven, or the celestial regions. 10. In a book or writ- 
ing, it denotes before, or in a former place ; as, what has 
been said above ; supra. 

A-B6VE', adv. 1. Overhead ; in a higher place. 2. Before. 

3. Chief in rank or power. — Above all is elliptical ; above 
all considerations ; chiefly ; in preference to other things. 
— Above board, above the board or table ; in open sight ; 
without trick, concealment, or deception. 

A-B6VE'-CI-TED. Cited before, in the preceding part of 
a book or writing. 

A-B6VE' -GROUND. Alive, not buried. 

A-B6VE'-MEN-TI0NED. Mentioned before. 

ABP. Abbreviation for Archbishop. 

AB'RA-CA-DAB'RA. The name of a deity worshiped by 
the Syrians ; a cabalistic word. 

AB-RaDE', v. t. [L. abrado.] To rub or wear off; to waste 
by friction ; used especially to express the action of sharp, 
corrosive medicines. 

AB-RID'ED, pp. Rubbed or worn off; worn ; scraped. 

AB-RaD'ING, ppr. Rubbing off; wearing. 

AB-RA-HAM'IC, a. Pertaining to Abraham. 

t A-BRaID', v. t. To arouse ; to awake. 

AB-Ra'S10N, (ab-ra'-zhun) n. The act of wearing or rub- 
bing off; also substance worn off bv attrition. 

A-BREAST', (a-bresf) adv. [from a'and breast.] Side by 
side, with the breasts in a line. 

A-BRIDGE, (a-bridj') v. t [Fr. abreger.] 1. To make 

shorter ; to epitomize ; to contract by using fewer words, 
yet retaining the sense in substance ; v^ed of writings. 

2. To lessen ; to diminish ; as, to abridge labor. 3. To 
deprive; to cut off from ; followed by of; as, to abridge 
one of his rights. — 4. In algebra, to reduce a compound 
quantity or equation to its more simple expression. 

A-BRID6'ED, (a-bridjd') pp. Made shorter; epitomized; 

reduced to a smaller compass ; lessened ; deprived. 
A-BRIDG'ER, n. One who abridges; one who makes a 

A-BRID6'ING, ppr. Shortening; lessening; depriving; 

A-BRIDG'MENT, n. I. An epitome ; a compend, or sum 

mary of a book. 2. Diminution ; contraction ; reduction. 

3. Deprivation ; a debarring or restraint. 
A-BRoACH', adv. Broached ; letting out or yielding liquor, 

or in a posture for letting out ; as, a cask is abroach. Fig 
uratively used by Shakspeare for setting loose, or in a 
state of being diffused. 

t A-BRoACH', v. t. To tap ; to set abroach. 

A-BROAD', (a-brawd') adv. 1. At large ; widely ; not con 
fined to narrow limits. 2. In the open air. 3. Beyond 
or out of the walls of a house. 4. Beyond the bounds of 
a country ; in foreign countries. 5. Extensively ; before 
the public at large. 

AB'RO-GA-BLE, a. That may be abrogated. 

AB'RO-GATE, v. t. [L. abrogo.] To repeal ; to annul by 
an authoritative act ; to abolish by the authority of the 
maker or his successor; applied to the repeal of laws, 
decrees, ordinances, the abolition of established customs, 

t AB'RO-GATE, a. Annulled. 

AB'RO-GA-TED, pp. Repealed ; annulled by an act of au 

AB'RO-GA-TING, ppr. Repealing by authority ; making 

AB-RO- Ga'TION, n. The act of abrogating ; a repeal by 
authority of the legislative power. 

t A-BROOD', adv. In the action of brooding. 

t A-BROOD'ING, n. A sitting abrood. Basset. 

f A-BROOK', V. t. To brook, to endure. See Brook. 

AB-Ro'TA-NUM, n. [Gr. AjSporovov.] A species of plant, 
called also southern-wood. 

AB-RUPT', a. [L. abruptus.] 1. Literally, broken off, or 
broken short. 2. Steep, craggy ; applied to rocJcs, preci- 
pices and the like. 3. Figuratively, sudden ; without no- 
tice to prepare the mind for the event. 4. Unconnected • 
having sudden transitions from one subject to another. 

AB-RUPT', n. A chasm or gulf with steep sides. " Over 
the vast abrupt.^'' Milton. 

t AB-RUPT', V. t. To disturb. Brown. 

AB-RUP'TION, n. A sudden breaking off; a violent sep- 
aration of bodies. 

AB-RUPT'LY, adv. Suddenly ; without giving notice, or 
without the usual forms. 

AB-RUPT'NESS, n. 1. A state of being broken ; cragged- 
ness; steepness. 2. FigiLratively , suddenness; uncere- 
monious haste or vehemence. 

AB'SCESS, n. [L. abscessus.] An imposthume. Matter 
generated by the suppuration of an inflammatory tumor. 

AB-SCIND', V. t. [L. abscindo.] To cut off. 

AB'SCISS, 71. [L. abscissxLs.] In conies, a part of the diame- 
ter, or transverse axis of a conic section, intercepted be- 
tween the vertex, or some other fixed point, and a semi- 

AB-SCIS"SION, (ab-sizh'un) n A cutting off, or a being 
cut off. — In surgery, the separation of any corrupted or 
useless part of the bodv, by a sharp instrument. 

AB-S€OND', V. i. [L. abscondo.] 1. To retire from public 
view, or from the place in which one resides or is ordina- 
rily to be found ; to withdraw, or absent one's self in a 
private manner ; to be concealed ; appropriately used of 
persons who secrete themselves to avoid a legal process. 
2. To hide, withdraw, or be concealed. 

t AB-SCOND', V. t. To conceal. Hew^jt. 

AB-S€OND'ENCE, 71, Concealment. 

AB-S€OND'ER, 71. One who withdraws from public notice, 
or conceals himself. 

AB-S€OND'ING, ppr. Withdrawing privately from public 

AB'SENCE, 71. [L. absens.] 1. A state of being at a dis- 
tance in place, or not in company. 2. Want ; destitu- 
tion ; implying no previous presence. — 3. In law, non-ap- 
pearance ; a not being in court to answer. 4. Heedless- 
ness ; inattention to things present. 

AB'SENT, a. Not present ; not in company ; at such a dis- 
tance as to prevent communication. 2. Heedless ; inat- 
tentive to persons present, or to subjects of conversation 
in company. — 3, In familiar language, not at home ; as. 
the master of the house is absent. 

AB-SENT', V. t. To depart to such a distance as to prevent 
intercourse ; to retire or withdraw ; to forbear to appear 
in presence ; used with the reciprocal pronoun. 

See Synopsia. i, E, I, 6, C, f, long.— FAB., F^LL, WH^T j— PREY ;— HN, MARINE, BiRD ;— f Obsolete 

ABS '^ 

t AB SENT, v.. One who is not present. 

AB-SEN-TEE', n. One who withdraws from his country, 
office, or estate ; one who removes to a distant place, or 
to another country. 

AB-SENT'ER, n. One who absents himself. 

AB-SENT MENT, n. A state of being absent. Barrow. 

AB-SINTH'1-AJV, a. Of the nature of wormwood. 

AB-SINTH I-A-TED, a. Impregnated with wormwood. 

AB-SINTH'I-UM, n. [Gr. axpivQiov.'] The common worm- 
wood ; a bitter plant, used as a tonic A species of Arte- 

AB'SIS. In astronomy. See Apsis. 

t AB-SIST', V. i. To stand off; to leave off. 

ABSO-LUTE, a. [L. absolutus.] 1. Literally, in a general 
sense, fr«e, independent of any thing extraneous. Hence, 

2. Complete in itself ; positive ; as, an absolute declara- 
tion. 3. Unconditional •, as, an absolute promise. 4. Ex- 
isting independent of any other cause ; as, God is abso- 
lute. 5. Unlimited by extraneous power or control ; as, 
an absolute government or prince. 6. Not relative ; as, 
absolute space. 

AB'SO-LUTE-LY, adv. 1. Completely, wholly. 2. With- 
out dependence or relation ; in a state unconnected. 3. 
Without restriction or limitation. 4. Without condition. 
5. Positively, peremptorily. 

AB'SO-LUTE-NESS, 71. 1. Independence ; completeness in 
itself. 2. Despotic authority, or that which is subject to 
no extraneous restriction, or control. 

AB-SO-LU'TION, n. In the civil law, an acquittal or sen- 
tence of a judge declaring an accused person innocent. — 
In the canon law, a remission of sins pronounced by a 
priest in favor of a penitent. — imong Protestants, a sen- 
tence by which an excommunicated person is released 
from his liability to punishment. 

* AB'SO-LU-TO-RY, a. Absolving ; that absolves. 

AB-SOLV'A-TO-RY, a. Containing absolution, pardon, or 
release •, having power to absolve. 

AB-SOLVE', (ab-zolv') v. t. [L. absolvo.'\ To set free or re- 
lease from some obligation ; as, to absolve a person from 
a promise ; to absolve an offender. Hence, in the civil 
law, the word was used for acquit ; and in the canon law. 
Cor forgive, or a sentence of remission. In ordinary lan- 
guage" its sense is, to set free or release from an engage- 
ment. Formerly, good writers used the word in the 
sense of finish, accomplish ; as, to absolve work, in Mil- 
ton •, but, in tliis sense, it seems to be obsolete. 

AB-SOLV'ED, (ab-zolvd') pp. Released 5 acquitted 5 remit- 
ted ; declared innocent. 

AB-SOLV'ER, n. One who absolves ; also one that pro- 
nounces sin to be remitted. 

AB-SOLV'ING, ppr. Setting free from a debt, or charge ; 
acquitting ; remitting. 

AB'SO-NANT, a. Wide from the purpose ; contrary to rea- 

AB'SO-NOUS, a. [L. absonus.l Unmusical, or untunable. 

AB-SORB', v. t. [L. absorbeo.J 1. To drink in ; to suck up ; 
to imbibe, as a spunge. 2. To drink in, swallow up, or 
overwhelm with water, as a body in a whirlpool. 3. To 
waste wholly or sink in expenses ) to exhaust ; as, to ab- 
sorb an estate in luxury. 4. To engross or engage whol- 
ly ; as, absorbed in study or the pursuit of wealth. 

AB-SORB- A-BIL'I-TY, n. The state or quality of being ab- 

AB-SORB' A-BLE, a. That may be imbibed or swallowed. 

AB-SORB'ED, or AB-SORPT', pp. Imbibed ; swallowed ; 
wasted ; engaged ; lost in study ; wholly engrossed. 

AB-SORB'ENT, a. Imbibing ; swallowing. 

AB-SORB'ENT, n. In anatomy, a vessel which imbibes ; as 
the lacteals, lymphatics, and inhaling arteries. — In medi- 
cine, a testaceous powder, or other substance, which im- 
bibes the humors of the body. 

AB-SORB'ING, ppr. Imbibing ; engrossing ; wasting. 

AB-SORP'TION, n. 1. The act or process of imbibing or 
swallowing ; either by water which overwhelms, or by 
substances which drink in and retain liquids; as, the ab- 
sorption of a body in a whirlpool. — Q. In chemistry, the 
conversion of a gaseous fluid into a liquid or solid, by 
union with another substance. 

AB-SORP'TIVE, a. Having power to imbibe. 

AB-STaIN', v. i. [L. abstineo.'] In a general sense, to for- 
bear, or refrain from, voluntarily ; but used chiefly to de- 
note a restraint upon the passions or appetites ; to refrain 
from indulgence. 

AB-STe! MI-OUS, a. [L. abstemius.] 1. Sparing in diet; 
refraining from a free use of food and strong drinks. 2. 
Sparing in the enjoyment of animal pleasures of any kind. 

3. Sparingly used, or used with temperance ; belonging 
to abstinence ; as, an abstemious diet ; an abstemious 

AB-STe'MI-OUS-LY, adv. Temperately ; with a sparing 

use of meat or drink. 
AB-STe'MI-OUS-NESS, n. The quality of being temperate 

or sparing in the use of food and strong drinks. 


7. t. [L. abstergeo.] To wipe, or 
to cleanse by resolving obstruo 

AB-STER6E', (ab-sterj') v. 
make clean by wiping ; 
tions in the body. 

AB-STERGENT, a. Wiping ; cleansing. 

AB-STERG ENT, n. A medicine which frees the body from 
obstructions, as soap ; but the use of the word is nearly 
superseded by detergent, which see. 

AB-ST£R'SI0N, 71. [L. abstergeo, abstersus.} The act ot 
wiping clean ; or a cleansing by medicines which resolve 

AB-STER'SIVE, a. Cleansing ; having the quality of re- 
moving obstructions. 

AB'STI-NENCE, n. [L. abstinentia.} 1 In general, the 
act or practice of voluntarily refraining from, or forbear- 
ing any action. 2. The refraining from an indulgence of 
appetite, or from customary gratifications of animal pro- 
pensities. It denotes a total forbearance, as in fasting, or 
a forbearance of the usual quantity. 

ABSTI-NENT, fl. Refraining from indulgence, especially 
in the use of food and drink. 

AB'STT-NENT-LY, adv. With abstinence. 

AB'STI-NENTS. A sect which appeared in France and 
Spain in the third century. 

t AB-STORT'ED, part. a. [L. abstortxLs.'] Forced away. 

AB-STRACT', v. t. [L. abstraho.] 1. To draw from, or to 
separate. 2. To separate ideas by the operation of the 
mind ; to consider one part of a complex object, or to 
have a partial idea of it in the mind. 3. To select or sep- 
arate the substance of a book or writing ; to epitomize or 
reduce to a summary. — 4. In chemistry, to separate, as 
the more volatile parts of a substance by repeated distilla 
tion, or at least by distillation. 

AB'STRACT, a. [L. abstractus.] 1. Separate •, distinct 
from something else. An abstract idea, in metaphysics^ 
is an idea separated from a complex object, or from otlier 
ideas which naturally accompany it, as the solidity of 
marble contemplated apart from its color or figure. .Ab- 
stract terms are those which express abstract ideas, as 
beauty, whiteness, roundness, without regarding any sub- 
ject in which they exist ; or abstract terms are the names 
of orders, genera, or species of things, in which there is a 
combination of similar qualities. 2. Separate, existing in 
the mind only ; as, an abstract subject ; an abstract ques 
tion ; and hence difiicult, abstruse. 

AB'STRACT, n. 1. A summary, or epitome, containing 
the substance, a general view, or the principal heads ol 
a treatise or writing. 2. Formerly, an extract, or a small- 
er quantity, containing the essence of a larger. — In tha 
abstract, in a state of separation, as a subject considered 
in the abstract, i. e. without reference to particular per- 
sons or things. 

AB-STRA€T'ED, pp. Separated; refined; exalted; ab- 
struse ; absent in mind. 

AB-STRA€T'ED-LY, adv. In a separate state, or in con- 
templation only. 

AB-STRA€T'ED-NESS, n. The state of being abstracted. 

AB-STRA€T'ER, n. One who makes an abstract, or sum- 

AB-STRA€T'ING, ppr. Separating ; making a summary. 

AB-STRA€'TION, n. I. The act of separating, or state of 
being separated. 2. The operation of the mind when oc- 
cupied by abstract ideas ; as when we contemplate some 
particular part or property of a complex object, as separate 
from the rest. 3. A separation from worldly objects ; a 
recluse life ; as, a hermit's abstraction. 4. Absence of 
mind ; inattention to present objects. 5. In the process 
of distillation, the term is used to denote the separation 
of the volatile parts, which rise, come over, and are con- 
densed in a receiver, from those which are fixed. 

AB-STRA€T'IVE, a. Having the power or quality of ab- 

AB-STRA€T'IVE, or AB-STRAe-TI"TIOUS, a. Abstract- 
ed, or drawn from other substances, particularly from 
vegetables, without fennentation. 

AB'STRA€T-LY, adv. Separately ; absolutely ; in a state 
or manner unconnected with any thing else. 

AB'STRA€T-NESS, 7!. A separate state ; a state of bein^ 
in contemplation only, or not connected with any object 

t AB-STRI€T'ED, part. a. [L. abstrictus.] Unbound. 

t AB-STRIN6E', v. t. To unbind. 

t AB-STRuDE', v. t. To thrust or pull away. 

AB-STRtJSE', a. [L. abstrusus.] Hid ; concealed ; hence, 
remote from apprehension ; difiicult to be comprehended 
or understood ; opposed to what is obvious. 

AB-STRuSE'LY, adv. In a concealed manner; obscurely, 
in a manner not to be easily understood. 

AB-STRuSE'NESS, n. Obscurity of meaning ; the state 01 
quality oj being difiicult to be understood. 

t AB-STRu'SI-TY, n. Abstruseness. Brown. 

t AB-SuME', v. t. [L. absumo.] To bring to an end by grad- 

t AB-SUMPTION, 71. Destruction. 

AB-SURD , a. [L. absurdus.] Opposed to manifest truth , 

• See Synopsis MOVE, BOQK, DOVE ; BIJLL, UNI TE — € as K •. 6 as J •, S as Z ; OH as SH ; TH as in this, f Obaoletg 



inconsistent with reason, or the plain dictates of com- 
mon sense. An absurd man acts contrary to the clear 
dictates of reason or sound judgment. An a&swrd prop- 
osition contradicts obvious truth. An absurd practice, or 
opinion is repugnant to the reason or common apprehen- 
sion of men. It is absurd to say, six and six make ten. 

AB-SURD'I-TY, n. 1. The quality of being inconsistent 
with obvious truth, reason, or sound judgment. Want 
of judgment, applied to men ; want of propriety, applied 
to things. Johnson. 2. That which is absurd : in this 
sense it has a plural ; the absxirdities of men. 

AB-SUHD'LY, adv. In a manner inconsistent with reason, 
or obvious propriety. 

AB-SURD'NESS, n. The same as absurdity, and less used. 

A-BUND'ANCE, n. [Fr. abondance.] Great plenty ; an over- 
flowing quantity ; ample sufficiency ; in strictness, appli- 
cable to quantity only ; but customarily used of number ; 
as, an abundance of peasants. It denotes also fullness, 
overflowing ; as, the abundance of the heart. Mat. xii. 

A-BUND'ANT, a. Plentiful ; in great quantity ; fully suf- 
ficient ; as, an abundant supply. — In Scripture, abound- 
ing ; having in great quantity ; overflowing with. 

A-BUND'ANT-LY, ado. Fully ; amply ; plentifully ; in a 
sufficient degree. 

tABu'SAGE, 7i. Abuse. 

A-BuSE', V. t. [Fr. abuser.] I, To use ill ; to maltreat ; 
to misuse ; to use with bad motives or to wrong pur- 
poses ; as, to aMise privileges. 2. To violate ; to defile 
by improper sexual intercourse. 3. To deceive ; to im- 
pose on. 4. To treat rudely, or with reproachful lan- 
guage ; to revile. 5. To pervert the meaning of ; to mis- 
apply ; as, to abuse words. 

A-BuSE', n. 1. Ill use ; improper treatment or employment ; 
application to a wrong purpose ; as, an abuse of our natu- 
ral powers. 2. A corrupt practice or custom ; as, the 
abuses of government. 3. Rude speech ; reproachfuUan- 
guage addressed to a person ; contumely ; reviling words. 
4. Seduction. 5. Perversion of meaning ; improper use 
or application ; as, an abuse of words. 

A-BuS'ED, (a-biizd') pp. Ill-used ; used to a bad purpose ; 
treated with rude language ; misemployed ; perverted 
to bad or wrong ends ; deceived ; defiled ; violated. 

t A-BuSE'FUL, a. Using or practicing abuse ; abusive. 

A-BUS'ER, n. One who abuses ; one that deceives ; a rav- 

A-BuS'ING, ppr. Using ill ; employing to bad purposes ; 
deceiving ; violating the person ; perverting. 

A-Bu'SION, (a-bii'-zhun) n. Abuse ; evil or corrupt usage ; 
reproach. [Little used.] 

A-Bu'SiVE, a. 1. Practicing abuse ; offering harsh words, 
or ill treatment. 2. Containing abuse, or that is the in- 
strument of abuse ; as, abusive words ; rude ; reproach- 

A-Bu'SIVE-LY, adv. In an abusive manner ; rudely ; 

A-BtJ'SIVE-NESS, n. Ill-usage ; the quality of being abu- 
sive : rudeness of language, or violence to the person. 

A-BUT', V. i. [Fi aboutir.] To border upon ; to be con- 
tiguous to ; to meet ; in strictness, to adjoin to at the 

A-BUT'MENT, n. 1. The head or end ; that which unites 
one end of a thing to another. 2. That which abuts or 
borders on another. 

A-BUT'TAL, n. The butting or bouadary of land at the 
endj a head-land. Spelman. 

t A-BY', v. t. or i. [probably contracted from abide.] To en- 
dure ; to pay dearly ; to remain. Spenser. 

A-BYSM', (a-byzm') n. [Old Fr. •, now abime,] A gulf. 

t A-B\ S'MAL, a. Bottomless. Coles. 

A-BYSS', 71. [Gr. a(iv(T(Tog.] 1. A bottomless gulf; used also 
for a deep mass of waters, supposed by some to have en- 
compassed the earth before the flood. The word is also 
used for an immense cavern in the earth, in which God is 
supposed to have collected all the waters on the third 
day of the creation. It is used also for hell, Erebus. 2. 
That which is immeasurable 5 that in which any thing 
is lost. 

AB-YS-SIN'I-AN, a. Belonging to Abyssinia. 

AB-YS-SIN'I-ANS, n. A sect of Christians in Abyssijiia, 
who admit but one nature in Jesus Christ, and reject the 
council of Chalcedon. Encyc. 

A€, in Saxon, oak ; the initial syllable of names •, as, Acton, 

A-€A€'A-LOT, or A€'A-LOT, n. A Mexican fowl, the 
Tantalus Mcxicanus, or water raven. See Acalot. 

A-€a'CIA, n. [L.] Egyptian thorn. — In medicine, it is a 
name given to the inspissated juice of the unripe fruit of 
the mimosa JVilotica, which is brought from Egypt in 
roundish masses, in bladders. 

A-€a'CIANS, in church history, were certain sects, so de- 
nominated from Acacius. Encyc. 

\ A€-A-DeME', n. An academy ; a society of persons. 

A€>-A-De'MI-AL, a. Pertaining to an academy. 

AC-A-De'MI-AN, n. A member of an academy ; a student 
in a university or college. 

A€-A-DEM'I€, or A€-A-DEM'I-€AL, a. Belonging to an 
academy, or to a college or university ; as, academic 
studies •, also noting wiiat belongs to the school or philos- 
ophy of Plato ; as, the academic sect. 

A€-A-DE]M'I€, n. One who belonged to the school, or ad- 

fl^hered to the philosophy, of Socrates and Plato; a student, 

A€-A-DEM'I-€AL-LY, adv. In an academical manner. 

A€-A-DE-Ml"CIAN, n. [Fr. academicien.] A member of an 
academy, or society for promoting arts and sciences ; par 
ticularly, a member of the French academies. 

A-€AD'E-MISM, n. The doctrine of the academic philoso- 
phy. Baxter. 

A-€AD*E-MIST, n. A member of an academy for promoting 
arts and sciences ; also an academic philosopher. 

A-€AD'E-MY, n. [L. academia.] Originally, it is said, a 
garden, grove, or villa, near Athens, where Plato and his 
followers held their philosophical conferences. 1. A 
school, or seminary of learning, holding a rank between 
a university or college and a common school ; also a 
school for teaching a particular art, or particular sciervr^s ; 
as, a military academy. 2. A house, in which the stu- 
dents or members of an academy meet ; a place of edu- 
cation. 3. A society of men united for the promotion of 
arts and sciences in general, or of some particular art. 

A€'A-LOT, n. [contracted from acacalotl.] A Mexican 
fowl, called by some the aquatic crow. 

A€-A-MAe'U, n. A bird ; the Brazilian fly-catcher, or to- 

A€-A-NA'CEOUS, a. [Gr. aKavos.] Armed with prickles. 

A-CANTH'A, n. [Gr ahavQa.] In botany, a prickle. — In 
zoology, a spine or prickly fin ; an acute process of the 

A€-AN-THa'CEOUS, a. Armed with prickles, as a plant 

A-CAN'THA-RIS, n. In entomology, a species of cimex. 

A-€ANTH'INE, a. [See Acanthus.] Pertaining to the 
plant acanthus. 

A€-AN-THOP-TE-RYG'I-OUS, a. [Gr. aKavBos.] In zoolo- 
gy, having back fins which are hard, bony, and prickly ; 
a term applied to certain fishes . 

A-€ANTH'US, n. [Gr. aKavdoi.] 1. The plant bear's 
breech, or brank ursine. — ^2. In architecture, an ornament 
resembling the foliage or leaves of the acanthus. 

A-€AN'TI-CONE, 7?. See Pistacite. 

A-€ARN'AR, n. A bright star. Bailey. 

A-€AT-A-LE€'TI€, n. [Gr. aKaraXriKTog.] A verse, which 
has the complete number of syllables. Johnson. 

A-€AT'A-LEP-SY, n. [Gr. a/caraX77^ta..] Impossibility of 
complete discovery or comprehension ; incomprehensibil- 
ity. Whitaker. 

A-€AT'E-CHI-LI, n. A Mexican bird. 

A CAT'ERjACATES. See Caterer and Gates. 

A-€AU'LINE, ) a. [L. a. priv. and caulis.] In botany, 

A-€AU'LOUS, \ without a stem ; having flowers resting 
on the ground. 

A€-CeDE', v. i. [L. accede] I. To agree or assent, as to 
a proposition, or to terms proposed by another. 2. To be- 
come a party, by agreeing to the terms of a treaty. 

A€-CeD'ING, pj)?-. Agreeing; assenting. 

AC-CEL'ER-ATE, 7;. i. [lu. accelero.] 1 . To cause to move 
faster ; to hasten ; to quicken motion ; to add to the ve- 
locity of a moving body. 2. To add to natural or ordinary 
progression ; as, to accelerate the growth of a plant. 3. 
To bring nearer in time ; to shorten the time between 
the present time and a future event. 

A€-CEL'ER-A-TED, pp. auickened in motion ; hastened 
in progress. 

A€-CEL'ER-A-TING, ppr. Hastening; increa?'^.g vel» 
city or progression. 

A€-CEL-ER-A'TION, n. The act of increasing velocity or 
progress ; the state of being quickened in motion or ac- 

AC-CEL'ER-A-TIVE, a. Adding to velocity ; quickening 
progression. Reid. 

AC-CEL'ER-A-TO-RY, a. Acceleratmg ; quickening mo 

tA€-CEND', V. t. [L. accendo.] To kindle ; to set on fire. 

A€-CEND-I-BIL'I-TY, n. Capacity of being kindled, or of 
becoming inflamed. 

AC-CEND I-BLE, a. Capable of being inflamed or kindled. 

A€-CEN'SION, 71. The act of kindling or setting on fire ; 
or the state of being kindled ; inflammation. Chemis- 

ACCENT, 72. [L. accentus ) 1 The modulation of the 
voice in reading or speaking. 2. A particular stress or 
force of voice upon certain syllables of words, which 
distinguishes them from the others. Accent is of two 
kinds, primary and secondary, as in as'pira'tion. 3. A 
mark or character used in writing to direct the stress of 
the voice in pronunciation. 4. A modulation of the voice 

Sec Synopsis, a, E, I, o, tJ, ^, long.— FAR, FALL, WH-^T ;— PREY ;— PtN, MARINE, BIRD ;— f Obsolete 



expressive of passions or sentiments. Prior. 5. Manner 
of speaking. Obs. Shak. — 6. Poetically, words, language, 
or expressions in general. Dryden. — 7. In music, a swell- 
ing of sounds, for the purpose of variety or expression. 
8. A peculiar tone or inflection of voice. 

AC -CENT', v.t. To express accent ; to utter a syllable with 
a particular stress or modulation of the voice. — In poetry, 
to utter or pronounce in general. Also, to note accents 
by marics in writing. 

A€-CENT'ED, pp. Uttered with accent ; marked with ac- 

A€-CENT'iNG, ppr. Pronouncing or marking with ac- 

A€-CENT'U-AL, a. Pertaining to accent. 

AG'CENT'U-ATE, v. t. To mark or pronounce with an 
accent, or with accents. 

A€-CENT-U-A'TION, n. The act of placing accents in 
writing, or of pronouncing them in speaking. 

A€-CEPT', V. t. [L. accepto.] I. To take or receive what 
is offered with a consenting mind ; to receive with ap- 
probation or favor. 2. To regard with partiality ; to value 
or esteem. 3. To consent or agree to ; to receive as 
terms of a contract 5 as, to accept a treaty ; often follow- 
ed by of. 4. To understand ; to have a particular idea 
of; to receive in a particular sense. — 5. In commerce, 
to agree or promise to pay, as a bill of exchange. See 


* A€-CEPT'A-BLE, a. 1. That may be received with pleas- 
ure ; hence, pleasing to a receiver ; gratifying. 2. Agree- 
able or pleasing in person. 

The quality of being agreeable to a receiver. 

*Ae-CEPT'A-BLY, adv. In a manner to please, or give 

A€-CEPT'ANCE, n. 1. A receiving with approbation or 
satisfaction ; favorable reception. 2. The receiving of a 
bill of exchange, or order, in such a manner as to bind the 
acceptor to make payment. 3. An agreeing to terms or 
proposals in commerce, by which a bargain is concluded, 
and the parties bound. 4. An agreeing to the act or con- 
tract of another, by some act which binds the person in 
law. — 5. In mercantile language, a bill of exchange ac- 
cepted ; as, a merchant receives another's acceptance in 
payment. 6. Formerly, the sense in which a word is 
understood. Obs. 

A€-CEP-Ta'TION, n. 1. Kind reception ; a receiving with 
favor or approbation. 2. A state of being acceptable ; 
favorable regard. 3. The meaning or sense in which a 
word or expression is understood, or generally received. 
4. Reception in general. Obs. 

A€-CEPT'ED, pp. Kindly received ; regarded ; agreed to ; 
understood ; received as a bill of exchange. 

A€-CEPT'ER, or A€-CEPT'OR, n. A person who accepts. 

t A€-CEP-TI-La'TION, n. The remission of a debt by an ac- 
quittance from the creditor. Cotgrave. 

A€-CEPT'rNG, ppr. Receiving favorably ; agreeing to ; 

t A€-CEP'TION, n. The received sense of a word. 

f A€-CEPT'IVE, a. Ready to accept. B. Jonson. 

A€-CESS', n. [L. accessus.^ 1. A coming to ; near ap- 
proach ; admittance ; admission ; as, to gain access to a 
prince. 2. Approach, or the way by which a thing may 
be approached ; as, the access is by a neck of land. 3. 
Means of approach ; liberty to approach ; implying pre- 
vious obstacles. 4. Admission to sexual intercourse. 5. 
Addition ; increase by something added •, as, an access of 
territory. 6. The return of a fit or paroxysm of disease. 

A€'CES-SA-RI-LY. See Accessorily. 

A€'CES-SA-RT-NESS. See Accessoriness 

A€'CES-SA-RY. See Accessory. 

A€-CES-SI-BTL't-TY, n. The quality of being approacha- 
ble, or of admitting access. 

A€-CESS I-BLE, a. 1. That may be approached or reached. 
2. Easy of approach ; affable. 

A€-CESS'ION, n. [L. accessio.] 1. A coming to ; an acced- 
ing to and joining. 2 Increase by something added ; 
that which is added ; augmentation. — 3. In law, a mode 
of acquiring property. 4. The act of arriving at a throne, 
an office, or dignity, f That which is added. 6. The 
invasion of a fit of a r ^riodical disease, or fever. 

AG-CESS'ION-AL, a. Additional. 

A€-CES-S5'RI-AL, a. Pertaining to an accessory ; as, ac- 
cessorial agency, accessorial guilt. Burros Trial. 

A€'CES-SO-Rr-LY, adv. In the manner of an accessory ; by 
subordinate means. 

A€'CES-SO-RI-NESS, n. The state of being accessory. 

A€'CES-SO-RY, a. [L. accessorius.] 1. Acceding ; contrib- 
uting ; aiding in producing some effect, or acting in 
subordination to the principal agent. Usually in a bad 
sense. 2. Aiding in certain acts or effects in a seconda- 
ry manner ; as, accessory sounds in music. 

A€'CES-SO-RY, n. 1. In laic, one who is guilty of a felony, 
not by committing the offense in person, or as principal, 
but by advising or commanding another to commit the 

crime, or by cf nceallng the offender. 2. That which ac- 
cedes or belongs to something else, as its principal. 

A€'CI-DENCE, 71. [See Accident.] A small book, contain 
ing the rudiments of grammar. 

A€'CI-DENT, n. [L. accidens.] 1. A coming or falling ; 
an event that takes place without one's foresight or ex- 
pectation ; an event which proceeds from an unknown 
cause, or "is an unusual effect of a known cause, and 
therefore not expected ; chance ; casualty ; contingency. 
2. That which takes place or begins to exist without an 
efficient intelligent cause, and without design. Dwighi. 
— 3. In logic, a property or quality of a being which ia 
not essential to it, as whiteness in paper. — 4. In grammar, 
something belonging to a word but not essential to it, 
as gender.— 5. In heraldry, a point or mark, not essential 
to a coat of arms. 

AC-CI-DENT'AL, a. 3. Happening by chance, or rather un- 
expectedly ; casual ; fortuitous ; taking place not accord- 
ing to the usual course of things ; opposed to that which 
is constant, regular, or intended ; as, an accidental visit. 
2. Non-essential ; not necessarily belonging to ; as, songs 
are accidental to a play. 

A€-CI-DENT'AL-LY, adv. By chance ; casually ; fortui- 
tously ; not essentially. 

A€-CI-DENT AL-NESS, n. The quality of being casual. 
\ Little used.'] 

t A€-CI-DEN'TIA-RY, a. Pertaining to the accidence 

t A€-CIP'I-ENT, n. A receiver. 

A€-CIP'I-TER, n. [L. ad and capio.} 1. A name given to 
a fish, the milvus or lucerna. — 2. In ornithology, the name 
of the order of rapacious fowls. 

A€-CIP'I-TRINE, a. Seizing ; rapacious ; as the accipi- 
trme order of fowls. Ed. Encyc. 

t A€-ClTE', V. t. [L. ad and cito.} To call ; to cite ; to 

A€-€LaIM', v. t. [L. acclamo.] To applaud. [Little used.] 

A€-€LaIM', n. A shout of joy ; acclamation. 

t A€'eLA-MATE, v. t. To applaud. 

A€-€LA-MA'TI0N, n. [L. acclamatio.] A shout of ap- 
plause, uttered by a multitude. 

A€-€LAM'A-TO-RY, a. Expressing joy or applause by 
shouts, or clapping of hands. 

A€-€Ll'MA-TED, a. [ac for ad, and climate.] Habituated 
to a foreign climate, or a climate not native. Med. Repos 

t A€-€LTVE', a. Rising. Aubrey. 

A€-€LIV'ITY, n. [L. acclivus, accli^ois.] A slope, or incli- 
nation of the earth, as the side of a hill, considered as as- 
cending, in opposition to declivity, or a side descending. 
Rising ground ; ascent 5 the talus of a rampart. 

A€-€LI VOUS, a. Rising, as a hill, with a slope. 

t Ae-€LOY , V. t. To fill ; to stuff"; to fill to satiety. 

A€-€OIL'. See Coil. 

A€'€0-LA, n. A delicate fish eaten at Malta. 

A€-CO-LaDH , 71. [L. ad and collum.] A ceremony former- 
ly used in conferring knighthood. 

A€'€0-LENT, n. One who inhabits near a place ; a bor- 

A€-COM'MO-DA-BLE, a. [Fr.] That may be fitted, made 
suitable, or made to agree. [Little used.] 

A€-€OM'MO-DATE, v. t. [L. accommodo.] 1. To fit, adapt, 
or make suitable ; as, to accommodate ourselves to circum- 
stances. Paley. 2. To supply with or furnish ; followed 
by with. 3. To supply with conveniences ; as, to accom- 
modate a friend. 4. To reconcile things which are at va- 
riance ; to adjust. 5. To show fitness or agreement ; 
to apply. 6. To lend — a commercial sense. In an intran- 
sitive sense, to agree, to be conformable to, as used by 
Boyle. Obs. 

A€-€OM'MO-DATE, a. Suitable ; fit ; adapted ; as, meana 
accommodate to the end» Ray. 

A€-€OM'MO-DA-TED, pp. Fitted ; adjusted ; applied ; al 
so, furnished with conveniences. 

A€-COM'MO-DATE-LY, adv. Suitably ; fitly. 

A€-€OM'MO-DATE-NESS, n. Fitness. [Little used.] 

A€-€OM'MO-DA-TING,ppr. Adapting; making suitable 
reconciling ; furnishing with conveniences ; applying. 

A€-€OM'MO-DA-TING, a. Adapting one's self to ; oblig- 
ing ; disposed to comply, and to oblige another. 

A€-€OM-MO-Da'TION, n. 1. Fitness; adaptation; fol 
lowed by to. 2. Adjustment of difl^erences ; reconcilia 
tion, as of parties in dispute. 3. Provision of conven 
iences. 4. In the plural ; conveniences ; things furnish- 
ed for use ; chiefly applied to lodgings. — 5. In mercantile 
language, accommodation is used for a loan of money. In 
England, accommodation bill is one given instead of a 
loan of money. Crabbe. 6. It is also used of a note lent 
merely to accommodate the borrower. — 7. In theology, 
accommodation is the application of one thing to another 
by analogy, as of the words of a prophecy to a future 
event. Paley. 

A€-€OM'MO-i)A-TOR, n. One that accommodates ; one 
that adjusts. 

• See Synopsis. MOVE, BQQK, D6VE ;— BULL, UNITE.— € as K ; 6 as J ; S as Z ; CH as SH ; TH as in this, f Obsolete 


'i A€-€6M'PA-NA-BLE, a. Sociable. 

A€-€6M'FA NTED, pp. Attended 5 joined with in society. 

A€-€OM'PAi\'J ER, n. He who accompanies. 

A€-eoM'PA-JMl-MENT, 71, {Yt. accompagnement.] Some- 
thing that attends as a circumstance, or which is added 
by way of ornament to the principal thing, or for the 
sake of symmetry. 

A€-€6M'PA-NIST, n. The performer in music, who takes 
the accompanying part. Busby. 

A€-€6M'PA-NY, v. t. [Fr. accompagner.] 1. To go with, 
or attend, as a companion. 2. To be with as connected ; 
to attend. 

A€-€6M'PA-NY, ti. i. 1. To attend; to be an associate; 
[oOs.] Bacon. 2. To cohabit. — 3. In music, to perform the 
accompanjdng part in a composition. 

A€-€6M'PA-NY-ING, ppr. Attending; going with as a 

Ae-€OM'PLiCE, 71 [Fr. complice.'] An associate in a 
crime ; a partner or partaker in guilt. It was formerly 
used in a good sense for a co-operator, but this sense is 
wholly obsolete. 

Ae-€OM'PLISH, V. t.JYx. accomplir.] 1. To complete ; to 
finish entirely. 2. To execute. 3. To gain ; to obtain 
or effect by successful exertions. 4. To fulfill or bring to 
pass ; as, to accomplish a prophecy. 5. To furnish with 
qualities which serve to render the mind or body complete. 

Ae-€OM'PLISHED, pp. 1. Finished ; completed ; fulfilled ; 
executed ; effected. 2. a. Well endowed with good qual- 
ities and manners ; complete in acquirements ; having a 
finished education. 3 Fashionable. Swift. 

A€-€OM'PLISH-ER, n. One who accomplishes. 

A€-€OM'PLISH-ING, ppr. Finishing ; completing ; fulfill- 
ing ; executing ; effecting ; furnishing with valuable 

AC-eOM'PLISH-MENT, n. 1. Completion ; fulfillment ; 
entire performance ; as of a prophecy. 2. The act of car- 
rying into effect, or obtaining an object designed ; attain- 
ment. 3. Acquirement; that which constitutes excel- 
lence of mind, or elegance of manners, acquired by edu- 

t A€-€01VIPT'. See Account. 

t A€-€OMPT'ANT. See Accountant. 

A€-eORD', 71. [Fr. accord.] 1. Agreement; harmony of 
minds ; consent or concurrence of opinions or wills. 2. 
Concert ; harmony of sounds ; the union of different 
sounds, which is agreeable to the ear ; agreement in 
pitch and tone. 3. Agreement ; just correspondence of 
things. 4. Will ; voluntary or spontaneous motion ; used 
of the will of persons, or the natural motion of other bodies, 
and preceded by own. 5. Adjustment of a difference ; 
reconciliation. — 6. In law, an, agreement between parties 
in controversy. 7. Permission, leave. 

ACCORD', V. t. 1. To make to agree, or correspond ; to 
adjust one thing to another. Sidney. 2. To bring to an 
agreement ; to settle, adjust, or compose. Hall. 

AC-CORD', V. i. 1. To agree ; to be in correspondence. 2. 
To agree in pitch and tone. 

AC-CORD'A-BLE, a. Agreeable ; consonant. 

AC-CORD'ANCE, n. Agreement with a person ; conformity 
with a thing. 

AC-CORD'ANT, a. Corresponding ; consonant ; agreeable. 

AC-CORD'ANT-LY, adv. In an accordant manner. 

AC-CORD'ED, pp. Made to agree ; adjusted. 

AC-CORD'ER, n. One that aids, or favors. 

AC-CORD'ING, ppr. (commonly, though not correctly, 
classed among prepositions.) 1. Agreeing; harmonizing. 
2. Suitable ; agreeable ; in accordance with. In these 
senses, the word agrees with or refers to a sentence. — 
Our zeal should be according to knowledge : — According, 
here, has its true participial sense, agreeing, and is al- 
ways followed by to. It is never a preposition. 

AC-CORD'ING-LY, adv. Agreeably ; suitably ; in a man- 
ner conformable to. 

f AC-CORP'O-RATE, v. t. To unite. Milton. 

AG-COST', V. t. [Fr. accoster.] .1- To approach ; to draw 
near ; to ccme side by side, or face to face ; [not in use.] 
2. To speak first to ; to address. Milton. 

tAC-COST', 7J. i. To adjoin. Spenser. 

AC-COST' A-BLE, a. Easy of access ; familiar. 

AC-COST'ED,pp. Addressed; first spoken to.— In herald- 
ry, being side by side. 

AC-COST'ING, ppr. Addressing by first speaking to. 

A.C-COU-CHEUR', (ak-koo-shure', or ak-koo-shaur') n. 
[Fr.] A man who assists women in childbirth. 

AC COUNT', 71. [Fr. conte. Formerly, writers used ac- 
compt, from the Fr. compte.] 1. A sum stated on paper ; 
a registry of a debt or credit, of debts and credits, or 
charge} ; an entry in a book or on paper of things bought 
or sold, of payments, services, &c., including the names 
of the parties to the transaction, date, and price or value 
of th( thing. 2. A computation of debts and credits, or a 
general statement of particular sums. 3. A computation 
or -node of reckoning ; applied to other things than mon- 
ey or trade ; as, the Julian account of time. 4. Narra«^ive ; 


relation ; statement of facts ; recital of particular transac- 
tions and events, verbal or written ; as, an account of the 
revolution in France. Hence, 5. An assignment of rea- 
sons ; explanation by a recital of particular transactions. 
6. Reason or consideration, as a motive ; as, on all ac- 
counts. 7. Value; importance; estimation. 8. Profit; 
advantage ; that is, a result or production worthy of esti- 
mation. 9. Regard; behalf; sake; — a sense deduced 
from charges on book ; as, on account of public affairs. 

AC-COUNT', V. t. 1. To deem, judge, consider, think, or 
hold in opinion. — 2. To account of; to hold in esteem ; to 
value. 3. To reckon, or compute ; to assign as a debt. 
These uses are antiquated. 

AC-COUNT', V. i. 1. To render an account or relation of 
particulars. 2. To give reasons ; to assign the causes ; to 
explain ; with for. 3. To render reasons ; to answer for 
in a responsible character. 

AC-COUNT-A-BIL'I-TY, n. I. The state of being liable to 
answer for one's conduct. R.Hall. 2. Liability to the pay 
ment of money or of damages ; responsibility for a trust. 

AC-COUNT'A-BLE, a. 1. Liable to be called to account ; 
answerable to a superior. 2. Subject to pay, or make 
good, in case of loss. 

AC-COUNT'A-BLE-NESS, n. Liableness to answer or to 
give account ; the state of being answerable. 

AC-COUNT' ANT, 71. One skilled in mercantile accounts , 
more generally, a person who keeps accounts. 

AC-COUNT'-BOOK, n. A book in which accounts are 
kept. Swift. 

AC-COUNT'ED, pp. Esteemed ; deemed ; considered ; re- 
garded ; valued. — Accounted for ; explained. 

AC-COUNT'ING, ppr. Deeming ; esteeming ; reckoning ; 
rendering an account. — Accounting for ; rendering an ac- 

AC-COUNT'ING, n. The act of reckoning or adjusting ac- 

AC-COUP'LE, (ak-kup'pl) v. t. To couple ; to join or link 
together. See Couple. 

AC-COUP'LE-MENT, (ak-kup'pl-ment) n. A coupling; a 
connecting in pairs ; junction. [Little used.] 

t AC-C0UR'A6E, (ak-kur'aje) v. t. To encourage. Spenser. 

f AC-CoURT', V. t. To entertain with courtesy. Spenser. 

AC-COU'TRE, I ,. tr^«;t«.^ S ^- *• [Fr. accoutrer.] In a 

AC-C5U'TER, \ (.^K-^f'O lerj y general sense, to dress ; to 
equip ; but appropriately, to array in a military dress ; to 
put on, or to furnish with a military dress and arms ; to 
equip the body for military service. 

AC-C6U'TREDj,pp. Dressed in arms ; equipped. 

AC-COU'TRING, ppr. Equipping with military habili 

AC-COU'TRE-MENTS, (ak-koo'ter-ments) n. plu. 1. Dress 
equipage ; furniture for the body ; appropriately, military 
dress and arms ; equipage for military service. — 2. In 
common usage, an old or unusual dress. 

t AC-COY', 7). i. [Old Fr. accoistV. Todd.] To render quiet 
or diflSdent ; to soothe ; to caress. Spenser. 

AC-CRED'IT, V. t. [Fr. accredlter.] To give credit, author- 
ity, or reputation. 

AC-CRED-I-Ta'TION, n. That which gives title to credit. 
[Little used.] 

AC-CRED'IT-ED, pp. Allowed ; received with reputation ; 
authorized in a public character. Christ. Obs. 

AC-CRED'IT-ING, ppr. Giving authority or reputation. 

AC-CRES'CENT, a. Increasing. Shuckford. 

AC-CRe'TION, 71. [L. accretio.] A growing to; an in- 
crease^by natural growth. 

AC-CRE'TIVE, a. Increasing by growth ; growing ; adding 
to by growth. 

t AC-CRIM-I-Na'TION, 71. Accusation ; reproach. 

AC-CRoACH', V. i. [Fr. accrocher.] 1. To hook, or draw 
to as with a hook ; [obs.] 2. To encroach ; to draw away 
from another. — The noun accroachment, an encroach- 
ment,_is rarely or never used. See Encroach. 

AC-CRuE', (ak-kru') v. i. [Fr. accrottre, accru.] Literally, 
to grow to ; hence, to arise, proceed, or come ; to be added, 
as increase, profit or damage ; as, a profit accrues to gov- 
ernment from the coinage of copper ; a loss accrues from 
the coinage of gold and silver. 

jAC-CRuE', (ak-kru') n. Something that accedes to, or 
follows the property of another. 

AC-CRu'ING, ppr. Growing to ; arising ; coming ; being 

AC-CRU'MENT, 71. Addition ; increase. 

AC-CU-Ba'TION, 71. [L. accubatio.] A lying or reclining 
on a couch, as the ancients at their meals. 

t AC-CUMB', V. i. [L. accumbo.] To recline as at table. 

AC-CUM'BEN-CY, 7! . State of being accumbent or reclining. 

AC-CUM'BENT, a. [L. accumbens.] Leaning or reclining, 
as the ancients at their meals. 

t AC-CUM'BENT, n. One who is placed at a dinner-table. 

AC-CU'MU-LATE, v. t. [L. accumulo.] 1. To heap up; to 
pile^ to amass. 2. To collect or bring together. 

AC-Cu'MU-LATE, v. i. To grow to a great size, number^ 
or quantity ; to increase greatly. 

• Set Synapsis. A, g, I, o, ©, "?, long.— FS.R, FALL, WH^T ;— PRgY ,— HN, MARINE, BiRD :— t Obsolete 



Ae-€(J'MU-LATE, a. Collected into a mass or quantity. 

A€-€0'MU-LA-TED, pp. Collected into a heap or great 

A€-€U'MU-LA-TLNGj ppr Heaping up j amassing; in- 
creasing greatly. 

A€-€U-iMU-LA'TION, n. The act of accumulating ; the 
scale of being accumulated ; an amassing ; a coUectmg to- 

A€-€U'MU-LA-TIVE, a. That accumulates ; heaping up ; 

AC-Cu'MU-LA-TOR, n. One that accumiUates, gathers or 

A€'eU-RA-CY, n. [L. accuratio.] 1. Exactness ; exact con- 
formity to truth, or to a nUe or model ; freedom from 
mistake ; nicety ; correctness ; precision which results 
from care. 2. Closeness ; tightness. 

A€'€tJ-RATE, a. [L, accuratus.] 1. In exact conformity 
to truth, or to a standard or rule, or to a model •, free from 
failure, error, or defect. 2. Determinate ; precisely fixed. 
3. Close ; perfectly tight. 

ACeU-RATE-LY, adv. 1. Exactly •, in an accurate man- 
ner ; with precision ; without error or defect. 2. Close- 
ly ; so as to be perfectly tight. Comstock. 

A€'€U-RATE-NESS, n. Accuracy ; exactness ; nicety ;, 

AC-CURSE', ^ak-kurs') v. t. [ac for ad, and curse.'\ To de- 
vote to destruction ; to imprecate misery or evil upon. 
{Rarely used.] See Curse. 

A€-€URSiEI), pp. or a. 1. Doomed to destruction or mise- 
ry. 2. Separated from the faithful ; CEist out of the 
chiirch ; excommunicated. 3. Worthy of the curse ; de- 
testable ; execrable. 4. Wicked ; malignant in the ex- 

AC-Cu'SA-BLE, a. That may be accused ; chargeable with 
a crime ; blamable ; liable to censure ; followed by :</. 

AC-Cu'S-4NT, 71. One who accuses. Hall. * 

AC-CU-Sa'TION, 71. 1. The act of charging with a crime 
or offense ; the act of accusing of any wrong or injustice. 
2. The charge of an ofiense or crime ; or the declaration 
containing the charge. 

AC-Cu'SA-TlVE, a. A term given to a case of nouns, in 
grammars, on which the action of a verb terminates or 
falls ; called, in English grammar, the objective case. — Cen- 
suring ; accusing. 

\€-eu'SA-TiVE-LY, adv. 1. In an accusative manner. 
2. In relation to the accusative case in grammar. 

A.€!-Cu'SA-T0-RY, a. Accusing ; containing an accusa- 

AC-CUSE', V. t. [L. accuso.l 1. To charge with, or de- 
clare to have committed a crime. 2. lo charge with a 
fault; to blame. 

AC-CUS'ED, (ak-ku2d') pp. Charged with a crime, by a le- 
gal process ; charged with an offense ; blamed. 

AC-CUS'ER, 71. One who accuses or blames. 

AC-CuS'ING, ppr Charging with a crime ; blaming. 

AC-CUS'TOM, V. t. [Fr. accoutumer .] To make fanfiliar by 
use ; to form a habit by practice ; to habituate or inure. 

A€-€US'T0M, V. i. 1. To be wont, or habituated to do any 
thing. [Little used.] 2. To cohabit. [JVot used.] Milton, 

t AC-€US'T0M, n. Custom. Jililton. 

AC-CUS'TOM-A-BLE, a. Of long custom ; habitual ; cus- 
tomary. [Little ii^ed.] 

AC-CUS'TOM-A-BLY, adv. According to custom or habit. 
[Little used.] 

t A€-€US'TOM-ANCE, n. Custom ; habitual use or prac- 
tice. Boyle. 

AC-€US'TOM-A-RI-LY, adv. According to custom or com- 
mon practice. [Little u^ed.] 

AC-CUS'TOM-A-RY, a. Usual ; customary. [Little used.] 

ACeUS'TOMED, ;)j7. 1. Being familiar by use ; habituat- 
ed ; inured. 2. a. Usual ; often practiced. 

AC-CUS'TOM-ED-NESS, n. FamUiarity. 

AC-CUS'TOM-ING, ppr. Making familiar by practice ; in- 

aCE, 71. [L. as.] 1. A unit ; a single point on a card or 
die ; or the card or die so marked. 2. A very small quan- 
tity ; a particle ; an atom ; a trifle. 

A-CEL'DA-MA, n. [Ch. Spn, a field, and Noi, Ch. Syr. 
and Sam., blood.] A field purchased with the bribe which 
Judas took for betraying his Master, and therefore called 
the field of blood. 

ACEPH'A-LIST, n. One who acknowledges no head or su- 

A-CEPH'A-LOUS, a. [Gr. a priv. and Ks^alrj, a head.] 
Without a head, headless.— In history, the term Acephali, 
or Acephalites, was given to several sects who refused to 
follow some noted leader. 

A-CEPH'A-LUS, 71. An obsolete name of the tasnia or tape 
worm. The term is also used to express a verse defective 
in the beginning. 

A-CERB', a. [L. acerlus,] Sour, bitter, and harsh to the 
taste ; sour, with astringency or roughness ; a quality of 
unripe fruits. Q,uincy. 

t A-CERB' ATEj v. t. To make sour 

A-CERB'I-TY, n. 1. A sourness, with roughness, or astriU' 
gency. 2. Figuratively, harshness or severity of temper 
in man. 

A-CER'IC, a. [L. acer.] Pertaining to the maple. Ure. 

AC'ER-OUS, a. [L. acerosv^.] In botany, chaffy ; resem 
blinc chaff. 

t A-CER VATE, v. t. To heap up. 

t A-CER'VOSE, a. Full of heaps. 

A-CES'CEN-CY, n, [L. acescens.] A turning sour by spon- 
taneous decomposition ; a state of becoming sour, tart, or 
acid , and hence, a being moderately sour. 

A-CES'CENT, a. Turning sour ; becoming tart or acid by 
spontaneous decomposition. 

A-C£S'TE, n. In entomology, a species of butlerfly. 

A-CES'TIS, n. [Gr.] A factitious sort of chrysocolla, made 
of Cvprian verdigris, urine and niter. Cyc. 

AC-E-TAB'U-LUM, n. [L,] Among the Romans, a vinegar 
cruise, or like vessel. A species of lichen. 

AC'E-TA-RY, n. An acid, pulpy substance in certain fruits. 

AC E-TATE, 71. In chemistry, a neutral salt, formed by the 
union of the acetic acid with any salifiable base. La- 

ACE-TA-TED, a. Combined with acetic acid, or radical 

A-CE'TIC, a. A term used to denote a particular acid, 
acetic acid. 

A-CET-I-FI-Ca'TION, 71. The act of making acetous or 
sour ; or tjie operation of making vinegar. 

A-CkT'I-FY, v. t. To convert into acid or vinegar. 

AC'E-TITE, n. A neutral salt, formeu by the acetous acid 
with a salifiable base. 

AC-E-TOM'E-TER, 71. [L. acetum, vinegar, and Gr. nerpov, 
measure.] An instrmnent for ascertaining the strength of 
vinegar. Ure. 

A-Ce'TOUS, a. Sour ; like or having the nature of vinegar. 

AC-E-ToSE', a. Sour ; sharp. 

t AC-E-TOS'I-TY, n. The state of being acetose. 

A-Ce'TUM, n. [L.l Vinegar. 

aCHE, (ake) v. i. [Sax. ace, ece.] 1. To suffer pain ; to 
have or be in pain, or in continued pain ; as, the head 
aches. 2. To suffer grief, or extreme grief; to be distress- 
ed ; as, the heart aches. 

aCHE, (ake) n. Pain, or continued pain, in opposition to 
suddjn twinges, or spasmodic pain. 

A-CHe'AN, a. Pertaining to Achaia. 

A-CHERN'ER, n. The name of a star of the first magni- 

ACH'ER-SET, n. An ancient measure of com. 

A-CHlE'VA-BLE, a. That may be performed. Barrow. 

A-CHIE'VANCE, 71. Performance. Elyot. 

A-CHIeVE', v. t. [Fr. achever.] 1. Topertonn,or execute ; 
to accomplish ; to finish, or carry on to a final close 2. 
To gain or obtain, as the result of exertion. 

A-CHIeV'ED, (a-cheevd') pp. Performed ; obtained ; ac- 

A-CHIeVE'MENT, n. 1. The performance of an action. 
2. A great or heroic deed ; something accomplished by 
valor or boldness. 3. An obtaining by exertion. 4. An 
escutcheon, or ensigns armorial. 

A-CHIeV'ER, n. One who accomplishes a purpose, or ob- 
tains_an object by his exertions. 

A-CHIeV'ING, ;?;)?-. Performing; executing; gaining 

aCH'ING, ppr. Being in pain ; suffering distress. 

aCH'ING, 71. Pain ; continued pain or distress. 

a'CHI-OTE, 71. The anotta ; a tree, and a drug used for dye- 
ing red. Clavigero. 

a'CHOR, 7?. [Gr. a^fj^p,] 1. The scald head, a disease form- 
ing scaly eruptions. — 2. In mythology, the god of flies. 

A€H-R0-MAT'I€, a. [Gr. a priv. and xP'^/'«7 color.] Des- 
titute of color. Achromatic telescopes are formed of a 
combination of lenses, and so contrived as to remedy aber- 
rations and colors. 

A-CIC'U-LAR, a. [L. acicula.] In the shape of a needle. 

A-CIC'U-LAR-LY, adv. In the manner of needles, or 

ACID, a. [L. acidus.] Sour, sharp or biting to the taste , 
having the taste of vinegar. 

ACID, 71. In chemistry, acids are a class of substances, so 
denominated from their taste, or the sensation of sour- 
ness which they produce on the tongue. 

AC-I-DIF'ER-OUS, a. [acwf, and L./ero.] Containmg acids, 
or an acid. 

A-CID'I-Fl-A-BLE, a. [from acidify.] Capable of being con- 
verted into an acid. 

A-CID-[-Fi-Ca'TION, 77. The act or process of acidifying 
or changing into an acid. 

A-CID'I-FlED, pp. Made acid ; converted into an acid. 

A-CID'I-FI-ER, 71. That which by combination forms an 
acid, as oxygen and hydrogen. 

A-CIO'I-F?, V. t. To make acid ; but, appropriately, to con 
vert into an acid. 

• See Synopsis. MOVE, BOOK, DoVE ;— Bl^LL, UNITE.— € as K ; G as- J ; S as Z ; CH as SH ; TH as in this, t Obsolete. 


A-CID'I-FY-ING, ppr. Making acid ; having power to 
change into an acid. 

AC-[-DfM'E-TER, n. An instrument for ascertaining the 
strengtli of acids. Upg. 

AC'1-1 iST, n. One wlio maintains the doctrine of acids. 

A-C1D'[-TY, ?!. [Fx.aciditi.] The quality of being sour ; 
sourness ; tartness ; sharpness to tlie taste. 

AC'ID-NESS, 7*. The quality of being sour ; acidity. 

A-€ID'U-L^, 71. Medicinal springs impregnated with sharp 

A-CID'U-LATE, v, t. [L. acidulus.] To tinge with an acid ; 
to make acid in a moderate degree. 

A-C'fD'U-LA-TED, pp. Tinged with an acid ; made slightly 

A-CiD'U-LA-TING, ppr. Tinging with an acid. 

AC'I-DULE, or A-CID'U-LUM, 71. In chemistry, a com- 
pound salt, in which the alkaline base is supersaturated 
with acid. 

A-CID'U-LOUS, a. [1.. acidulus.] Slightly sour 5 sub-acid, 
or having an excess of acid. 

AC-I-NAC I-FORM, a. [L. acinaces.] In botany, formed 
like, or resembling a cimeter. 

A-CIN'I-FORM, a. [L. acinus, a grape-stone, and forma, 
shape.] Having the form of grapes ; being in clusters like 

AC'I-NOSE, la Consisting of minute granular concretions. 

AC'I-NOUS, \ Eirwan. 

AC'I-NUS, n. [L.] In botany, one of the smaU grains, which 
compose the fruit of the blackberry, &c. 

AC I-PEN-SER, a. In ichthyology, a genus of fishes. 

A-CIT'LI, n. A name of the water hare. 

ACK ER, n. A ripple on the surface of the water; a curl. 
Fine mould. 

t AC-KNOW, (ak-no') v, t. To acknowledge ; to confess. 
B. Jon son. 

A€-KNOWL'EDGE, (ak-nol'-edge) v. t. 1. To own, avow, 
or admit to be true, by a declaration of assent. 2. To own 
or notice with particular regard. 3. To own or confess, 
as implying a consciousness of guilt. 4. To own with 
assent ; to admit or receive with approbation. 5. To own 
with gratitude ; to own as a benefit. 6. To own or ad- 
mit to belong to , 7. To receive with respect. 8. To own, 
avow, or assent to an act in a legal form, to give it va- 

A€-KN0WL'ED6ED, pp. Owned ; confessed ; noticed 
with regard or gratitude ; received witli approbation ; 
owned before authority. 

A€-KNOWL'EDG-ER, n. One who acknowledges. 

AC-KNOWL-'EDG-ING, ppr Owning ; confessing ; approv- 

A€-KNOWL'EDG-MENT, n. 1. The act of owning ; con- 
fession. 2. The owning, with approbation, or in the true 
character. 3. Concession ; admission of the truth ; as of 
a fact, position, or principle. 4. The owning of a benefit 
received, accompanied with gratitude. 5. A declaration 
or avowal of one's own act, to give it legal validity. 

ACME, (ak'my) n. [Gr. aK^r].] The top, or highest point. 

ACNE, (ak'ny) 71. [Gr.] A small, hard punple or tubercle 
on the face. Quincy. 

A€-NES'TIS, 71. A part of the spine in quadrupeds. 

ACO, 77. A Mediterranean fish. 

t A-CoLD', acZo. Cold. Oower. 

ACO-LIN, n. A bird of the partridge kind. 

A-€OL'0-THIST, } n. [Gr. aKoXoi'0£«.] In the ancient 

ACO-LYTE, \ church, a subordinate officer. 

ACO-NITE, n. [L. aco7ntum.] The herb wolf's bane -, and, 
in poetry, used for poison in general. 

A-€ON'TIAS, n. [Gr. aKovriaq.'] 1. A species of serpent, 
called dart-snake. 2. A comet or meteor resembling the 

t A-COP', adv. [a and cope.] At the top. Jonson. 

A'CORN, n. [Sax, cBcern.] The seed or fruit of the oak 

a'CORN, v. i. To pick up and feed on acorns. 

a'CORNED, a. Furnished or loaded with acoms. 

a'GO-RUS, 71. [L.l 1. Aromatic calamus, sweet flag, or 
sw^et rush. — 2. In natural history, blue coral. 

A€-0-TYL'E-D0N, n. A plant whose seeds have no side 

AC-O-TY-LED'O-NOUS, a. Having no side lobes. 

A-€OUS'TIC, a. [Gr. a/covo-ri/cof .] Pertaining to the ears, to 
the sense of hearing, or to the doctrine of sounds. 

A-COUS'TICS, n. 1. The science of sounds, teaching their 
cause, nature, and phenomena. — 2. In inedicine, this term 
is sometimes used for remedies for deafness. 

A€-Q,UaINT', v. t. [old Fr. accointer.] 1. To make 
known ; to make fully or intimately known ; to make fa- 
miliar. 2. To inform •, to communicate notice to. 3. To 
acquaint one's self, is to gain an intimate or particular 
knowledge of. 

AC-aUAINT'ANCE, n. 1. Familiar knowledge ; a state of 
being acquainted, or of having intimate or more than 
slight or superficial knowledge. 2. A person or persons 
well known ; usually, persons we have been accustomed 



to see and converse with ; sometimes, persons more slight- 
ly known. — Acquaintances, in the plural, is used as aji- 
plied to individual persons known ; but, more generally, 
acquaintance is used for one or more. — Acquaintant, in a 
like sense, is not used. 

AC-aUAlNT'ANCE-SHIP, n. The quality of being ac 
quainted. Chalmers. 

AC-Q.UaINT'ED, pp. Known ; familiarly known ; inform- 
ed ; having personal knowledge. 

A€-Q.Ua1NT'ING, pj)?-. Making known to; giving nclic« 
or information to. 

AC-Q.UEST', n. [L. acquisitus.] 1. Acquisition ; the thing 
gained. Baco7i. 2. Conquest •, a place acquired by force. 

A€-aUI-ESCE', (ak-que-ess') v.i. [L. acquiesco.] 1. To 
rest satisfied, or apparently satisfied, or to rest without 
opposition and discontent. 2. To assent to. upon convic- 
tion. — Acquiesced in, in a passive sense ; complied with ; 
submitted to without opposition. 

A€-Q-UI-ES'CENCE, n. A quiet assent ; a silent submis- 
sion, or submission with apparent content. 

A€-Q.UI-ES'CENT, a. Resting satisfied ; easy ; submitting ; 
disposed to submit. Johnso7i. 

AC-aUl-ES'CING, ppr. Quietly submitting ; resting con- 

t AC-QUl'ET, V. i. To render quiet. Shirley. 

AC-Q.Ui'RA-BLE, a. That may be acquired. 

AC-Q.U1RE', V. t. [L. acquiro.] To gain, by any means, 
something which is in a degree permanent, or which be- 
comesvested or inherent in the possessor. 

A€-QUiR'ED, (ak-quird') ;?j7. -Gained, obtained, or receiv- 
ed from art, labor, or other means, in distinction from 
those things which are bestowed by nature. 

AC-aUiRE MENT, n. The act of acquirhig, or that which 
is acquired ; attainment. It is used in opposition to nat- 
ural gifts. W^'[ 

AC-ClUlR EI^i. A person who acquires. 

AC-Q.UlR'ING^ -ppr. Gaining by labor, or other means, 
something tjlaji' has a degree of permanence in the pos- 
sessor. _ ■ , 

f A€-Q,Ul'RY, n. Acquirement. Barrow, 

ACaUI-SlTE, a. Gained. Burton. 

A€-QUI-SI»TI0N, n. [L. acquisitio.] 1. The act of acquir- 
ing. 2. The thing acquired, or gained. 

AC-aUISl-TlVE, a. That is acquired ; acquired ; [but im.- 
proper.] Walton. 

A€-CIUIS I-TiVE-LY, adv. Noting acquirement, with to 
or for following. Lilly. 

t AC-OUIST', 71. See Acquest. Milton. 

AC-QUIT', V. t. [Fr. acquitter.] To set free ; to release or 
discharge from an obligation, accusation, guilt, censure, 
suspicion, or whatever lies upon a person as a charge or 

t A€-aUIT'MENT, n. The act of acquitting, or state of be- 
ing acquitted ; now superseded by acquittal. South. 

AC-QUIT'TAL, n. A judicial setting free, or deliverance 
from the charge of an offense. 

AC-aUIT'TANCE, n. 1. A discharge or release from a 
debt. 2. The writing, which is evidence of a discharge ; 
a receipt in full, which bars a further demand. 

t AC-aUIT'TANCE, v. t. To acquit. Shak. 

AC-aUIT'TED, p;>. Set free, or judicially discharged from 
an accusation ; released from a debt, duty, obligation, 
charge, or suspicion of guilt. 

AC-Q. JIT'TING, ppr. Setting free from accusation ; releas- 
ing from a charge, obLigation, or suspicion of guilt. 

t A-€RaSE', or t A-€RaZE', v. t. 1. To make crazy ; to 
infatuate. 2. To impair ; to destroy. 

ACRA-SY, ?(. [Gr. uKpaaia.] In medical authors, an excess 
or predominancy of one quality above another, in mix- 
ture, or in the human constitution. Bailey. 

a'CRE, (a'ker) n. [&a.x. acer, acera, or tscer.] A quantity 
of land, containing 160 square rods or perches, or 4840 
square yards. 

a'CRED, (a'kerd) a. Possessing acres or landed property. 

ACRID, a. [Fr. acre ; L. acer.] Sharp ; pungent ; bitter ; 
sharp or biting to the taste ; acrimonious. 

ACRID-NESS, 71. A sharp, bitter, pungent quality. 

AC-RI-Mo'NI-OUS, a. 1. Sharp ; bitter ; coiTosive ; abound- 
ing with acrimony. 2. Figuratively, severe ; sarcastic ; 
applied to language or temper. 

AC-RI-Mo'NI-OUS-LY, adv. With sharpness or bitter- 

ACRI-MO-NY, 77. [1,. acrimonia.] 1. Sharpness ; a quality 
of bodies which corrodes, dissolves, or destroys others. 
2. Figuratively, sharpness or severity of temper ; bitter 
ness of expression proceeding from anger, ill-nature, 01 

ACRI-SY, n. [Gr. a and Kpiai?.] A state or condition of 
which no right judgment can be formed ; that of which 
no choice is made ; matter in dispute ; injudiciousness 
\Little used.] Bailey. 

ACRI-TUDE, n. [See Acrid.] An acrid quality ; bitterness 
to the taste ; biting heat. 

See Synapsis. ^, E, T, 5, tr, Y, long.—FKU, FALL, WHAT ;— PREY ;— PTN, MARINE, BIRD ;— t Obsolete 

ACT 11 

f A€'RI-TY, 71. Sharpness •, eagerness. 

A€-RO-A-MAT'I€, a. [Gr. aKpoafiaTiKos.] Abstruse ; per- 
taining to deep learning. 

A€-RO-AT'I€, a. [Gr. aKpoariKos.] Abstruse ; pertaining 
to deep learning ; and opposed to exoteric. 

A€-R0-CE-RAU'N1-AN, a. [Gr. aKpa and Kepavvus.] An 
epithet applied to certain mountains, between Epirxis and 

A-€Ro MI-ON, n. [Gr. aKpos and w/zoj.] In anatomy, the 
upper part of the spine of the scapula. 

A-€RON'ie, I a. [Gr. a/cpoj and vu|.] In astronomy, a 

A-€ROjN' 'I-€AL, \ term applied to the rising of a star at 
sunset, or its setting at sunrise. 

A-€R0N'I-€A1.-LY, adv. In an acronical manner; at the 
rising or setting of the sun. 

A€'RO-SPIRE, n. [Gr. aKpos and aneipa.] A shoot or 
sprout of a seed. Mortimer. 

A€'RO-SPIRED, a. Having a sprout, or having sprouted at 
both ends. Mortimer. 

A-€ROSS', jyrep. 1. From side to side, opposed to along, 
which is in the direction of the length ; athwart ; quite 
over 5 as, a bridge is laid across a river. 2. Intersect- 
ing ; passing over at any angle ; as, a line passing across 

A-€ROS'TI€, 7*. [Gr. aKpa and aTi^og.] A composition in 
verse, in which the first letters of the lines, taken in or- 
der, form the name of a person, kingdom, city, &c. 

A-€ROS'TI€, a. That relates to, or contains an acrostic. 

A-€ROS'TI€-AL-LY, adv. In the manner of an acrostic. 

A€-R0-TE-LEU'TI€, n. [Gr. aKpos and reXevrr].-] Among 
ecclesiastical writers, an appellation given to any thing 
added to the end of a psalm, or hymn. 

A€'RO-TER. n. [Gr. aKporrjp.] In architecture, a small 
pedestal, usually without a base. 

A€-RO-THYM'I-ON, n. [Gr. aKpos and Bvixos.] Among pJiij- 
sicians, a species of wart, with a narrow basis and broad 
top, having the color of thyme. It is called thymus. 

A€T, V. i. [Gr. ayo), L. ago.] 1. To exert power ; as, the 
stomach acts upon food. 2. To be in action or motion ; 
to move. 3. To behave, demean, or conduct, as in 
morals, private duties, or public offices. — To act up t--^^ is 
to equal in action ; to fulfil, or perform a correspondent 

A€T, V. t. 1. To perform ; to represent a character on the 
stage. 2. To feign or counterfeit. [Improper.'] Dryden. 
3. To put in motion 5 to actuate ; to regulate movements. 
[Obs.] Locke. 

A€T, n. 1. The exertion of power ; the effect, of which 
power exerted is the cause. 2. That whicn is done ; a 
deed, exploit, or achievement, whether good or ill. 3. 
Action •, performance •, production of effects 5 as, an act 
of charity. 4. A state of reality or real existence, as op- 
posed to a possibility. 5. In general, act denotes action 
completed ; but, preceded by in, it denotes incomplete ac- 
tion. 6. A part or division of a play, to be performed with- 
out interruption ■, after which the action is suspended to 
give respite to the performers. 7. The result of public 
deliberation, or the decision of a prince, legislative bodv, 
council, court of justice, or magistrate ; a decree, edict, 
law, judgment, resolve, award, determination ; as, an act 
of parliament. — Act, in English universities, is a thesis 
maintained in public, by a candidate for a degree. — jlct 
of faith, auto da fe, in Catholic countries, is a solemn 
day held by the Inquisition, for the punishment of here- 

AeT'ED, pp. Done ; performed ; represented on the 

A€'T1-AN, a. Relating to Actium. 

A€T'ING, ppr. Doing ; performing ; behaving ; represent- 
ing the character of another. 

AGT'ING, n. Action ; act of performing a part of a 

A€-TIN'0-LTTE, n. [Gr. uktiv and \iOos.] A mineral, 
strahlstcin, nearly alfied to hornblend. 

Ae-TlN-0-LIT'I€, a. Like or pertaining to actinolite. 

ACTION, n. [L, actio.] 1. Literally, a driving 5 hence, the 
state of acting or moving ; exertion of power or force, as 
when one body acts on another. 2. An act or thing done ; 
a deed. — 3. In vicchanics, agency; operation; driving 
impulse ; effort of one body upon another.— 4. In ethics, 
the external signs or expression of the sentiments of a 
moral agent; conduct; behavibr ; demeanor.— 5. In poe- 
try, a series of events, called also the subject or fable.— Q. 
In oratory, gesture or gesticulation ; the external deport- 
ment of the speaker.— 7. In physiolosv, the motions or 
nctions of the body, vital, animal, and natural.— 8. In 
law^ a suit or process, by which a demand is made of a 
right ; a claim made before a tribunal. 9. In some coun- 
tries of Europe, action is a share in the capital stock of 
a company, or m the public funds, equivalent to our term 
share ,• and consequently, in a more general sense, to 
stocks.— \0. In painting and sculpture, the attitude or po- 


sition of the several parts of the body, by which they seem 
to be actuated by passions 11. Battle; fight; engage- 
ment between troops in wai, whether on land or water. 

A€'TION-A-BLE, a. That will bear a suit, or for which an 
action at law may be sustained. 

A€'T10N-A-BLY, adv. In a manner that subjects to legal 

A€'TION-A-RY, or AG'TION-IST, n. In Europe, a propri- 
etor of stock in a trading company ; one who owns actions 
or shares of stock. 

t A€-TI-Ta'TIUN, 71. Action quick and frequent. 

t A€'TI-VATE, V. a. To make active. 

A€T'lVE, a. [L. activus ; Fr. actif.] 1. That has the 
power or quality of acting ; that contains the principle 
of action, independent of any visible external force. 2. 
Having the power of quick motion, or disposition to move 
with speed ; nimble ; lively ; brisk ; agile. 3. Busy ; 
constantly engaged inaction. 4. Requiring action or ex- 
ertion ; practical ; operative ; producing real effects ; op- 
posed to speculative ; as, the active duties of life. 

A€T'IVE-LY, adv. In an active manner ; by action ; nim- 
bly ; briskly. 

A€T'IVE-NESS, 7?. The quality of being active ; the facul- 
ty of acting; quickness of motion. 

AG-TIV'I-TY, n. The quality of being active ; the active 
faculty ; nimbleness ; agility ; also the habit of diligent 
and vigorous pmsuit of business. 

t AeTiLESS, a. Without spurit ; insipid. 

A€T'OR, 71. 1. He that acts or performs ; an active agent 
2. He that represents a character, or acts a part in a play ] 
a stage-player. 3. Among civilians, an advocate or proc 
tor in civil courts or causes. 

AGT'RESS, n. A female who acts or performs, and espe- 
cially on the stage or in a play. 

A€T'U-AL, a. [Fr. actuel.] 1. Real or effective, or that 
exists truly and absolutely. 2. Existing in act ; real ; in 
opposition to speculative. 

A€T-U-AL'I-TY, 71. Reality. Haweis. 

A€T'U-AL-LY, adv. In fact ; really ; in truth. 

t A€T'U-AL-NESS, n. The quality of being actual. 

A€T'U-A-RY, n. [L. actuarius.] A register or clerk. 

A€T'U-ATE, a. Put in action. [Little used.] 

A€T'U-ATE, V. t. To put into action ; to move or incite to 

A€T'U-A-TED, pp. Put in action ; Incited to action. 

A€T'U-A-TING, ppr. Putting in action ; Inciting to ac- 

A€T-U-A'TION, 7t. The state of being put in action ; ef 
fectual operation. Qlanville. 

t A€T'U-OSE, a. Having strong powers of action. 

A€T'US, 71. Among the Romans, a measure in building 
equal to 120 Roman feet. 

A€'U"-ATE, V. t. [L. acuo.] To sharpen ; to make pungent 
or corrosive. [Little used.] Harvey. 

t A€'U-ATE, a. Sharpened. Ashmole. 

A€-U-BeNE', n. A star of the fourth magnitude. 

Ae-U-i"TION, 71. The sharpening of medicines to In 
crease their effect. 

t A-eU'I-TY, 72.. Sharpness. Perkins. 

A-€tJ'LE-ATE, a. [L. aculeus.] 1. In botany, having 
prickles, or sharp points ; pointed. — 2. In zoology, hav- 
ing a sting. 

A-€u'LE-I, 71. [L.] In botany and zoology, prickles or 

A€'U-LON, ) n. [Gr. a/cuXo?.] The fruit or acorn of the 

A€'IJ-LOS, ] ilex, or scarlet oak. 

A-€U'MEN, n. [L.] A sharp point ; and, figuratively, 
quickness of perception, the faculty of nice discrimina- 

A-€u'MI-NATE, a. [L. acuminatum.] Ending in a sharp 
point ; pointed. 

A-€u'MI-NA-TED, a. Sharpened to a point. 

A-€d-MI-Na'T10N, n. A sharpening ; termination in a 
shai-p point. 

A€-U-PUN€'TURE, n. [1.. acusRnipmictura.] Amongthe 
Chinese, a surgical operation, performed by pricking the 
part affected with a needle. 

A€'U-RU, n. In Lidia, a fragrant aloe-wood. 

A'€US, n. [L.] 1. The ntedle-fish, or gar-fish. 2. The 
ammodyte or sand eel. 3. The oblong cimex. 

A-€uTE'', a. [L. acutus.] 1. Sharp at the end ; ending in a 
sharp point ; opposed to bhcnt or obtuse. 2. Figuratively, 
applied to mental powers ; penetrating ; having ni^3 dis- 
cernment ; perceiving or using minute distinctions ; op- 
posed to dull or stupid. 3. Applied to the senses; hav- 
ing nice or quick sensibility ; susceptible of slight im- 
pressions ; having power to feel or perceive small objects. 
4. An acute disease is one which is attended with vio- 
lent symptoms, and comes speedily to a crisis, as a 
pleurisy; opposed to chronic. 5. An acute accent is that 
which elevates or sharpens the voice. — 6. In music, acute 
is applied to a tone which is sharp, or high ; opposed to 
grave. — 7. In botany, ending in an acute angle. 

t A-€OTE', V. t. To render the accent acute 

! Synopsis. MOVE, BOOK, D6VE ;— BtJLL, UNITE.— € as K ; G as J ; S as Z ; CH as SH ; TH as in this f Obsolete 




A-€t[TE'Ly , adv. Sharply ; keenly ; with nice discrimina- 

A-€uTE'NESS, n. 1. Sharpness, 2. The faculty of nice 
discernment or perception ; applied to the senses, or the 
understanding. 3. Sharpness, or elevation of sound. 4. 
Violence of a disease. 

A-€U-T[a'TOR, 71. In the middle ages, a person whose of- 
fice was to sharpen instruments. 

AD. A Latin preposition, signifying to. — Ad hominem, to 
the man, in logic, an argument, adapted to touch the pre- 
judices of the person addressed. — Ad inquirendum, in law, 
a judicial writ, commanding inquiry to be made. Ad 
libitum, [L.] at pleasure. — Ad valorem, according to the 
value, in commerce and finance. 

t AD-A€T', v. t. [L. adago.} To drive ; to compel. 

AD'AOE, n. [L. adagium, or adagio.] A proverb •, an old 
saying, which has obtained credit by long use ; a wise 
obsej-vation, handed down from antiquity. 

t A-Da'6I-AL, a. Proverbial. Barrow. 

A-Da'(jI-0, 71. [It.] In music, a slow movement. — As an 
adverb, slowlv, leisurely, and with grace. 

AD'AM, n. [in Heb. Ch. Syr. Eth. Ax., Man.] Primarily, the 
name of the human species, mankind ; appropriately, the 
first man, the progenitor of the human race. 

AD'Ai\]'S AP-PLE. A species of citron, [see Citron ;j also 
the prominent part of the throat. 

^.D'AM'S NEE-DL,E. The popular name of the plant yucca. 

AD'A-MANT, n. [Gr. aSaixas ; L. adamas.] A very hard or 
impenetrable stone ; a name given to the diamond and 
other substances of extreme hardness. 

AD-A-MAN-Te'AN, a. Hard as adamant. Milton. 

AD-A-MAJ^f'TINE, a. Made of adamant ; having the quali- 
ties of adamant; that cannot be broken, dissolved, or 

AI)'AM-I€, a. Pertaining to Adam. 

AD' AM-ITES. In church history, a sect of visionaries, who 
pretended to establish a state of innocence, and, like 
Adam, went naked. 

AD-AM-IT'I€, a. Like the Adamites. Taylor. 

AD- AN-So'NI- A, n. Ethiopian sour gourd, monkey's bread, 
or African calabash-tree. 

A-DAPT , V. t. [Sp. adaptar ; L. ad and apto.] To make 
suitable ; to fit or suit ; as, to adapt an instrument to its 

A-DAP-TA-BIL'I-TY, n. The q-uality of adaptation. 

A-DAPT'A-BLE, a. That may be adapted. 

AD-AP-Ta'TION, n. The act of making suitable, or the 
state of being suitable, or fit ; fitness. 

A-DAPT'ED, pp. Suited ; made suitable; fitted. 

ADAPT'ER. See Adopter. 

A-DAPT'ING, ppr. Suiting ; making fit. 

A-DAP'TION, n. Adaptation ; the act of fitting. 

t A-D APT'NESS, n. A state of being fitted. 

a'DAR, n. A Hebrew month, answering to the latter part 
of February and the beginning of March. 

A-DaR'CE, n. [Gr. aSapK/js.] A saltish concretion on reeds 
and grass in marshy grounds in Galatia. 

A-DXR'eON, n. In Jewish antiquity, a gold coin. 

A-DaR'ME, n. A Spanish weight, the sixteenth of an 

AD' A-TIS, n. A muslin or species of cotton cloth from India. 

t A-DaUNT', v. t. To subdue. 

t A-D AW, V. t. To daunt ; to subject. Spenser. 

A-DaYS', adv. On or in days ; as in the phrase, now adays. 

ADD, V. t. [li. addo.] 1. To set or put together, join, or 
unite, as one thing or sum to another, in an aggregate. 
2. To unite in idea or consideration ; to subjoin. 3. To 
increase number. 4. To augment. 

t AD-€0R'P0-RATE, V. t. To unite one body with another. 

ADDA-BLE, a. That may be added. 

AD-DEC'1-MATE, v. t. [L. ad and decimus.'] To take, or 
to ascertain tithes. 

ADD'ED, pp. Joined in place, in sum, in mass or aggregate, 
in number, in idea, or consideration ; united ; put to- 

AD-DEEM', V. t. To award ; to sentence. [Little used.] 

AD-DEN'DUM, n. [L.] plu. Addenda. An addition or an 
appendix to a work. 

AD'DER, n. [Sax. aetter or aettw.] A venomous serpent or 
viper, of several species. 

AD'DER-FLY, n. A name of the dragon-fly. 

AD'DER'S-GRaSS, n. A plant about which serpents lurk. 

AD'DER'S-ToNGUE, n. A plant whose seeds are produced 
on a spike resembling a serpent's tongue. 

ADDER'S-WoRT, 71. Snakeweed, so named from its sup- 
posed virtue in curing the bite of serpents. 

AD-DI-BIL'I-TY, n. The possibility of being added. 

AD'DI-BLE, a. That may be added. Locke. 

tAD'DTCE. See Adz. 

AD-DICT', a. Addicted. [J^Tot much used.] 

AD-DieT', V. t. [L. addico.] To apply one's self habitual- 
ly ; to devote time and attention by customary or constant 
practice ; sometimes in a good sense, but more usually in a 
bad one 

AD-DI€T'ED, pp. Devoted by customary practice 

AD-DI€TED-NESS, n. The quality or state of being ed 

AD-DI€T'ING, ppr. Devoting time and attention ; prac- 
ticing customarily. 

AD-DI€'TION, n. 1. The act of devoting or giving up in 
practice ; the state of being devoted. 2. Among the Ro- 
mans, a making over goods to another by sale or legal 
sentence ; also an assignment of debtors in service to 
their creditors. 

ADD'ING, ppr. Joining j putting together ; increasing. 

AD-DIT'A-MENT, n. [L. additamentum.] An addition, or 
rather the thing added, as furniture in a house ; any ma- 
terial mixed with the principal ingredient in a compound 
[Little used ] 

AD-Dl"TlON, n. [L. additio.] 1. The act of adding, op- 
posed to subtraction or diminution. 2. Any thing added, 
whether material or immaterial. — 3. In arithmetic, the 
uniting of two or more numbers in one sum. — 4. In Zaw, 
a title annexed to a man's name, to show his rank, occu- 
pation, or place of residence. — 5. In music, a dot at the 
side of a note, to lengthen its sound one half. — 6. In her- 
aldry, something added to a coat of arms, as a mark ot 
honor. — 7. In distilling, any thing added to the wash or 
liquor in a state of fermentation.— ^. In popular language, 
an advantage, ornament, improvement. 

AD-Di"TION-AL, a. That is added. It is used by Bacon 
for addition ; but improperly. 

AD-Dl"TION-AL-LY, adv. By way of addition. 

t AD-DI"TION-A-RY, a. That may be added. 

ADD'I-TlVE, a. That may be added. 

ADD'I-TO-RY, a. That adds, or may add. 

AD'DLE, a. [W. hadyl.] In a morbid state ; putrid ; appli- 
ed to eggs. Hence, barren, producing nothing. Dryden. 

AD'DLED, a. Morbid, corrupt, putrid, or barren. 

AD'DLE-HEAD-ED, ^ „ • . x. • 

AD'DLE-PA-TED, \ ^' ^^^vrng empty brams. 

ADD'LINGS, n. plu. Earnings ; wages received for work 
Cheshire, Eng. 

AD-D05M', V. t. See Doom. To adjudge. 

AD-DORS'ED, a. In heraldry, having the backs turned to 
each other, as beasts. 

AL-DRESS', V. t. [Ft. adresser.] 1. To prepare ; to make 
suitable dispositions for. 2. To direct words or discourse ; 
to apply to by words. 3. To direct in writing, as a letter ; 
or to direct and transmit. 4. To present an address, as a 
letter of thanks or congratulation, a petition, or a testimo- 
ny of respect. 5. To court or make suit as a lover. — 6. In 
commerce, to consign or intrust to the care of another, as 
agent or factor. 

AD-DRESS', n. 1. A speaking to ; verbal application ; a 
formal manner of speech. 2. A written or formal appli- 
cation ; a message of respect, congratulation, thanks, pe- 
tition, &c. ; as, an address of thanks. 3. Manner of speak 
ing to another ; as, a man of pleasing address. 4. Court- 
ship ; more generally in the plural, addresses. 5. Skill ; 
dexterity ; skilful management. 6. Direction of a letter 
including the name, title, and place of residence of the 
person for whom it is intended. 

AD-DRESS'ED, (ad-dresf) pp. Spoken or applied to ; di- 
rected ; courted ; consigned. 

AD-DRESS'ER, n. One who addresses or petitions. 

AD-DRESS ING, ppr. Speaking or applying to; directing, 
courting ; consigning. 

AD-DuCE', V. t. [L. adduco.] 1. To bring forward, present, 
or offer. 2. To cite, name, or introduce. 

AD-Du CED, (ad-duste') pp. Brought forward ; cited ; al- 
ledged in argument. 

AD-Du'CENT, a. Bringing forward, or together ; a word 
applied to those muscles of the body which pull one part 
towards another. 

AD-Du'CI-BLE, a. That may be adduced. 

AD-Du'ClNG, ppr. Bringing forward ; citing in argument 

AD-DU€'TION, n. The act of bringing forward. 

AD-DU€'TlVE, a. That brings forward. 

AD-DU€'TOR, n. [L.] A muscle which draws one part of 
the body towards another. 

fAD-DULCE', (ad-dulsO v. t. [L. ad and dulcis.] To 
sweeten. Bacon. 

AD'EB, n. An Egyptian weight of 210 okes. E-ncyc. 

AD-E-LAN-TA'DO, n. [Spanish.] A governor of a prov- 
ince ; a lieutenant governor. 

AD'E-LING, n. A title of honor, given by our Saxon ances 
tors to the children of princes, and to young nobles. It is 
composed of adel, or rather cBthel, the Teutonic term for 
noble, illustrious, and ling, young, posterity. 

AD'E-LITE, n. Adelites or Almoganens, in Spain, were 
conjurers, who predicted fortunes. 

A-DEMP'TION, n. [L. adimo.] In the civil law, the revoca- 
tion of a grant, donation, or the like. 

AD-E-NOG'RA-PHY, n. [Gr. aSrjv and ypa^w.J That part 
of anatomy which treats of the glands. 

AD'E-NOID, a. [Gr. aSnv and eiSog.] In the form of a 
gland ; glandiform ; glandulous. 

* See »ynopsi<>. A, E, I, O, U, Y, long.-FAn, FALL, WHAT ;-PREY ;-PIN, MARINE, BiRD ;- j Obsolete 




AD-E-NO-L0Gr'I-€!AL, a. Pertaining to tlie doctrine of the 

AD-E-N0L'0-6Y, n. [Gr. a^vv and Xoyo^.l In anatomy, 
the doctsne of tie glands, their nature, and their uses. 

AD E-NOS, 71. A species of cotton, from Aleppo, called also 
marine cotton. 

A-DEPT , 71. [L. adeptus.] One fuUy skiUed or well versed 
in any art. 

A-DEPT , a. Well skilled ; completely versed or acquainted 
with. Boyle. 

\ A-DEP'TION, 71. [L. adeptio.] An obtaining ; acquire- 
ment. Bacon. 

AD'E-aUA-CY, n. [L. adcequatus.] The state or quality of 
being equal to, proportionate, or sufficient ; a sufficiency 
for a partictilar purpose. War in Disguise. 

AD'E-Q.UATE. a. Equal ; proportionate ; correspondent 
to ; fully sufficient. 

t AD'E-aUATE, V. t. To resemble exactly. Shelford. 

AD'£-aUATE-LY, adv. In an adequate manner ; in exact 
proportion ; in a degree equal to the object. 

AD'E-aUATE-NESS, n. The state of bemg adequate ; just- 
ness of proportion or representation. 

t AD-E-aUA'TION, n. Adequateness. Bp. Barlow. 

t AD-ES-POT'I€, a. Not absolute ; not despotic. 

AD-ES-SE-Na'RI-ANS, n. [L. adesse.] In church history, 
a sect who hold the real presence of Christ's body in the 
eucharist, but not by transubstantiation. 

AD-FE€T'ED, a. In algebra, compounded ; consisting of 
different powers of the unknown quautity. Bailey. 

AD-FIL'I-A-TED, ffl. Adopted as a son . See Affiliate. 

AD-FIL-I-A'TION. n. fL. ad and Jiliiis.] A Gothic custom, 
by which the children of a former marriage are put upon 
the same footing with those of a succeeding one. 

AD-HkRE', v. i. [L. adhmreo-l 1. To stick to, as glutinous 
substances, or by natural growth. 2. To be joined, or 
held in contact ; to cleave to. 3. Figiuratively, to hold 
to, be attached, or remain fixed, either by personal union 
or conformity of faith, principle, or opinion. 4. To be 
consistent ; to hold together as the parts of a system. 

AD-He'RENCE, n. 1. The quality or state of sticking or 
adhering. 2. Figuratively, a being fixed in attachment ; 
fidelhy ; steady attachment. 

AD-He'REN-CY, 71. The same as adherence. 

AD-He'RENT, a. Sticking, uniting, as glue or wax ; unit- 
ed with. 

AD-He'RENT, n. The person who adheres ; one who fol- 
lows a leader, party, or profession ; a follower, or parti- 
san ;_ a believer in a particular faith or church. 

AD-He'RENT-LY, adv. In an adlierent manner. 

AD-He'RER, n. One that adheres ; an adherent. 

AD-He'SION, (ad-he'-zhun) n. [L. adhcesio.] 1. The act 
or state of sticking, or being united and attached to. .Ad- 
hesion is generally used in a literal, adherence in a met- 
aphorical sense. 2. fkymetimes, figuratively, adherence, 
union, or steady attachment •, opinion. 

AD-He'SIVE, a. Sticky ; tenacious, as glutinous substan- 
ces •,_apt or tending to adhere. 

AD-He'S1VE-LY, adv. In an adhesive manner. 

AD-He'SIVE-NESS, n. The quality of sticking or adhering ; 
stickiness ; tenacity. 

AD-HIB'IT, V. t. [L. adhiheo.] To use, or apply. {Rarely 

AD-HI-Bl"TION, 71. Application ; use. 

AD'HIL, ?!. A star of the sixth magnitude. 

AD-HOR-Ta'TION, 71. [L. adhartatio.] Advice. 

AD-HORT'A-TO-RY, a. [L. adhortor.] Advisory ; con- 
taining counsel or warning. 

t AD-I-APHO-RA-CY, n. Indifference. 

AD-I-APH O-RISTS, n. [Gr. a6iaq>opos.] Moderate Luther- 
ans ; a name given, in the sixteenth century, to certain 
men that followed Melancthon. 

AD-I-APH'O-ROUS, a. Indifferent •, neutral. 

t AD-I-APH'O-RY, n. Indifference ; neutralitv. 

A-DIEui, (a-du ) adv. [Fr. d dieu, to God.] Farewell ; an 
expression of kind wishes at Ine parting of friends. 

A-DIEu , n. A farewell, or commendation to the care of 

AD-I-POC'E-RATE, v. t. To convert into adipocere. 

AD-I-POC-E-Ra TION, n. The act or process of bemg 
chansed into adipocere. 

\D'I-PO-CERE, n [L. adeps and cera.] A soft, unctuous or 
waxy substance. 

AD'I-POSE, ) a. [L. adipos^is.l Fat ; as, the adipose mem- 

AD'I-POUS, \ brane. ^ ■> ' ' 

AD'IT, n. [L. aditus.] An entrance or passage ; a term in 
mining, used to denote the opening. 

t AD-i"TlON, n. The act of going to another. 

AD-Ja'CEN-CY, n. [L. adjaceo.] The state of lying close 
or contiguous •, a bordering upon, or lying next to. 

AD-Ja'CENT, a. Lying near, close, or contiguous 5 border- 
ing upon. 

AD-Ja'CENT, 71. That which is next to, or contiguous. 
Locke. [Little used.] 

AD-JE€T , V. t. [L. adjicio.] To add or put, as one thing 
to another. Macknight. 

AD-JE€'TI0N, n. Tiie act of adding, or thing added. 
Brown. [Little used.] 

AD-JE€-Ti"T10US, a. Added. Parkhurst. 

AD'JE€^TlVE, 71. In grammar, a word used with a noun, 
to express a quality of the thing named, or something at- 
tributed to it, or to limit or define it, or to specify or de- 
scribe a thing, as distinct from something else. It is call- 
ed also an attributive or attribute. 

AD'JE€-TiVE-LY, adv. In the manner of an adjective , 
as, a word is used adjfctively. 

AD-JOIN', V. t. [Fr. adjoindre.] To join or unite to ; to put 
to, by placing m contact : to unite, by fastening together 
with a joint, mortise, or knot. See Join. 

AD- JOIN', V. i. To lie or be next to, or in contact ; to be 

t AD-JOIN'ANI', a. Contiguous to. Carew. 

AD-JOIN'ED, (ad-joind') pp. Joined to j united 

AD-JOIN'ING, fipr. Joining to ; adjacent ; contiguous. 

AD-JOURN', (ad-jurn') v. t. [Fr. ajourner.] Literally, to 
put off, or defer to another day ; but now used to denote 
a formal intermission of business, a putting off to any fu- 
ture meeting of the same body, and appropriately used of 
public bodies, or private commissioners, intrusted with 

AD-J6URN', v. i. To suspend business for a time ; as from 
one day to another, or for a longer period. 

AD-JOQRN'ED, (ad-jurnd') pp. 1. Put off, delayed, or de- 
ferred for a limited time. 2. As an adjective, existing or 
held by adjournment. 

AD-J6URN'ING, ppr. Deferring ; suspending for a time • 
closing a session. 

AD-J6URN'MENT, 71. 1. The act of adjourning. 2. The 
putting off till another day or time specified, or icithout 
day. 3. The time or interval during which a public body 
defers business ; as, during an adjournment. But a sus- 
pension of business, between the forming of a house and 
an adjournment for refreshment, is called a recess. In 
Great Britain, the close of a session of parliament is called 
a prorogation ; as the close of a parliament is a dissolu- 

AD-JUDGE', V. t. [Fr. adjuger.] To decide, or determine, 
in the case of a controverted question ; to decree by a ju- 
dicial opinion. 

AD-JUDG'ED, (ad-judjd') pp. Detennined by judicial opin- 
ion ; decreed ; sentenced. 

AD-JUD6'ING, ppr. Determining by judicial opinion j sen- 

AD-JUDG'MENT, n. The act of judging ; sentence. 

AD-JtJ'DI-€ATE, v. t. [L. adjudico.] To adjudge ; to try 
and determine, as a court. 

AD-Ju'DI-€ATE, v. i. To try and determine judicially. 

AD-Ju'DI-€A-TED, ;)p. Adjudged ; tried and decided. 

AD-Ju DI-CA-TING, pjrr. Adjudging ; trying and deter- 

AD-JU-DI-€a TION, n. 1. The act of adjudging ; the act 
or process of trying and determining judicially. 2. A ju- 
dicial sentence ; judgment or decision of a court. 

t AD JU-GATE, V. t. To yoke to. 

t AD'JU-MENT, n. [L. adjumentum.] Help ; support. 

AD'JUNOT, 7!. [L. adjunctus.] 1. Something added to an- 
other, but not essentially a part of it. — 2. In metaphysics, 
a quality of the body or the mind, whether natural or ac- 
quired. — 3. In grammar, words added to illustrate or am- 
plify the force of other words. Adjunct has been used for 
a colleague, but rarely. TVotton. 

AD'JUNOT, a. Added to or united with ; as, an adjunct 

AD-JUN€'TION, n. The act of joining ; the thing joined. 

AD-JUN€'TIVE, a. Joining ; having the quality of joining 

AD-JUNO TIVE, n. That which is joined. 

AD-JUN€'TIVE-LY, adv. In an adjunctive manner. 

AD-JUNCT'LY, adv. In connection with ; consequently. 

AD-JU-Ra'TION, 71. 1. The act of adjuring ; a solemn 
charging on oath, or under the penalty of a curse. 2. 
The_ form of oath. Addison. 

AD-JuRE', V. t. [L. adjuro.] 1. To charge, bind, or com- 
mand on oath, or under the penalty of a curse. 2. To 
charge earnestly and solemnly, on pain of God's wrath. 
3. To conjure ; to charge, urge, or summon with solem- 
nity_. Miltun. 

AD-JuR'ED, (ad-jurd') pp. Charged on oath, or with a de- 
nunciation of God's wrath ; solemnly urged. 

AD-JuR'ER, 71. One that adjures ; one that exacts an oath. 

AD-JuR'ING, ppr. Charging on oath, or on the penalty of a 
curse ; beseeching with solemnity. 

AD-JUST', V. t. [Sp. ajustar.] I. To make exact ; to fit 5 
to make correspondent, or conformab.e. Swift 2. To 
put in order ; to regulate or reduce to system. 3. To 
make accurate ; to settle or bring to a satisfactory state, 
so that parties are agreed in the result. 

AD-JUST'ED, -pp. Made exact or conformable ; reduced to 
a right form or standard ; settled. 

* See Synopsis. MOVE, BQQK, D6VE ;— B^LL, eNITE.— € as K ; G as J ; S as Z } CH as SH ; TH as in this, f Obsolete 




AD-IUST'ER, n. A person who adjusts ; that which regu- 

AD-JUST'ING, ppr. Reducing to due form ; fitting ; mak- 
ing exact or correspondent •, settling. 

AD-J(JST'ME.\T, Ti. The act of adjusting-, regulation ; a 
ri;Jucing to just form or order ; a making fi„ or conforma- 
ble ; settlement. 

.A.D'JU-TAN-CY, tj. The office of an adjutant ; skilful ar- 
rangement. Burke. 

AD'Jlf-TANT, 71. [L. adjutans.] In military affairs, an of- 
ficer whose business is to assist the major by receiving 
and com inunlcauiig orders. — Adjutant-general, in an ar- 
my, is-t{ t chief adjutant. 

t AJWuTE', v.t.To help. B. Jonson. 

AD-Ju'TOR, 71 A h ^per. [Little usedA 

t AD'JU-TO-RY, a. Helping. 

t AD-JU'TRIX, 71. «he who helps. 

* AD-Ju'VANT, a. Helping ; assisting. Howell. 

* AD-JCJ'VANT, 71. An assistant. 
*AD JU VATE, V. t. To help. 

AD-LE-Ga TION, 71. [L. ad and legatio.] In the public law 
of tlie Qerman emvire, a right claimed, by the states, of 
joining their own ministers with those of the emperor, in 
public treaties. 

AD-L0-€U'T10N, n. See Allocution. 

AD-MEAS'URE, (ad-mezh'ur) v. t. 1. To measure or as- 
certain dimensions, size, or capacity ; used for measure. 

2. To apportion ; to assign to each claimant his right. 
AD-MEAS'URED, (ad-mezh'urd) pp. Measured ; appor- 

AD-MEAS'URE-MENT, 71. 1. The measuring of dimen- 
sions bv a rule. 2. The measure of a thing, or dimen- 
sions ascertained. 3. The adjustment of proportion, or 
ascertainment of shares, as of dower or pasture held in 
common. Blackstone. 

AD-MEAS'UR-ER, 71. One that admeasures. 

AD-MEAS'UR-I_NG, p;??-. Measuring; apportioning. 

AD-MEN-SU-Ra'TION is equivalent to admeasurement, 
but not much used. 

ti* J-Me'TI-ATE, v. t. To measure. 

f aD-MIN'I-€LE, 71. [L. adminiculum.] Help; support. 

AD-MI-Nie'U-LAR, a. Supplying help ; helpful. 

AD-MIN'IS-TER, v. t. [L. administro.] 1. To act as min- 
ister or chief agent, in managing public affairs, under 
laws or a constitution of government, as a king, presi- 
dent, or other supreme officer. 2. To dispense ; as, to 
administer justice or the sacrament. .3. To afford, give, 
or furnish ; as, to administer relief. 4. To give, as an 
oath ; to cause to swear according to law. 

AD-MINaS-TER, v._ i. 1. To contribute ; to bring aid or 
supplies ; to add something. 2. To perform the office of 

AD-MIN'iS-TERED, pp. Executed ; managed ; governed; 
afforded ; given ; dispensed. 

AD-xMIN-IS-Te'RI-AL, a. Pertaining to administration, or 
to the executive part of government. 

AD-MIN'IS-TER-ING, ppr. Executing; carrying into ef- 
fect ; giving ; dispensing. 

AD-MIN'IS-TRA-RLE, a. Capable of administration. 

AD-MIN'fS-TRATE, in the place of administer, has been 
used, but is not well authorized. 

AJD-MIN-IS-TRa'TION, 77. 1. The act of administering ; 
direction ; management ; government of public affairs ; 
the conducting of any office or employment. 2. Tlie ex- 
ecutive part of government, consistmg in the exercise of 
the constitutional and legal powers, the general superin- 
tendence of naticma-i affairs, and the enforcement of laws. 

3. The persons, collectively, who are intrusted with the 
execution of laws, and the superintendence of public af- 
fairs. 4. Dispensation ; distribution ; exhibition ; as, the 
administration of justice. 5. The management of the 
estate of an intestate person, under a commission from the 
prooer authority. 6. The power, office, or commission of 
an administrator. Blackstone. 

AD-MIN'IS-TRA-TIVE, a. That administers, or by which 
one administers. 

AD-MI^MS-TRA'TOR, n. 1. A man who, by virtue of a 
commission from the proper authority, has the charge of 
the goods and estate of one dying without a will. 2. One 
who administers, or who directs, manages, distributes, or 
dispenses laws and rites. — 3. In Scots law, a tutor, cura- 
tor, or guardian. 

AD-jMIN-IS-TRa'TOR-SHIP, n. The office of an adminis- 

AD-MIN-IS-TRa'TRIX, n. A female who administers upon 
the estate of an intestate ; also a female who administers 

AH-MI-RA-BTL'I-TY, n. The quality of being admirable. 

ALKAII-RA-BLE, a. [L. admirabiUs.] To be admired ; wor- 
thy of admiration ; having qualities to excite wonder, 
with approbation, esteem, or reverence ; used of persons 
or things. 

AD'MI-RA-RLE-NESS, v. The quality of being admirable ; 
the power of exciting admiration. 

AD'MI-RA-BLY, adv. In a manner to excite wonder, 
mingled with approbation, esteem, or veneration. 

AD'MI-RAL, n. [in the Latin of the middle ages, amira^ 
aniiras, admiralis.] A marine commander-in-chief; the 
commander of a fleet or navy. 1. The lord high admiral, 
in Great Britain, is an officer who superintends all mari- 
time affairs, and has the government of the navy. 2 
The admiral of the fleet, the highest officer under the ad- 
miralty. 3. The vice admiral is an officer next in rank 
and command to the admiral. 4. The rear admiral is 
next in rank to the vice admiral. 5. The commander of 
any single fleet, or, in general, any flag officer. 6 The 
ship which carries the admiral ; also, the most considera- 
ble ship of a fleet. — 7. In zoology, a species of shell-Ssh 

AD'MI-RAL-SHIP, n. The office or power of an admiral. 
[Little u^ed.] 

AD'Ml-RAL-TY, n. In Great Britain, the office of lord high 
adrakal. This office is discharged by one person, or by 
commissioners, called lords of the admiralty. The admi- 
ralty court, or court of admiralty, is the supreme court for 
the trial of maritime causes. In general, a court of admi- 
ralty is a court for the trial of causes arising on the high 
seas, as prize-causes and the like. 

AD-MI-Ra'TION, 77. Wonder mingled with pleasing emo- 
tions, as approbation, esteem, love, or veneration ; a com- 
pound emotion excited by something novel, rare, great, or 
Gxccllcnt, JDvydsiit 

t AD-MI'RA-TlVE, n. A note of admiration, thus, ! 

AD-MiRE', V. t. [L. admirer.] 1. To regard with wonder 
or surprise, mingled with approbation, esteem, reverence, 
or affection. 2. To regard with affection ; a familiar term 
for to love greatly. 

AD- MIRE', V. i. To wonder ; to be affected with slight sur 
prise. Ray. 

AJD-MIR'ED, (ad-mird') pp. Regarded with wonder, min 
gledwith pleasurable sensations. 

AD-MlR'ER, 71. One who admires ; one who esteems or 
loves greatly. 

AD-MlR'ING, ppr. Regarding with wonder, united with 
love or esteem. 

AD-MTR'ING-LY, adv. With admiration ; in the manner of 
an admirer 

AD-MISS-I-BIL'I-TY, n. The quality of being admissible. 

AD-MISS'I-BLE, a. That may be admitted, allowed, or 

AD-MISS'lON, n. [L. admissio."] 1. The act or practice of 
admitting ; the state of being admitted. 2. Admittance ; 
power or permission to enter ; entrance ; access ; power 
to approach. 3. Allowance ; grant of an argument or 
position not fully proved. 

AD-MIT', V. t. [h. admitto.] 1. To suffer to enter; to 
grant entrance ; whether into a place, or an office, or 
into the mind, or consideration. 2. To give right of en- 
trance. 3. To allow ; to receive as true. 4. To permit, 
grant, or allow, or to be capable of. 

AD-MIT'TA-BLE, a. That may be admitted or allowed. 

AD-MIT'TANCE, n. 1. The act of admitting ; allowance. 
2. Permission to enter ; the power or right of entrance , 
actual entrance. 3. Concession ; admission ; allowance. 
[JVot used.] 4. Shakspeare uses the word for the custom 
or prerogative of being admitted. 

AD-MIT'TED, pp. Permitted to enter or approach ; allow- 
ed ; granted ; conceded. 

AD-MIT'TER, 7i. He that admits. 

AD-MIT'TING, ppr. Permitting to enter or approach ; al- 
lowing; conceding. 

AD-M£X', V. t. To mingle with something else. See Mix 

AD-MIX'TION, (ad-mix'chun) ?i. [L. admixtio.] A min 
gling of bodies; a union by mixing different substances 

AD-M1XT'URE,77. The substance mingled with another; 
sometimes the act of mixture. 

AD-MON'ISH, V. t. [L. admoneo.] 1. To warn of a fault; 
to reprove with mildness. 2. To counsel against wrong 
practices ; to caution or advise. 3. To instruct or direct. 

AD-MON'ISHED, pp. Reproved ; advised ; warned ; in 

AD-MON'ISH-ER, n. One who reproves or counsels. 

AD-MON'ISH-ING, ppr. Reproving ; warning ; counsel 
ing ; directing. 

AD-MON ISh-MENT, n. Admonition. Shak. 

AD-MO-NI"TION, 77. Gentle reproof ; counseling against a 
fault ; instruction in duties ; caution ; direction. 

AJ)-MO-Nl"TION-ER, n. A dispenser of admonitions 

AD-MON 'I-TiVE, a. Containing admonition. Barrow. 

AD-MON'[-TOR, 77. An admonisher, a monitor. 

AD-MON'I-TO-RY, a. Containing admonition : that admon 

AD-MOR-TI-Za'TION, 77. The reducing of lands or tene 
ments to mortmain. 

AD-MoVE , V. t. [L. admoveo.] To move to ; to bring one 
thing to another. [Little tised.] Brown. 

* See Synopsis, a, E, I, O, tJ, Y, long —FAR FALL, WHAT ;— PRgY ;- PIN, MARINE, BIRD ;— f ObsoleU 




f AD-MUR-MU-RA'TION, n. The act of murmuring to an- 

AD-NAS'CENT, a. Growing on something else. Evelyn. 

AD-Na'TA, n. [L. ad and natus.] 1. In anatomy, one of 
the coats of the eye. 2. Such parts of animal or vegeta- 
ble bodies as are usual and natural. 3. Offsets of plants, 
germinating under ground. 

AD'NATE, a. [L. ad and natus.] In batany, pressing close 
to the stem, or growing to it. 

AD'NOUN, 71. In grammar, an adjective, or attribute. 
[Little used.] 

A-Do', n. [qu. a and do ] Bustle ; trouble ; labor ; diffi- 
cultv ; as, to make a great ado about trifles. 

AD-0-LES'CENCE, n. [L. adolescens.} The state of grow- 
ing, applied to the young of the human race ; youth, or 
the period of life between childhood and manhood. 

AD-0-LES'CENT, a. Growing ; advancing from childhood 
to manhood. 

AD-0-Nk'AN, a. Pertaining to Adonis. Faher. 

A-Do'NI-A, 71. Festivals celebrated anciently in honor of 
Adonis, by females. 

A-DON'ie, a. Adonic verse, a short verse, in which the 
death of Adonis was bewailed. 

A-DON'I€, 71. An Adonic verse. 

A-Do'NIS, n. In mythology, the favorite of Venus, said to 
bejhe son of Cinyras, kmg of Cyprus. 

A-Do'NIS. In botany, bird's eye or pheasant's eye. 

A-Do'NISTS, n. Among critics, a sect or party who main- 
tain that the Hebrew points ordinarily annexed to the 
consonants of the word Jehovah, are not the natural 
points belonging to that word, and that they do not ex- 
press the true pronunciation of it. 

t A-DOORS', (a-dorz ) adv. At doors ; at the door. 

A-DOPT', v. t. [L. adopto.] 1. To take a stranger into 
one's family, as son and heir ; to take one who is not a 
child, and treat him as one. 2. To take or receive, as 
one's own, that which is not natuially so. 3. To select 
and take. 

A-DOPT'ED, pp. Taken as one's own ; received as son 
and heir ; selected for use. 

A-DOPT'ED-LY, adv. In the manner of something adopted. 

A-DOPT'ER, 71. One who adopts. 

ADOPT'ING, ppr. Taking a stranger as a son ; taking as 
one's own. 

A-DOP'TION, n. [L. adoptio.] 1. The act of adopting, or 
the state of being adopted ; the taking and treating of a 
stranger as one's own child. 2. The receiving as one's 
own what is new or not natural. 

A-DOPT'IVE, a. [L. adoptivus.] That adopts ; as, an 
adoptive father ; or that is adopted ; as, an adoptive son. 

A-DOPT'lVE, 71. A person or thing adopted. 

A-Do'RA-BLE, a. That ought to be adored; worthy of di- 
vine honors. 

A-Do'RA-BLE-NESS, n. The quality of being adorable, 
or worthy of adoration. 

A-Do'RA-BLY, adv. In a manner worthy of adoration. 

AD-O-Ra'TIDN, n. 1. The act of paying honors to a divine 
being ; the worship paid to God ; the act of addressing 
as a god. 2. Homage paid to one in high esteem ; pro- 
found reverence. 

A-DoRE', V. t. [L. adoro.] 1. To worship with profound 
reverence ; to pay divine honors to ; to honor as a god, 
or as divine. Dryden. 2. To love in the highest degree ; 
to regard with the utmost esteem, affection and respect. 

A-DoR'ED, (a-dord') pp. Worshipped as divine ; highly 
reverenced ; greatly beloved. 

t A-DoRE'MENT, n. Adoration. Brown. 

A-DoR'ER, 71. One who worships or honors as divine ; in 
popular language, an admiring lover. 

A-DoR'ING, ppr. or a. Honoring or addressing as divine ; 
regarding with great love or reverence. 

A-DORN', V. t. [L. adorno.] 1. To deck or decorate ; to 
make beautiful ; to add to beauty by dress ; to deck with 
external ornaments. 2. To set off to advantage ; to add 
ornaments to ; to embellish by any thing external or 
adventitious. 3. To make pleasing, or more pleasing. 
4. To display the beauty or excellence of. 

t A-DORN', n. Ornament. Spenser. 

t A-DORN', a. Adorned ; decorated. Milton. 

A-DORN'ED, (a-domd') pp. Decked ; decorated ; embel- 

A-DORN'ING, ppr. Ornamenting ; decorating ; displaying 

A-DORN'ING, 71. Ornament ; decoration. 

fA-DORN'MENT.Ti. Ornament. Raleigh. 

AD-OS-€U-La'TION, n. [L. ad and osculatio.] The im- 
pregnation of plants by the falling of the farina on the 
pistils ; the inserting of one part of a plant into another. 

A-DOS'SED, a. [Fr. adossie.] In heraldry, placed back to 

A-DOWN', prep, [a and down.] From a higher to a lower 
situation ; downwards ; implying descent. 

A-DOWN', adv. Down 5 on the ground ; at the bottom. 

t A-DREAD', (a-dred') a. Affected by dread. 

A-DRI-AT'I€, a. [L. Adria, or Hadria.] Pertaining to tne 
gulf, called, from Venice, the Venetian Gulf. 

A-DRI-AT'1€, 71. The Venetian Gulf. 

A-DRIFT'j a. or adv. [Sax. adrifan.] Driven ; floating j 
impelled or moving without direction. 

AD-RO-GAfTION, n. [L. ad and rogo.] A species of adop- 
tion in ancient Rome. 

A-DROIT', a. [Fr.] Dextrous •, skilful 5 active in the use of 
the hands, and, figuratively, ^ji the exercise of the menial 
faculties ; ingenious ; ready in invention or execution. 

A-DROIT'LY, adv. With dexterity ; in a ready, skilful 
manner. Chesterfield. 

A-DROIT'NESS, n. Dexterity ; readiness in the use of the 
lin^bs, or of the mental faculties. Home. 

A-DRY' a. [Sax. adrigan.] Thirsty, in want of drink. 

AD-SCI-Tl"TIOUS, a. [L. ascititius.] Added ; taken as 
supplemental ; additional •, not requisite. 

AD-STRI€'TION, n. [L. adstrictio.] A binding fast ; co»- 
tiveness ; a closeness of the emunctories. 

AD-STRI€'TO-RY, > g Astringent 

AD-STRING'ENT. ^^^ astringlnt. 

AD-U-LA'RI-A, n. A mineral deemed the most perfect va- 
riety of felspar. Cleaveland, 

AD-U-La'TION, 71. [L. adulatio.] Servile flattery ; praise 
in excess ; high compliment. Shak. 

AD'U-LA-TOR, n. A flatterer ; one who offers praise ser- 

AD'U-LA-TO-RY, a. Flattering ; containing excessive 
praise or compliments ; servilely praising. 

AD'U-LA-TRESS, n. A female that flatters with servility. 

A-DULT', a. [L. adultus.] Having arrived at mature years, 
or to full size and strength. 

A-DULT', n. A person grown to full size and strength, or 
to the years of manhood. 

t AD'ULT-ED, ;)art. a. Completely grown. 

A-DUL'TER-ANT, n. The person or thing that adulterates. 

A-DUL'TER-ATE, v. t. [L. adulter 0.] To corrupt, debase, 
or make impure, by an admixture of baser materials. Boyle. 

t A-DUL'TER-ATE, v.i. To commit adultery. 

A-DUL'TER-ATE, a. Tainted with adultery ; debased by 
foreign mixture. 

A-DUL'TER-A-TED, pp. Corrupted ; debased by a mix- 
ture with something of less value. 

A-DUL'TER-ATE-LY, adv. In an adulterate manner. 

A-DUL'TER-ATE-NESS, n. The quality or state of being 
debased or counterfeit. 

A-DUL'TER-A-TING, ppr. Debasing ; corrupting ; coun- 

A-DUL-TER-a'TION, n. The act of adulterating, or the 
state of being adulterated ; coirupted or debased by for- 
eign admixture. 

A-DUL'TER-ER, n. [L. adulter.] 1. A man guilty of adul- 
tery ; a man who has sexual commerce with any married 
woman, except his wife. — 2. In Scripture.^ an idolater. 
Ezek. xxiii. 3. An apostate from the true faith •, a very 
wicked person. Jer. ix. 4. One devoted to earthly things. 
James, iv. 

A-DUL'TER-ESS, n. A married woman guilty of inconti- 


A-DUL'TER-INE, a. Proceeding from adulterous com- 
merce ; spurious. Hall. 

A-DUL'TER-INE, n. In the civil law, a child issumg 
from an adulterous connection. 

t A-DUL'TER-IZE, v. t. To commit adultery. 

A-DUL'TER-OUS, a. 1. Guilty of adultery ; pertaining 
to adultery.— 2. In Scripture, idolatrous, very wicked. 
Mat. xii. 

A-DUL'TER-OUS-LY, adv. In an adulterous manner. 

A-DUIi'TER-Y, n. [L. adulterium.] I. Violation of the 
marriage bed ; the unfaithfulness of any married person 
to the marriage bed. — 2. In a scriptural sense, all manner 
of lewdness or un chastity, as in the seventh command- 
ment, — 3. In Scripture, idolatry, or apostasy from the true 
God. Jer. in. 

A-DULT NESS, n. The state of being adult. 

AD-UM'BRANT, a. Giving a faint shadow, or slight re- 

AD-UM'BRATE, v. t. [L. adumbro.] To give a faint shad- 
ow, or slight likeness. 

AD UM-BRa'TION, 71. 1. The act of making a shadow or 
faint resemblance. 2. A faint sketch ; an imperfect rep- 
resentation of a thing. Bacon. — 3. In heraldry, the shad- 
ow only of a figure, outlined, and painted of a color 
darker than the field. 

t AD-U-Na'TION, n. The state of being united ; union. 

A-DUN'CI-TY, 71. [L. aduncitas.] Hookedness ; a bending 
in form of a hook. Arbuthnot. 

A-DUN'€OUS, a. [L. aduncus.] Hooked ; bent, or made in 
the form of a hook. Bacon. 

t A-DUNUUE', a. Hooked. Bacon. 

t A-DuRE', v. t. [L. adtiro.] To burn tip. 

«• Se-e Synopsis. MOVE, DpQK, D6VE ;— BIJLL, UNITE.— € aa K ; as J ; S as Z ; CH as SH ; TH as in this, f Obsolete. 


\DUST', a. [L. adustus.^ Burnt} scorched ; become dry 
by heat : hot and fiery. 

A-DUST'ED, a. Become hot and dry ; burnt ; scorched. 

t A-DUST l-BLE, o. Tliat may be burnt up. 

A-DIlS'i ION, n. The act of burning, scorching, or heat- 
ing to dryness ; a state of being thus heated or dried. 

\D- VANCE', V. t. [Fr. avancerA 1. To tring forward ; 
to move further in front. 2. To promote ; to raise to a 
liiglier rank. 3. To improve or make better, which is 
considered as a progression, or moving forward. 4. To 
forward ; to accelerate growth. 5. To offer or propose ; 
to bring to view or notice. — 6. In commerce, to supply be- 
forehand i to furnish on credit, or before goods are deliv- 
ered, or work done. 7. To raise ; to enhance. 

AD-VANCE', V. i. 1. To move or go forward ; to proceed. 
2. To improve, or make progress ; to grow better, great- 
er, wiser or older. 3. To rise in rank, office, or conse- 
quence ; to be preferred, or promoted. 

AD-VANCE', n. 1. A moving forward, or towards the 
front. 2. Gradual progression ; improvement ; as, an ad- 
vance in religion or knowledge. 3. Advancement ; pro- 
motion ; preferment. 4. First hint by way of invita- 
tion , first step towards an agreement.— 5. In trade, 
additional price ; profit. 6. A giving beforehand •, a 
furnishing of something, on contract, before an equiva- 
lent is received. 7. A furnishing of money or goods for 
others, in expectation of reimbursement ; or the property 
so furnished. — In advance, in front ; before ; also before- 
hand •, before an equivalent is received. 

AD-VAN'CED, (ad-vansf) pp. Moved forward ; promoted ; 
improved ; furnished beforehand ; situated in front, or 
before the rest ; also, old, having reached the decline of 

AD-VANCE'MENT, n. 1 . The act of moving forward or pro- 
ceeding, 2. The state of being advanced ; preferment ; 
promotion, in rank or excellence ; the act of promot- 
ing. 3. Settlement or. a wife, or jointure. 4. Provision 
made by a parent for a child. 5. Money advanced. 

AD-VaN'CER, 71. One who advances 5 a promoter. 

AD-VAN'CING, ppr. Moving forward ; proceeding 5 pro- 
moting ; raising to higher rank or excellence ; improv- 
ing ; supplying beforehand, as on loan, or as stock in 

AD-VAN'CIVE, a. Tending to advance, or promote. 

AD-VAN'TAGE, n. [Fr. avantage.} I. Any state, condi- 
tion, or circumstance, favorable to success, prosperity, 
interest, or reputation. 2. Benefit ; gain 5 profit. 3. 
Means to an end ; opportunity ; convenience for obtain- 
ing benefit. 4. Favorable state or circumstances. 5. 
Superiority, or prevalence over ; with of ox over. 6. Su- 
periority, or that which gives it. 7. Interest ; increase ; 
overplus. {Obs.]Shak. 8. Additional circumstance to give 

AD-VAN'TAGE, v. t. 1. To benefit ; to yield profit or 
gain. 2. To promote ; to advance the interest of. 

AD-VAN'TA6E-A-BLE, a. Profitable ; convenient ; gain- 
ful. [Little used.\ 

AD-VAN'TAGED, pp. Benefited ; promoted. 

AD VAN'T AGE-GROUND, n. Ground that gives advan- 
tage or superiority ; a state that gives superior advan- 
tages for annoyance or resistance. 

AD-VAN-Ta'GEOUS, a. Being of advantage ; fui-nishing 
convenience, or opportunity to gain benefit ; gainful ; 
profitable ; useful •, beneficial. 

AD-VAN-Ta'GEOUS-LY, adv. In an advantageous man- 
ner ; profitably ; useflilly ■, conveniently. 

AD-VAN-Ta'GEOUS-NESS, n. The quality or state of be- 
ing advantageous ; profitableness. 

iLD-VAN'TA-G[NG,ppr. Profiting; benefitting. 

\ AD-VEC-TlfTIOUS, a. Brought ; carried. 

AD-VkNE', v. i. [L. advenic] To accede, or come to ; to 
be added to. [Little used."] 

A.D-Ve'NI-ENT, a. Advening ; coming from outward 

AD'VENT, n. [L. adventus.']^ A coming ; appropriately, the 
coming of our Savior, and m the calendar it includes four 
Sabbaths before Christmas, beginning on St. Andrew's 
Day, or on the Sabbath next before or after it, intended 
as a season of devotion. 

*AD-VENT'INE, a. Adventitious. Bacon. 

AD-VEN Tf'TIOUS, a. [I., adventitius.] Added extrinsi- 
cally ; accidental ; not essentially inherent ; casual ; for- 

AD-VEN-Ti"TIOUS-LY, adv. Accidentally. 

\D-VENT'IVE, a. Accidental ; adventitious. 

AD-VENT'IVE, n. The thing or person that comes from 
without. [Little used.] Bacon. 

AD-VENT'U-AL, a. Relating to the season of advent. 

AD-VENT'URE 71. [Fr. aventure.] 1. Hazard ; risk ; 
chance ; that of which one has no direction. 2. An en- 
terprise of hazard ; a bold undertaking. 3. That which 
is put to hazard. 

AD-VENT'URE, v. t. To risk, or hazard ; to put in the 
power of unforeseen events. 

16 ADV 

AD-VENT'URE, v. i. To dare ; to try the chance. 

AD-VENT'URED, pp. Put to hazard ; ventured ; risked. 

AD-VENT'UR ER, n. 1. One who hazards, or puts some, 
t'hing at risk. 2. One who seeks occasions of chance 
or attempts extraordinary enterprises. 

AD-VENT'URE-SOME, a. Bold ; daring ; incurring haz- 

AD-VENT'URE-S6ME-NESS, n. The quality of being 
bold and venturesome. 

AD-VENT'UR-ING, ppr. Putting to risk ; hazarding. 

AD-VENT'UR-OUS, a. [Fr. aventureux.] 1. Inclined or 
willing to incur hazard ; bold to encounter danger ; dar- 
ing ; courageous ; enterprising. 2. Full of hazard ; at- 
tended with risk ; exposing to danger : requiring courage. 

AD-VENT'UR-OUS-LY, adv. Boldly ; d.aringly ; in a man- 
ner to incur hazard. 

AD-VENT'UR-OUS-NESS, n. The act or quality of being 

AD'VERB, 71. [L. adverbium.] In grammar, a word used 
to modify the sense of a verb, participle, adjective or at- 
tribute, and usually placed near it; as, he writes well, 

AD-VERB'I-AL, a. Pertaining to an adverb. 

AD-VERB'I-AL-LY, adv. In the manner of an adverb. 

t AD-VERS^A-BLE, a. Contrary to ; opposite to. 

AD-VER-Sa'RI-A, 71. [L. from adversus.] Among the an- 
cients, a book of accounts. A common-place book. 

AD'VER-SA-RY, ?i. 1. An enemy or foe ; one who has en- 
mity at heart. 2. An opponent or antagonist, as in a suit 
at law, or in single combat ; an opposing litigant. 

AD'VER-SA-RY, a. Opposed ; opposite to ; adverse. 

AD-VERS'A-TiVE, a. Noting some difference, contrarie- 
ty, or opposition. 

AD-VERS'A-TiVE, n. A word denoting contrariety or 

AD'VERSE, a. [L. adversus.] 1. Opposite ; opposing ; act- 
ing in a contrary direction ; conflicting •, counteracting 
2. Figuratively, opposing desire ; contrary to the wishes, 
or to supposed good ; hence, unfortunate ; calamitous , 
afflictive ; pernicious ; unprosperous. 

t AD-VERSE', (ad-vers') v. t. To oppose. Oower. 

AD'VERSE-LY, adv. In an adverse manner ; oppositely , 
unfortunately : unprosperously ; in a manner contrary to 
desire or success. 

AD'VERSE-NESS, n. Opposition ; unprosperousness. 

AD-VERS'I-TY, n. An event, or series of events, which 
oppose success or desire ; mbifortune ; calamity ; afflio- 
tion ; distress ; state of unhappiness. 

AD-VERT', V. i. [L. adverto.] To turn the mind or atten- 
tion to ; to regard, observe, or notice ; with to. 

t AD-VERT', V. t. To regard ; to advise. 

AD-VERT'ED, pp. Attended to ; regarded ; with to. 

AD-VERT'ENCE, ) n. A direction of the mind to ; atten- 

AD-YERT'EN-CY, \ tion ; notice ; regard ; considera- 
tion ; Iieedfulness. 

AD-VERT'ENT, a. Attentive ; heedful. 

AD-VERT'ING, ppr. Attending to; regarding; observing. 

AD-VER-TlSE', 7;. t. [Fr. avertir.] 1. To inform ; to give 
notice, advice or intelligence to, whether of a past or 
present event, or of something future. 2. To publish a 
notice of; to publish a written or printed account of. 

AD-VER-TlS'ED, (ad-ver-tizd') pp. Informed ; warned ; 
used of persons .- published ; made known ; used of things- 

* AD-VER'TlSE-MENT, n. Information ; admonition ; 
notice given. More generally, a publication intended to 
give notice. 

AD-VER-TiS'ER, n. One who advertises.— This title is 
often given to public prints. 

AD-VER-TiS'ING, ppr. J. Informing; giving notice; 
publishing notice. 2. a. Furnishing advertisements ; as, 
advertising customers. 

AD- VICE', 71. [Fr. avis.] 1. Counsel ; an opinion recom- 
mended, or offered, as worthy to be followed. 2. Pru 
dence ; deliberate consideration. 3. Information ; notice ; 

AD-VlCE'-BOAT, n. A vessel employed to carry dis 
patches or information. 

t AD-VIG'I-LATE, v. t. To watch. 

AD-Vl'SA-BLE, a. [See Advise.] 1. Proper to be advised ; 
prudent ; expedient ; proper to be done or practiced 
2. Open to advice. South. 

AD-Vl'SA-BLE-NESS, n. The quality of being advisable 
or expedient. 

AD-VlSE', V. t. [Fr. aviser.] 1. To give counsel to ; to 
offer an opinion, as worthy or expedient to be followed. 
2, To give information ; to communicate notice ; to make 
acquainted with. 

AD- VISE', V. i. To deliberate, weigh well, or consider. 

AD-VTS'ED, (ad-vizd') pp. 1. Informed ; counseled ; also, 
cautious ; prudent ; acting with deliberation. 2. Done, 
formed, or taken with advice or deliberation ; intended. 

AD-VTS'ED-LY, adv. With deliberation or advice ; heed- 
fully ; purposely ; by design. 

AD-VTS'ED-NESS, n. Deliberate consideration ; prudent 

* See Synopsis. S, g, I, 0, XJ, % long.— FAR, FALL, WHAT ;— PREY ;— PIN, MARINE. BIRD ;— t Obsolete 




AD-VISE'MENT, n. 1. Counsel ; information ; circum- 
spection. 2. Consultation. Mass. Reports. 

AD-VIS'ER, n. One who gives advice or admonition ; also, 
in a bad sense, one who instigates. 

AD-VlS,'lNG,ppr. Giving counsel. 

AD-VIS'ING, n. Advice ; counsel. Skak. 

J AD-VI'SO, n. Advice ; consideration. 

AD-VI'SO-RY, a. 1. Having power to advise. Madison. 2, 
Containing advice. 

AD'VO-€A-CY, n. The act of pleading for ; intercession. 
Brown. 2. Judicial pleading ; law-suit. Chaucer. 

AD'VO-€ATE, n. [L. advocatus.] 1. One who pleads the 
cause of another before any tribunal or judicial court. 2. 
One who defends, vindicates, or espouses a cause, by ar- 
gument j one who is friendly to ; as, an advocate for peace. 
— In Scripture, Chilst is called an .Advocate for his people. 
— Faculty of advocates, in Scotland, is a society of emi- 
nent lawyers, consisting of about 200, who practic-3 in the 
highest courts. — Judge advocate, in courts martial , a per- 
son who manages the prosecution. 

AD'VO-€ATE, v. t. To plead in favor of ; to defend by ar- 
gument, before a tribunal ; to support or vindicate. Mil- 
ton. Mackenzie. Mitford. 

AD' VO-€ A TED, pp. Defended by argument ; vindicated. 

AD'VO-€A-T£SS, n. A female advocate. 

AD' VO-C A-TING, ppr. Supporting by reasons ; defending -, 

AD-V0-€a'T10N, n. A pleading for ; plea ; apology. 

t AD-VO-Ea'TION, n. A flying to something. 

t AD-VO-LU'TION, n. The act of rolling to something. 

AD-VOU'TRER, n. An adulterer. 

AD-VOU'TRESS, n. An adulteress. Bacon. 

fAD-VOUTROUS, a. Adulterous. 

AD-VOU'TRY, n. Adultery. \Little used.] Bacon. 

AD-VOW-EE', n. 1. He that has the right of advowson. 
3. The advocate of a church, or religious house. 

AD-VOW'SON, n. [Norm, avoerie, or avoeson.] In English 
law, a right of presentation to a vacant benefice ; or, a 
right of nominating a person to officiate in a vacant church 

AD-VOY'ER, or A-VOY'ER, n. [old Fr. advoes.] A chief 
magistrate of a town or canton in Switzerland. 

A'DY, n. The ahanga, or Thernel's restorative ; a species 
of palm-tree, in the West Indies. 

ADZ, n. [Sax. adcse ; formerly written in Eng. addice.] An 
iron instrument having an arching blade athwart the 

i9il. A diphthong in the Latin language •, used also by the 
Saxon writers. It answers to the Gr. ai. The Sax. w 
has been changed into e or ea. In derivatives from the 
learned languages, it is mostly superseded by e, and con- 
venience seems to require it to be wholly rejected in an- 
glicized words. For such words as may be found with 
this initial combination, the reader will therefore search 
under the letter E. 

JED, cd, ead, syllables found in names from the Saxon, sig- 
nify happy ; as, Eadric, happy kingdom ; Edward, pros- 
perous watch. Oibson. 

^'DlLE, n. [Lat.] In ancient Rome, an officer who had the 
care of the public buildings, &c. 

yE 61- LOPS, n. [Gr. atytXwi/'.] A tumor in the corner of 
the eye, and a plant so called. 

.^'GIS, n. [Gr. aiyig.] A shield, or defensive armor. 

^G'LOGUE, (eg'-log) n. A pastoral. 

^-6YP-TFA-€UM, n. An ointment. 

Mh, al, alh, or eal, in Saxon, Eng, all, are seen in many 
names ; as in .Mlfred, Alfred, all peace. Oibson. 

MhF seems to be one form of help, but more generally 
written elph, or ulph ; as in .Mlfwin, victorious aid. Oib- 

^'O-LIST, 71. [L. ^olus.] A pretender to inspiration. 

A'E-RATE, V. t. To combine with carbonic acid, formerly 
called fixed air. 

A'E-RA-TED, pp. Combined with carbonic acid. 

a'E-RA-TING, ppr. Combining with carbonic acid. 

a-E-Ra'TION, n. The act or operation of combining with 
carbonic acid. 

A-E'RI-AL, a. [L. aerius.] 1. Belonging to the air or at- 
mosphere. 2. Consisting of air 5 partaking of the nature 
of air. 3. Produced by air. 4. Inhabiting, or frequent- 
ing the air. 5. Placed in the air ; high •, lofty ; ele- 

A-ic'RI-ANS, 71. In church history, a branch of Arians, so 
c..lled from Aerius. 

* A ERIE, 71. [W. cryr.] The ne^t of a fowl, as of an eagle 
o hawk; a_covey of birds. Shak. 

a-ER-1-FI-€a'TI0N, n. The act of combining air with ; 
tho state of being filled with air 2 The act of becom- 
ing air, or of changing into an aeriform state ; the state 
of being aeriform. Fourcroy. 

A'ER-I-FlED, pp. Having air infused, or combined with.- 

A'ER-I-FORM, a [L. aer and forma.] Having the form 
or nature of air, or of an elastic, invisible fluid. 

a'ER-I-FY, v. t. To infuse air into ; to fill with air, or to 
combine air with. 

A-ER-OG'RA-PHY, n. [Gr. ari^ and yjja^w.] A description 
of the air or atmosphere ; but aerology is chiefly used 

A'ER-0-LlTE, n. [Gr. atj^ and \iBoi.] A stone falling from 
the air, or atmospheric regions ; a meteoric stone. 

A-ER-0-LOG'I-€AL, a. Pertaining to aerology. 

A-EPt-OL'O-GlST, 71. One wlio is versed in aerology. 

A-ER-OL'0-GY. n. [Gr. ar/p and \oyoi.] A description of 
the air ; that branch of philosophy which treats of the air 

A'ER-O-MAN-CY, n. [Gr. ar?p and //avraa.] Divination by 
means of the air and winds. {Little used.] 

A-ER-OM'E-TER, n. [Gr. arj^ and fxtT^ov.] An instmment 
for weighing air, or for ascertaining the mean bulk of 

A-ER-OM'E-TRY, n. The science of measuring the air ; 
the art or science of ascertaining the mean bulk of the 

A'ER-0-NAUT, n. [Gr. a>?p and vavrris.] One who sails or 
floats in the air ; an aerial navigator. Burke. 

A-ER-0-NAUT'I€, a. Sailing or floating in the air 5 per- 
taining to aerial sailing. 

A-ER-0-NAUT'I€S, n. The doctrine, science, or art of 
sailing in the air by means of a balloon. 

A'ER-O-NAUT-ISM, n. The practice of ascending and 
floating in the atmosphere, in balloons. Journ. of Science. 

A-ER-OS'€0-PY, 71. [Gr. arip and oKe-moiiai.] The observa- 
tion of the air. [Little used.] 

A'ER-0-STAT, 71. [Gr, an^ and oraroj,] A machine or ve& 

_ sel sustaining weights in the air. 

A-ER-OS-TAT'I€, a. Suspending in air ; pertaining to the 
art of aerial navigation, 

A-ER-GS-Ta'TION, ?(. 1. Aerial navigation ; the science 
of raising, suspending, and guiding machines in the air. 

_ Adams. 2. The science of weighing air. 

a'ER-Y-LiGHT, in Milton, light as air ; used for dirv 

A-FaR', adv. [a and far.] 1. At a distance in place ; to 
or from a distance. — 2. In Scripture, figuratively, esh'an- 
ged m aflection ; alienated. 3. Absent j net assisting. 

t A-FeARD^, a. [Sax. aferan.] Afraid ; affected with fear 

_ or apprehension. 

A FER, n. [L.] The south-west wind. 

AF'FA, 71, A weight used on the Guinea coast. 

AF-PA-BIL'I-TY, n. The quality of being aff'able •, readi- 
ness to converse ; civility and courteousness in receiving 
others, and in conversation ; condescension in manners. 

AF'FA-BLE, a. [L, affabilis.] 1, Easy of conversation ; 
admitting others to free conversation without reserve ; 
courteous ; complaisant ; of easy manners ; condescend- 
ing ; usually applied to superiors, 2. Applied to external 
appearance, affable denotes that combination of features, 
which invites to conversation, and renders a person ac- 
cessible ; opposed to a forbidding aspect ; mild ; benign ; 
as, an affable countenance. 

AF'FA-BLE-NESS, n. Affability. 

AF'FA-BLY, adv. In an affable manner ; courteously ; in- 

t AF'FA-BROUS, a. Skilfully made. 

AF-FaIR', n. [Fr, affaire.] 1. Business of any kind ; that 
which is done, or is to be done. In the plural, it denotes 
transactions in general ; as, human affairs. 2. Matters ; 
state ; condition of business or concerns. 3. In the sin- 
gular, it is used for a private dispute or duel, or a partial 
engagement of troops. 

t AF-FAM'ISH, V. t. [Fr. affamir 1 To starve. 

t AF-FAM'ISH-MENT, n. Starvation, 

AF-FeAR'. See Affeer, 

AF-FECT', V. t. [L. afflcio, affectum.] 1. To act upon ; to 
produce an effect or change upon. 2. To act upon, or 
move the passions. 3. To aim at ; aspire to ; desire or 
entertain pretension to. 4. To tend to by natural affin- 
ity or disposition. 5. To love, or regard with fondness. 
6. To make a show of ; to attempt to imitate, in a man- 
ner not natural ; to study the appearance of what is not 
natural, or real. 

AF-FE€-Ta'TION, n. [L. affectatio.] 1. An attempt to 
assume or exhibit v/hat is not natural or real ; false pre- 
tense ; artificial appearance, or show. 2. Fondness ; af- 
fection. [JVot used.] Hooker. 

AF-FE€T'ED, pp. 1. Impressed ; moved, or touched, either 
in person or in interest ; having suffered some change by 
external force, loss, danger, and the like. 2. Touched in 
the feelings ; having the feelings excited. 3, Having the 
passions moved.— 1. a. Inclined, or disposed ; followed 
by to. 2. Given to false show ; assuming, or pretend- 
ing to possess what is not natural or real. 3. Assumed 
artificially ; not natural. 

AF-FECT ED-LY, adv. In an affected manner ; hypocriti- 
cally ; with more show than reality ; formally ; studious- 
ly ; unnaturally. ^ . j <• 

AF-FE€T'ED-NESS, n. The quality of being affected : af- 

See Synopsis. MOVE, BQOK, D6VE -.—BULL.UNITE 
2* ■■ 

-€ as K ; 6 as J ; S as Z , CH as SH ; TH as in this, f OSaolete 


18 AFF 

Ai -FiiCTilNG J ppr. 1. Impressing 5 having an effect on ; 
touching the feelings ; moving the passions ; attempting 
a false show ; greatly desiring ; aspiring to possess. — 2. a. 
Having power to excite, or move the passions ; tending 
to move the affections ; pathetic. 

AF-FE€T'1NG-LY, adv. In an affecting manner; in a 
manner to excite emotions. 

AF-FEe'TION, 71. 1. The state of being affected. [Little 
iLsed.] 2. Passion. 3. A bent of mind towards a par- 
ticular object, holding a middle place between disposition, 
which is natural, and passion, which is excited by the 
presence of its exciting object. 4. A settled good will, 
love, or zealous attachment ; as, the affection of a parent 
for his child. 5. Desire ; inclination ; propensity, good or 
evil. 6. An attribute, quality or property, which is in- 
separable from its object; as, love, fear, and hope are 
affections of the mind. — 7. Among physicians, a disease, 
or any particular morbid state of the body ; as, a gouty 
affection. — 8. In ■painting, a lively representation of pas- 

AF-FE€'TI0N-ATE, a. [Fr. affcctionne.] 1. Having great 
love, or affection ; fond. 2. Warm in affection ; zealous. 
3. Proceeding from affection ; indicating love ; benevo- 
lent ; tender. 

AF-FEC'TION-ATE-LY, adv. With affection ; fondly ; 
tenderly ; kindly. 1 Thes. ii. 

AF-FECTION-ATE-NESS, 71. Fondness ; good will ; af- 

AF-FE€'TK)NED, a. 1. Disposed ; having an affection 
of heart. Rom. xii. 2. Affected ; conceited. [Obs.] Shak 

t AF-FE€'TIOUS-LY, adv. In an affecting manner. 

AF-FE€T'1VE, a. That affects, or excites emotion ; suited 
to affect. [Little used.] 

AF-FE€T'I VE-LY, adv. In an affective or impressive man- 

AF-FE€T'OR, or AF-FE€T'ER, n. One that affect? ; one 
that practices affectation. 

t AF-FEeT'U-OUS, a. Full of passion. Leland 

t AF-FE€-TU-OS'I-TY, n. Passionateness. 

t AF-FEER', V. t. [Fr. To confirm. 

AF-FEER', 1;. t. [Fr. afferer.] In law, to assess or reduce 
an arbitrary penalty or amercement to a precise sum. 

AF-FEER'ED, (af-feerd') pp. Moderated in sum ; assessed ; 
reduced to a certainty. 

AF-FEER'MENT, n. The act of affeering. 

AF-FEER'OR, ?i. One who affeers. Cowel. 

AF-FET-TU-O'SO, or CON AFFETTO, [It.] h\ music, a. 
direction to render notes soft and affecting, 

AF-Fl'ANCE, n. [Norm, affiaunce.] 1. The marriage con- 
tract or promise ; faith pledged. 2. Trust in general ; 
confidence: reliance. 

AF-Fl'ANCE, V. t. 1. To betroth , to pledge one's faith 
or fidelity in marriage, or to promise marriage. 2. To 
give confidence. Pope. 

AF-Fl'ANCED, pp. Pledged in marriage ; betrothed ; 
bound in faith. 

AF-Fl'AN-CER, n. One who makes a contract of marriage 
between parties. 

AF-Fl'AN-CING, ppr. Pledging in marriage ; promising 

t AF-FI-dI^uS, I "• ^"^"^^^ contract. 

AFFIDa'VIT, 71. [an old law verb in the perfect tense ; he 

made oath.] A declaration upon oath ; a declaration in 

writing sworn to before a magistrate, 
t AF-Fl'ED, (af-flde') a. or part. Joined by contract ; afii- 

t AF-FILE', V. t. [Fr. affder.] To polish. Chaucer. 

AF-FIL'I-ATE, ?;. t. [Fv. affilier.] 1. To adopt •, to receive 
into a family as a son, 2. To receive into a society as a 
member, and initiate jn its mysteries, plans, or intrigues — 
a sense in which the word was much used in France, during 
the revolution. 

AF-FIL-I-A TION, n. Adoption ; association in the same 
family or society. 

AF'FI-NAGE, n. The refining of metals by coppel. 

t AF-FlN'ED. (af-find) a Joined by affinity, 

AF-FIN I-TY, 71. [L. affinitas.] 1. The relation contracted 
by marriage, between a husband and his wife's kindred, 
and between a wife and her husband's kindred ; in con- 
tradistinction from consanguinity. 2. Agreement ; rela- 
tion ; conformity ; resemblance ; connection.— 3. In chem- 
istry, attraction ; elective attraction, or that tendency 
which different species of matter have to unite, and com- 
bine with certain other bodies, and the power that disposes 
them to continue in combination. 

AF-FtRM', v.t. [L, affrmo.] 1. To assert positively ; to 
tell with confidence ; to aver ; to declare the existence of 
something ; to maintain as true ; opposed to deny. 2. To 
make firm ; to establish, confirm or ratify. [oath, 

AF-FiRM', V. i. To declare solemnly ; to declare as under 

AF-FiRM'A-BLE, a. That may be asserted or declared, 

AF-FiRM' A-BLY, adv. In a way capable of affirmation. 

AF-FiRM' ANCE, n. 1. Confirmation ; ratification. S 
Declaration : affirmation. [Little used.] 

AF-FIRM'ANT, n. One who affirms, 

AF-FiRM- a'TION, n. 1, The act of affirming or asserting 
as true. 2. That which is asserted ; position declared 
as true ; averment. 3. Confirmation ; ratification ; an 
establishing of Vv^hat had been before done or decreed. 4 
A solemn declaration made under the penalties of per- 

AF-FiRM'A-TiVE, a. 1. That affirms, or asserts ; declar 
atory of what exists ; opposed to negative. 2. Confirm- 
ative ; ratifying. — 3. In algebra, positive. 4. Positive • 
dogmatic. \jObs.] Taylor. 

AF-FiRM' A-TlVE, n. That side of a question which affirms 
or maintains ; opposed to negative. 

AF-FiRM' A-TlVE-LY, adv. In an affirmative manner , 
positively ; on the affirmative side of a question. 

AF-FiRM ED, (af-furmd') pp. Declared ; asserted ; averred 5 
confirmed •, ratified. 

AF-FiRM'ER, n. One who affinns. 

AF-FIRM'ING, ppr. Asserting •, declaring positively ; con- 

AF-FIX', V. t. [L, affigo, affixum.] 1, To unite at the end ; 
to subjoin, annex, or add at the close. 2, To attach 
unite, or connect with, 3, To fix or fasten in any manner 

AF'FIX, n. A syllable or letter added to the end of a word 

AF-FIX'ED, (af-fixf) pp. United at the end ; annexed 

AF-FIX'ING, ppr. Uniting at the end ; subjoining ; attach- 

AF-FIX'ION, n. The act of uniting at the end, or state of 
being so united. [Little used.] 

AF-FIXT'URE, n. That which is affixed. 

AF-FLa'TION, 71, [L. affio, affiatum.] A blowing or breath- 
ing on, 

AF-FLa'TUS, 71, [L,] 1, A breath or blast of wind. 2, 
Inspiration ; communication of divine knowledge, or the 
power of prophecy. 

AF-FLICT , V. t. [L. affiigo, affiicto.] 1. To give to the 
body or mind pain which is continued ; to grieve, or dis- 
tress. 2. To trouble ; to harass ; to distress. 

AF-FLICT ED, pp. Affected with continued or often re- 
peated pain, either of body or mind ; suffering grief or dis- 
tress of any kind, 

AF-FLI€T'ED-NESS, n. The state of being afflicted ; but 
superseded by affliction. 

AF-FLICT'ER, n. One who afflicts, 

AF-FLI€T'ING, ppr. Causing continued pain of body or 
mind •, grieving •, distressing. 

AF-FLI€T'ING, a. Grievous ; distressing. 

AF-FL1€T'ING-LY, adv. In an afflicting manner. 

AF-FLICTION, n. 1. The state of being afflicted ; a state 
of pain, distress, or grief. 2. The cause of continued pain 
of body or mind, as sickness, losses, calamity, adversity, 

AF-FL1€T'IVE, a. Giving pain ; causing continued or re- 
peated pain or grief; painful ; distressing. 

AF-FLI€T'IVE-LY, adv. In a manner to give pain. 

AF'FLU-ENCE, n. [L, affluentia.] 1, Literally, a flowing 
to. [In this sense it is rarely used.] It is sometimes writ- 
ten affiuency. — 2, Figuratively, abundance of riches ; 
wealth, Rogers. 

AF'FLU-ENT, a. Flowing to ; more generally, wealthy ; 
abounding in goods or riches ; abundant. 

AF'FLU-ENT-LY, adv. In abundance ; abundantly. 

AF'FLUX, n. [L, affluxum.] The act of flowing to ; a 
flowing to, or that which flows to. 

AF-FLUX'ION, n. The act of flowing to ; that which 
flows to. 

AF'FO-RA<jE, n. [Fr. afforer.] In France, a certain duty 
paid to the lord of a district. 

t AF-FoRCE'MENT, n. In old charters, a fortress ; a forti- 
fication for defense. Cyc. 

AF-FORD', v.t. [ad, and the root of forth, further ^ G, 
fordern.] I. To yield or produce as fruit, profit, issues, or 
result, 2. To yield, grant or confer. 3. To be able to 
grant or sell with profit or without loss. 4. To be able 
to expend without injury to one's estate. 

AF-FoRD'ED, pp. Yielded as fruit, produce or result ; 
sold_with5ut loss or with profit, 

AF-FoRD'ING, p;)r. Yielding; producing; selling without 
loss ; bearing expenses, 

t AF-FoRD'MENT, n. Grant ; donation. Lord 

AF-FOR'EST, v. t. To convert ground into rorest. 

A F-FOR-ES-T A'TION, 71, The act of turning ground into 
forest or wood-land. 

AF-FOR'EST-ED, pp. Converted into forest. 

AF-FOR'EST-ING, ppr. Converting into forest. 

AF-FRAN'CHISE, v. t. To make free. 

AF-FRAN'CHiSE-MENT, n. The act of making free, o» 
liberating. [Little used.] 

t AF-FRAP', V. t. and i. [Fr. frapper.] To strike, 

JAF-FRaY', v.t. [Fr. effrayer.] To fright; to terrify 
Spenser. To be put in doubt. 

* See Synopsis. A, K, I, o, tj, Y, lonff ■ FAR, FALL, WHAT j— FRfiY ;— PIN, MARiNE, BiRD ;— f Obsolete 



AF-FRaY', ) n. [Fr. affrayer.] 1. Inlaw, the figlit- 

AF-FRaY'MENT, ) ing of two or more persons, in a 
public place to the terror of others. Blackstone. 2. A 
petty fight ; tumult ; disturbance. 

AF-FKEIGHT', (af-frate') v. t. To hire a ship for the trans- 
portation of goods or freight. 

AF-FRElGHT'ED,jpj?. Hired for transporting goods. 

AF-FREIGHT ER, n. The person who hires or charters a 
ship or other vessel to convey goods. Walsh. 

AF-FREIGHT'MENT, n. The act of hiring a ship for the 
transportation of goods. Amer. Rev. 

t AF-FRET', 71. [It. affrettare.] A furious onset, or attack. 

t AF-FRIOTION, n. The act of rubbing. BoT/le. 

t AF-FRIEND'ED, (af-frend'ed) a. Made friends ; recon- 
ci.ed. Spensei-. 

AF-FRiGHT', (af-frite ) v. t. [Sax. frihtan.] To impress 
with sudden fear ; to frighten ; to terrify or alarm. 

AF-FRlGHT', (af-fflte') n. Sudden or great fear ; terror ; 
also, the cause of terror ; a frightful object. 

AF-FRIGHT'ED, pp. Suddenly alarmed with fear ; ter- 

AF-FRlGHT'ED-LY, adv. Under the impression of fear. 

AF-FRlGHT'ER, n. One who frightens. 

AF-FRlGHT'FUL, a. Terrifying; terrible; that may ex- 
cite great fear ; dreadful. 

AF-FRiGHT'ING, ppr. Impressing sudden fear ; terrifying. 

AF-FRlGHT'MENT, n. Affright ; terror ; the state of be- 
ing frightened. [Rarely used. In common discourse, the 
use of this loord, in all its forms, is superseded by fright, 
frighted, frightful.] 

AF-FRoNT', V. t. [Fr. affronter.'] 1. Literally, to meet or 
encounter face to face, in a good or bad sense. Obs. 2. 
To offer abuse to the face ; to insult, dare or brave open- 
ly ; to offer abuse or insult in any manner, by words or 
actions. 3. To abuse, or give cause of offense to, witliout 
Deing present with the person •, to make slightly angry. 

AF-FR6NT', n. Opposition to the face ; open defiance ; 
encounter. Ohs. 2. Ill treatment ; abuse ; any thing re- 
proachful or contemptuous, that excites or justifies resent- 
ment. 3. Shame ; disgrace. \_J\rot usual.] — 'it. In popular 
language, slight resentment ; displeasure. 

AF-FR6NT'ED,ppr. 1. Opposed, face to face ; dared ; de- 
fied ; abused. 2. In popular language, offended ; slightly 
angry at ill treatment, by words or actions ; displeased. 

AF-FR6NT-EE', a. In heraldry, front to front ; an epi- 
thet given to animals that face each other. 

AF-FR6NT'ER, n. One that affronts. 

AF-FR6NT'ING, ppr. Opposing, face to face ; defying ; 
abusing ; offering abuse, or any cause of displeasure. 

AF-FR6NT'ING, a. Contumelious ; abusive. 

AF-FR6NT'IVE, a. Giving offense ; tending to offend ; 

AF-FR6NT'IVE-NESS, n. The quality that gives offense. 
[Little used.] 

AF-FCSE', V. t. [L. affundo, affusum.] To pour upon ; to 
sprinkle, as with a liquid. 

AF-FuS'ED, (af-fuzd') pp. Sprinkled with a liquid ; sprin- 
kledon ; having a liquid poured upon. 

AF-Fu'SING, i)pr. Pouring upon, or sprinkling. 

AF-Fu'SION, (af-fu'-zhun) n. The act of pouring upon, or 
sprinkling with a liquid substance, as water upon a dis- 
easedbody, or upon a child in baptism. 

fAF-FY', v.t. ['] To betroth ; to bind or join. 

t AF-FY', v. t. To trust or confide in. 

A-FIELD', (a-feeld') adv. To the field. Milton. 

A-FiRE', adv. On fire. Gower. 

A-FLAT', adv. Level with the ground. Bacon. 

A-FLoAT', adv. or a. 1. Borne on the water ; floating ; 
swimming. 2. Moving ; passing from place to place. 3. 
Unfixed ; moving without guide or control. 

A-FOOT', adv. 1. On foot ; borne by the feet ; opposed to 
riding. 2. In action ; in a state of being planned for ex- 
ecution ; as, a design is afoot or on foot. 

A-FoRE', adv. or prep. 1. In front. 2. Between one ob- 
ject and another, so as to intercept a direct view or inter- 
course. 3. Prior in time ; before ; anterior. In all these 
senses it is now inelegant, and superseded by before. — 
4. In seamen^s language, toward the head of the ship •, 
further forward, or nearer the stem ; eis, afore the wind- 

A -FOREiGO-ING, a. Going before. 

A-FoRE'HAND, adv. 1. In time previous ; by previous 

provision. 2. a. Prepared •, previously provided ; as, to 

be aforehand in business. 
A-FoRE'MEN-TIONED, a. Mentioned before in the same 

writing or discourse. Addison. 
A-FoRE'NAMED, a. Named before. Peacham. 
A-FoRE'SAID, a. Said or recited before, or in a preceding 

A-FoRE TIME, adv. In time past ; in a former time. 

A-FOlll,i, adv. or a. Not free ; entangled. Columbiad. 
A FRAID', a. [the paiticiple of affray.] Impressed with 

fear or apprehension : fearful. This word expresses a 
less degree of fear than terrified oi frightened. 

A-FRESH', adv. Anew ; again ; recently ; after intermis- 

AF'RI-€A, n. [qu. L. a neg. and frigus.] One of the fo<ii 
quarters or largest divisions of the globe. 

AF'Rie, 71. Africa. Shak. 

AF'RI-€AN ( '^^ Pertaining to Africa. 

AF'RI-€AN, n. A native of Africa. This name is given 
also to the African marygold. 

A-FRONT', adv. In front. Shale, 

AFT, a. or adv. TSax. aft, eft.] In seamen^s language, a 
word used to denote the stern of a ship ; towards the 
stern. Fore and aft is the whole length of a ship. 

aF'TER, a. [the comparative degree of aft.] 1. In ma- 
rine language, more aft, or towards the stern of the ship • 
as, the after sails. — 2. In common language, later in time ; 
as, an after period of life. Marshall. In this sense, the 
word is often combined with the following noun, as in 

AF'TER, pre;>. 1. Behind in place. 2. Later in time ; as, 
after supper. 3. In pursuit of, that is, moving behind, 
following ; in search of. 4. In imitation of. 5. Accord- 
ing to. G. According to the direction and influence of. 

AF'TER, adv. Posterior ; later in time ; as, it was about the 
space of three hours after. — After is prefixed to many 
words, foiTOing compounds, but retaining its genuine 

aF'TER-A€-€OUNT', n. A subsequent reckoning. 

AF'TER-A€T, n. A subsequent act. 

AF'TER-a-6ES, n. Later ages ; succeeding XmiQs.— After- 
age, in the singular, is not improper. Addison. 

AF'TER-ALL' is a plirase, signifying, when all has been 
considered, said or done ; at last ; in the final result. 

AF'TER-BAND, n. A future band. Milton. 

AF'TER-BiRTH, v.. The appendages of the fetus, called 
also seciindines. Wiseman. 

AF'TER-€LAP, n. An unexpected, subsequent event. 

aF'TER-€6M'ER, n. A successor. 

aF'TER-€oM'FORT, 71. Future comfort. Jonson. 

AF'TER-€0N'DU€T, n. Subsequent behavior. 

AFTER-€0N-VI€'TI0N, n. Future conviction. 

AF'TER-€0ST, n. Later cost ; expense after the execution 
of the main design. Mortimer. 

AF'TER-€oURSE, n. Future course. Brown. 

AF'TER-€RCP, 71. The second crop in the same year 

AFTER-DAYS, n. Future days. Con^reve. 

AF TER-eAT-AGE, n. Part of the mcrease of the same 
year. [Local.] Burn. 

AF'TER-EN-DEAV'OR, 71. An endeavor after the first or 
former effort. 

t AF'TER-E'S'E', v. t. To keep one in view. Shak 

AF'TER-GAME, n. A subsequent scheme, or expedient. 

aF'TER-GUARD, 71. The seaman stationed on the poop of 
the ship, to attend the after-saDs. 

AF'TER-HOPE, 71. Future hope. Jonson. 

AF'TER-HCURS, n. Hours that follow. Shak. 

AF'TER-IG'NO-RANCE, 7?. Subsequent ignorance. 

AF'TER-INGS, n. The last milk that can be drawn from a 
cow •, strokings. Orose. 

AF'TER-KING, n. A succeeding king. Shuckford. 

AF'TER-LIFE, n. 1. Future life, or the life after this 
Drydcn. 2. A later period of life ; subseqtient life. 

AF'TER-LIV'ER, n. One who lives in succeeding times. 

AF'TEil-LoVE, n. The second or later love. 

AF'TER-MAL'ICE, n. Succeeding malice. Dryden. 

AF'TER-MATH, n. A second crop of grass in the same 
season ; rowen. Holland. 

AF'TER-MOST, a. superl. In marine language, nearest 
the stern, opposed to foremost; also, hindmost. 

AF'TER-NOON, n. The part of the day which follows 
noon, between noon and evening. 

AF'TER-PaINS, n. The pains which succeed child-birth. 

AF'TER-PART, n. The latter part.— In marine languaga, 
the part of a ship towards the stern. 

AFTER-PIeCE, n. A piece performed after a play ; a farces 
or other entertainment. 

AF'TER-PROOF, ti. Subsequent proof or evidence ; quali- 
ties knownVy subsequent experience. 

AF'TER-RE-PENT'ANCE, n. Subsequent repentance. 

AF'TER-RE-PORT', n. Subsequent report. South. 

AF'TER-SAILS, n. The sails on the mizen-mast and stays 
between the main and mizen-masts. 

AF'TER-STATE, n. The future state. Qlanville. 

AF'TER-STING, n. Subsequent sting. Herbert. 

AF'TER-STORM, n. A succeeding storm. . 

AF'TER-SUP'PER, n. The time between supper and gouig 
to bed. Shak. 

See Synopsis. M5VE, BOOK, D6VE ;~BULL. UNITE.— € as K , 6 as J ; S as Z 3 CH as SH ; TH aa in this f Ob8olU$. 




XF'TLR -SWARM, n A swarm of bees which leaves the 

hive after the first. 
&F'TER-TAST£, n. A taste w.iich succeeds eating and 

AF'TER-THOUGHT, ?!. Reflections after an act; 


thought, or expedient occurring too late. 

AF'TER-TIME, ?i. Succeeding time. Dryden. 

?LF'TER-TOSS ING, n. The swell or agitation of the sea 
after a storm. Addison. 


XT'TER- WARDS °'^'"' ^" ^^^^^ ^^ subsequent time. 

AF'TER-WISE, a. Wise afterwards or too late. 

AF'TER-WIT, n. Subsequent wit ; wisdom that comes too 
late. L^EstrauffE 

AE'TeR-WRATH, 71. Later wrath ; anger after the provo- 
cation has ceased. Shak. 

AF'TER-WRI'TER, 71. A succeeding writer. 

A GA, n In the Turkish domirdons, a commander or chief 

♦A-GAIN', (a-gen') adv. [Sax. gean,agen, agean, ongean.] 
1. A second time ; once more. 2. It notes something fur- 
ther, or additional to one or more particulars. — igain and 
again, often ; with frequent repetition. 

* A-GAINST', (a-gensf) prep. [Sax. togeanes.l 1. In oppo- 
sition ; noting enmity or disapprobation. 2. In opposition, 
noting contrariet}', contradiction, or repugnance. 3. In 
opposition, noting competition, or different sides or par- 
ties. 4. In an opposite direction. 5. Opposite in place ; 
abreast. 6. In opposition, noting adversity, injury, or 
contrariety to wishes. 7. Bearing upon. 8. In provision 
for : in preparation for. 

t AG'A-LAX-Y, 71. Want of milk. 

AG'AL-LOCH, ) n. Aloes-wood, the product of a tree 

A-GAL'LO-€HUM, ) growing in China, and some of the 
Indian isles. 

AG-AL-MAT'0-LITE, n. [Gr. aya\jxa and X(0os.] A name 
given by Klaproth to two varieties of the lard stone of 

T AG A-MIST, 7!. One that is unmarried. Coles. 

A-GAPE', adv. or a. Gaping, as with wonder, expecta- 
tion, or eager attention ; having the mouth wide open. 

AGA-PE, n. [Gr. ayairr].'] Araong the -primitive Christians, 
a love feast, or feast of charity. 

AGA-RIC, n. [Gr. aya^iKov.'] In botany, mushroom, a 
genus of funguses, containing numerous species. 

A-GaST', or A-GHAST', a. [qu. a contraction of agazed.] 
Struck with terror, or astonishment ; amazed ; struck si- 
lent with horror. 

t A-GaTE', adv. On the way ; going. 

AG' ATE, n. [Fr. agate.] A class of siliceous, semi-pellucid 
gems of many varieties, consisting of quartz-crystal, flint, 
horn-stone, chalcedony, amethyst, jasper, cornelian, heli- 
otrope, and jade. 

AG'ATE, n. An instrument used by gold-wire drawers, so 
called from the agate in the middle of it. 

AG'A-TINE, a. Pertaining to a^ate. 

AG'A-TINE, 71. A genus of shells, oval or oblong. 

AG'A-TlZED, a. Having the colored lines and figures of 
agate. Fourcroy. 

AG A-TY, a. Of the nature of agate. Woodward. 

A-Ga'VE, n. [Gr. ayavog.'] 1. The American aloe. 2. A 
genus of univalvular shells. 

t A-GaZE', v. t. To strike with amazement. 

t A-GaZ'ED, (a-gazd') pp. Struck with amazement. 

AGE, n. [Fr. age.] 1. The whole duration of a being, 
whether animal, vegetable, or other kind, 2. That part 
of the duration of a being, which is between its beginning 
and any given time. 3. The latter part of life, or long 
continued duration ; oldness. 4. A certain period of hu- 
man life, marked by a difference of state. 5. The period 
when a person is enabled by law to do certain acts for 
himself, or when he ceases to be controlled bv parents 
or guardians ; as, in our countiy, both males and females 
are of age at twenty-one years old. 6. Mature years ; 
ripeness of strength or discretion. 7. The time of life for 
conceiving children. 8. A particular period of time, as 
distinguished from others ; as, the golden age. 9. The 
people who live at a particular period ; hence, a genera- 
tion and a succession of ger.^i ations ; as, ages yet unborn. 
10. A century ; the period of one hundred'years. 

A'6ED, a. 1. Old ; having lived long ; having lived almost 
the usual time allotted to that species of being ; applied 
to animals or plants. 2. Having a certain age: having 
lived ; as, a man aaed forty vears. 

a'GED, H. Old persons. 

a'6ED-LY, adv After the manner of an aged person. 

t A-GEN', for again. 

a'6EN-CY, 7?. [L. agens.] 1. The quality of moving or of 
exerting power ; the state of being in action ; action ; op- 
eration ; instrumentality ; as, the agency of Providence in 
the natural world. 2. The ofiice of an agent, or factor ; busi- 
ness of an agent intrusted with the concerns of another. 

AG'END, A-GEND'UM, n. Matter relating to the service of 
the church. 

A-<5END'A, n. [L. things to be done.] A memorandum- 
book ; the service or office of a church ; a ritual or lit- 

a'GENT, a. Acting ; opposed to patient ; as, the body 
aa-ent. [Little used.] Bacon. 

A'GfeNT, 71. 1. An actoi ; one that exerts power, or has the 
power to act. 2. An active power or cause ; that which 
has the power to produce an effect. 3. A substitute, dep- 
uty, or factor ; one entrusted with the business of another ; 
an at torney ; a minister. 

t A GENT-SHIP, 71. The office of an agent. We now use 

t AG-6EL-a'TI0N, n [L. gelu.] Concretion of a fluid. 

t AG-6EN-ER-A TION, n. [L. ad and generatio.] The 
state of growing to another. Brown. 

f AG'GER, n. [L.] A fortress, or mound. Hearne. 

t AG'GER-ATE, v. t. [L. aggero.] To heap, 

AG-GER-a'TION, 71. A heaping ; accumulation. Ray. 

t AG-GER-oSE', a. Full of heaps. 

AG-GLOM'ER-ATE, v. t. [L. agglomero.] To wind, 01 
collect into a ball ', to gather into a mass. 

AG-GLOM'ER-ATE, v. i. To gather, grow, or collect into 
a ball or mass. Thomson. 

AG-GLOM'ER-A-TED, pp. Wound or collected into a ball. 

AG-GLOM'ER-A-TING, ppr. Winding into a ball ; gather- 
ing into a lump. 

AG-GLOM-ER-a'TION, n. The act of winding into a ball ; 
the state of being gathered into a ball or mass, 

AG-GLu'TI-NANT, n. Any viscous substance which unites 
otlier substances by causing an adhesion 5 any application 
which tends to unite parts which have too little adhesion 

AG-GLu'TI-NANT, a. Uniting as glue ; tending to cause 

AG-GLu'TI-NATE, v. t. [L,. agglutino.] To unite, or cause 
to adhere, as with glue ; to unite by causing an adhesion 
of substances. 

AG-GLtJ'TI-NA-TED, pp. Glued together. 

AG-GLu'TI-NA-TING, ppr. Gluing together j uniting by 
causing adhesion. 

AG-GLU-TI-Na'TION, 7!. The act of uniting by glue or 
other tenacious substance ; the state of being thus united. 

AG-GLu'TI-NA-TiVE, a. That tends to unite, or has pow- 
er to cause adhesion. 

t AG-GRaCF', v. t. To favor. Spenser. 

f AG-GRaCE', 71. Kindness ; favor. Spenser. 

AG-GRAN-DI-Za'TION, n. The act of aggrandizing. 

AG'GRAN-DiZE, v. t. [Fr. agrandir.] 1. To make great 
or greater in power, rank, or honor ; to exalt. 2. To en- 
large, applied to things. 

AG'GRAN-DlZED, pp. Made great or greater 5 exalted ; 

* AG-GRAN'DiZE-MENT, v. The act of aggrandizing ; 
the state of being exalted in power, rank, or honor ; ex- 
altation ; enlargement. 

AG'GRAN-Di-ZER, n. One that aggrandizes or exalts in 
power, rank, or honor. 

AG'GRAN-Dl-ZING, ppr. Making great ; exalting •, en- 

t AG-GRaTE', v. t. [It.] To please. Spenser. 

t AG'GRA-VA-BLE, a. Making a thing worse. 

AG'GRA-VATE, v. t. [L. aggravo.] 1, To make heavy, 
but not used in this literal sense. Figuratively, to make 
worse, more severe, or less tolerable. 2. To make more 
enormous, or less excusable. 3. To exaggerate. 4. To 
give coloring in description ; to give an exaggerated rep- 

AG'GRA VA-TED, pp. Increased in severity or enormity ; 
made worse ; exaggerated. 

AG'GRA-VA-TING^ 777;r. Increasing in severity, enormity, 
or degree ; as evils, misfortunes, pain, punishment, 
crimes, guilt, &c. ; exaggerating. 

AG-GRA-Va'TION, n. 1. The act of making worse, used 
of evils, natural or moral -, the act of increasing severity 
or heinousness ; addition to that which is evil or improper 
2. Exaggerated representation, or heightened description 
of any thing wrong, improper, or unnatural. Addison. 

AG'GR'E-GATE, v.t. [L,. aggrego.] To bring together ; to 
collect particulars into a suni, niass, or body. 

AG'GRE-GATE, a. Formed by a collection of particulars in- 
to a whole mass or sum. 

AG'GRE-GATE, n. A sum, mass, or assemblage of particu- 

AG'GRE-GA-TED, pp. Collected into a sum, mass, or sys- 

AG'GRE-GATE-LY, adv. Collectively, 

AG'GRE-GA-TING, ppr. Collecting into a sum or mass. 

AG-GRE-Ga'TION, 77. 1. The act of aggregating ; the state 
of being collected into a sum or mass ; a collection of par- 
ticulars ; an aggregate. — 2. In chemistry, the affinity of 
aggregation is the power which causes homogeneous 

* S6«, Synopsis. A, E, I, 6, ©, "y, long— FAR, FALL, WHAT j-PRgY ;— PIN, MARtNE, BIRD ;- t Obsolete 




oodies to tend towards each other, and to cohere, when 
united. 3. TJie union and coherence of bodies of the 
same nature. 

AG'GRE-GA-Tl VE, a. Taken together ; collective. 

AG'GRE-G A-TOR, n. He that collects into a whole or mass. 

AG-GRESS', V. i. [L. aggredior, aggressus.'\ To make a 
first attack ; to commit the first act of hostility or ofiense 5 
to begin a quarrel or controversy ; to assault first, or in- 

t AG-GRESS', 71. Aggression. Hale. 

AG-GRESS'ING, jipr. Commencing hostility first ; making 

AG-GRESS'10N,*7i. The first attack, or act of hostility ; the 
first act of injury, or first act leading to war or contro- 

AG-GRESS'IVE, a. Tending to aggress ; making the first 
attack. Clarkson. 

AG-GRESS'OR, n. The person who first attacks ; he who 
first commences hostility or a quarrel ; an assaulter ; an 

AG-GRlK'VANCE, n. Oppression ; hardship ; injury 

AG-GRIeVE', v. t. 1. To give pain or sorrow ; to afflict. 
In this sense it is nearly superseded by grieve. 2. To bear 
hard upon ; to oppress or injure ; to vex or harass. 

t AG-GRIeVE', v. i. To mourn , to lament. 

AG-GRIEV'ED, (ag-greevd') pp. Pained ; afflicted ; civilly 
or politically oppressed. 

AG-GRIeV'ING, ppr. Afflicting ; iaigosing hardships on ; 

AG-GR5UP', ) ??. «. [Sp. agnipar.] To bring together ; to 

AG-GROOP', \ group ; to collect many persons into a 
crowd, or many figures into a whole. 

AG-GRoUP'ED, ) , „,.„„„tn \ pp. Collected into a group 

AG-GROOP'ED, \ ^ag-gioopt ) | ^^ assemblage. 

A-GHAST', or, more correctly, Agast, a. or adv. Struck 
with amazement 5 stupified with sudden friglit or horror. 

AGILE, a. [Fr. agile.] Nimble; having the faculty of 
quick motion in the limbs ; apt or ready to move ; brisk ; 

AG'ILE-NESS, n Nimbleness ;, activity ; the faculty of 
moving the limbs quickly ; agility. 

A-6IL'I-TY, n. [L. agilitas.'] The power of moving the 
limbs quickly ; nimbleness ; briskness ; activity 5 quick- 
ness of motion. 

t A-6IL'L0-C(JM, n. Aloes- wood, Quincy. 

A 6I-O, n. [Ital. aggio.l 1. In commerce, the difierence be- 
tween bank notes and current coin. 2. Premium ; sum 
given above the nominal value. 

A-6IST', V. t. In laiD, to take the cattle of others to graze , 
to feed or pasture the cattle of others. 

A-6IST'MENT, n. The taking and feeding of other men's 
cattle in the king's forest, or on one's own land ; also, the 
price paid for such feeding. 

A-GIST'OR, or A6-IS-TA'TOR, n. An officer of the king's 
forest, who has the care of cattle agisted, and collects the 
money for the same. 

AGI-TA-BLE, a. That may be agitated, shaken, or dis- 

AG'I-TATE, V. t. [L. agito.] 1. To stir violently ; to put in 
motion ; to shake or move briskly. 2. To move or force 
into violent, irregular action. 3. To disturb, or excite in- 
to tumult. 4. To discuss ; to debate ; to controvert. 5. 
To consider on all sides ; to revolve in the mind, or view 
in all its aspects ; to contrive by mental deliberation. 

A6'I-TA-TED, pp. Tossed from side to side ; shaken ; mov- 
ed violently and irregularly ; disturbed ; discussed ; con- 

AG'I-TA-TING, ppr. Shaking ; moving with violence 5 dis- 
turbing ; disputing ; contriving. 

A6-I-Ta'TI0N, n. 1. The act of shaking ; the state of be- 
ing moved with violence, or with irregular action •, com- 
motion. 2. Disturbance of tranquility in the mind ; per- 

V turbation ; excitement of passion. 3. Discussion; exam- 
ination of a subject in controversy. 4. A state of being 
deliberated upon, with a view to contrivance, or plan to 
be adopted. 

AG-I-TA'TO, in music, denotes a broken style of perform- 
ance, adapted to awaken surprise or perturbation. 

\GI-T A-TOR, n. One who agitates ; also, an insurgent ; 
one who excites sedition or revolt. In CromwelVs time, 
certain officers, appointed by the army to manage their 
concerns, were called agitators. 

A.G'LET, or aIG'LET, n. [Fr. aiguillette.] 1. A tag of a 
point curved into the representation of an animal, gener- 
ally of a man ; a small plate of metal. — ^2. In botany, a 
pendant at the ends of the chives of flowers, as in the 
rose and tulip. 

AG'LET-BA-BY, n. A small image on the top of a lace. 

AG'MI-NAL, a. [L agmen.] Pertaining to an army or 
troop. [Little used.] 

AG'xVAIL, n. A disease of the nail ; a whitlow ; an inflam- 
mation round the nail. 

AG^NATE, a. fL. agnatus.] Related or akin by the father's 

AG 'NATE, n. Any male relation by the father's side, 

AG-NAT'I€, a. Pertaining to descent by the male line of 
ancestors. Blackstone. 

AG-Na'TION, 71. Relation by the father's side only, or de- 
scent in the male line, distinct from cognation, which in- 
cludes descent in the male and female lines. 

AG'NEL, 71. [from agnus.] An ancient French coin, value 
twelve sols, six deniers. 

AG-NI"TI0N, 71. [L. agnitio.] Acknowledgment. [Little 

id.] Pearson. 

-NiZE , V. t. To acknowledge. Shak. 


AG-NOM'I-NATE, v t. [L. agnomina.] To name. [LMle 

AG-NOM-I-Na'TION, n. [L. agnomen.] 1. An additional 
name, or title ; a name added to another, as expressive of 
some act, achievement, &c, ; a surname. 2. Allusion of 
one word to another by sound. 

AGNUS €ASiTUS. A species of vitex, so called from ita 
imagined virtue of preserving chastity. 

AG'NUS De'I, [Latnb of Ood.] In the Romish church, a 
cake of wax stamped with the figure of a lamb, support- 
ing the banner of the cross. 

AG'NUS SCYTH'I-€US. [Scythian lamb.] A name appli- 
ed_to the roots of a species of fern. 

A-Go', adv. or a. [Sax. agan.] Past ; gone ; as, a year ago 

A-GOG', adv. [Fr. agogo ] In a state of desii-e ; highly ex- 
cited by eagerness after an object. 

A-Go'ING, In motion ; as, to set a mill agoing. 

t a'GON, n. [Gr.] The contest for the prize. 

A-GONW, pp. Ago ; past ; since. [JVearly obs.] 

AG'O-NISM, n. [Gr. aywvtff/^oj .] Contention for a prize. 

AG'0-NIST, n. One who contends for the prize in public 
games. Milton has used Asonistes in this sense. 

AG-0-NIST'I€, } a. Pertaining to prize-fighting, con- 

AG-0-NIST'I-€AL, \ tests of strength, or athletic combats 

AG-0-NIST'I-CAL-LY, adv. In an agonistic manner ; like 

AG'O-NIZE, V. i. [Gr. aywvi^o).] To writhe with extreme 
pain ;_to suffer violent anguish. Pope. 

AG'O-NiZE, V. t. To distress with extreme pain ; to tor- 
ture. Pope. 

AG'O-Nl-ZING, 7?pr. Suffering severe pain ; writhing with 

AG'O-Nl-ZING-LY, adv. With extreme anguish. 

t AG-0-NO-THeTE', n. A judge of masteries in activity. 

t AG-0-N0-THET'I€, a. Presiding at public games. 

AG'O-NY, 7(. [Gr, aywv.] 1. In strictness, pain so extreme 
as to cause writhing or contortions of the body, similar to 
those made in the athletic contests in Greece. Hence, 
2. Extreme pain of body or mind ; anguish ; appropri 
ately, the pangs of death, and the sufferings of our Savior 
in the garden of Gethsemane. Luke xxii. 3. Violent con- • 
test or striving. Mm-e. 

1;A-GOOJ)<, adv. In earnest. Skak. 

A-GOU'TY, 7i. [qu, Sp, agudo.] A quadruped of the order 
rodeiitia, of the size of a rabbit, 

t A-GRAM'MA-TIST, 71, An illiterate man. 

A-GRa'RI-AN, a. [L. agrari^LS.] Relating to lands. Ap- 
propriately, denoting or pertaining to an equal division of 
lands ; as, the agrarian laws of Rome, which distributed 
the conquered and other public lands equally among all 
the citizens, 

A-GREE , 71. i. [Fr, agreer.] 1. To be of one mind ; to har- 
monize in opinion. 2. To live in concord, or without 
contention. 3. To yield assent ; to approve or admit ; fol- 
lowed by to. 4. To settle by stipulation, the minds of 
parties being agreed as to the terms. 5. To come to a 
compromise of differences ; to be reconciled. 6. To come 
to one opinion or mind ; to concur ; as, to agree on a place 
of meeting. 7. To be consistent ; to harmonize ; not to 
contradict, or be repugnant. 8. To resemble ; to be sim 
ilar. 9, To suit ; to be accommodated or adapted to. 

A-GREE', V. t. To admit, or come to one mind concerning , 
as, to agree the fact. Also, to reconcile or make friends ; 
to put an end to variance ; but these senses are unusual, 
and hardly legitimate. 

j A-GREE-A-BIL'I-TY, ??. Easiness of disposition. Chaucer 

A-GREE' A-BLE, a. ]. Suitable; conformable; con-espond 
ent ; consistent with, 2. In pursuance of; in conformity 
with. 3. Pleasing, either to the mind or senses ; as, agree- 
able manners. 

A-GREE'A-BLE-NESS, v. I , Suitableness ; conformity; 
consistency. 2. The quality of pleasing ; that quality 
which gives satisfaction or moderate pleasure to the mind 
or senses. 3. Resemblance ; likeness. Obs. 

A-GREE' A-BLY, adv. I. Pleasingly ; in an agreeable man- 
ner ; in a manner to give pleasure. 2. Suitably ; consist- 
ently ; conformably. 3. Alike ; in the same manner. Ob<t. 

A-GREED', pp. 1. Being in concord or harmony of opinion i 

* See Smopsis. Mf^VE BOOK, D6VE ;— BTJLL, UNITE.— € as K ; 6 as J ; S as Z ; CII as SH ; TH as in this, f Obsolete 



i)f one mind. 2. Assented to ; admitted. 3. Settled by 
consent ; implying bargain or contract. 

AGREE'ING,^^"*' Living in concord ; concurring ; assent- 
ing ; settling by consent. 

A-GREE'ING-LY, adv. In conformity to. [Little used.} 

r A-GREE'iNG-NESS, n. Consistency •, suitableness. 

4-GE,EE'MENT, n. I. Concord ; harmony ; conformity. 

2. Union ofopinions or sentiments. 3. Resemblance 5 con- 
formity 5 similitude. 4. Union of minds in regard to a 
transfer of interest ; bargain ; compact ; contract ; stipu- 

\ A-GRES'TIAL, ) a. [L. agrestis.] Rural •, rustic ; per- 

A GRES'TIC, [ taining to fields or the country, in 

A-GRES'T1-€AL, ) opposition to the city ; unpolished. 

AGRI-€UL-TOR, n. One whose occupation is to till the 
ground ; a farmer ; a husbandman. 

AG-RI-€UL'TU-RAL, a. Pertaining to husbandry, tillage, 
or the culture of the earth. 

AG'RI-€UL-TURE, n. [L. ager, and cultura.] The culti- 
vation of the ground, for the purpose of producing vege- 
tables and fruits, for the use of man and beast ; the art of 
preparing the soil, sowing and planting seeds, dressing the 
plants, and removing the crops. 

AG-RI-CUL TU-RISM, 7i. The art or science of agriculture. 
[Little used.] 

AG-RI-€UL TU-RIST, n. One skilled in agriculture ; a 
skilful husbandman. 

AGRI-MO-NY, n. [I., argemonia.] A genus of plants, of 
several species. 

AG-RIP-PIN'I-ANS, n. In church history, the followers of 
Agrippinus, bishop of Carthage. Encyc. 

t A-GRISE', V. i. [Sax. agrisan.] To shiver. 

T A-GRiSE , V. t. To terrify ; also, to make frightful. 

a'GROM, 71. A disease frequent in Bengal. 

AG-RO-STEM'MA, n. A genus of plants. 

A-GROS'TIS, n. [Gr. aypuxms.] Bent grass. 

A-GROUND', adv. 1. On the ground ; a marine term, signi- 
fying that the bottom of a ship rests on the ground, for 
want of sutFicient depth of water. 2. Figuratively, stop- 
ped ; impeded by insuperable obstacles 

A-GUA-PE-€A'€A, n. The jacana, a Brazilian bird. 

iv'GUE, (a'gu) n [Sax. mge, oga, or hoga.] 1. The cold fit 
which precedes a fever,'or a paroxysm of fever in intermit- 
tents. It is accompanied with shivering. 2. Chilliness ; a 
chill, or state of shaking with cold, though in health. 3. It 
is used for a periodical fever, an intermittent, whether 
quotidian, tertian, or quartan. 

A GUE, V. t. To cause a shivering in ; to strike with a cold 
fit. Haywood. 

A'GUE-CAKE, n. A hard tumor on the left side of the bel- 
ly, lower than the false ribs. 

aGU-ED, a. Chilly ; having a fit of ague ; shivering with 
cold or fear. Shak. 

a'GUE-FIT, n. A paroxysm of cold, or shivering ; chilli- 

_ ness. 

A GUE-PROOF, a. Able to resist agues ; proof against 

fA-GUERRY, V. t. [Fi. agxLerrir.] To inure to the hard- 
ships of war ; to instruct in the art of war 

A'GUE-SPELL, n. A charm or spell to cure or prevent ague. 

AGUE-STRUCK, a. Struck with ague. Hewyt. 

AGUE-TREE, w. A name sometimes applied to sassa- 
fras. _ 

t A-GUlSE V. t. To dress ; to adorn. Spenser. 

■JA-GUiSE n. Dress. More. 

a'GU-ISH, a. Chilly ; somewhat cold or shivering ; having 
the qualities of an ague. 

A GU-ISH-NESS,_n. Chilliness ; the quality of being aguish. 

A-GUIL-LA-NEuF', n. A form of rejoicing among the 
ancient Franks, on the first day of the year. 

S'GUL, 71 A species of the hedysaruni. 

AH. An exclamation, expressive of surprise, pity, complaint, 
contempt, dislike, joy, exultation, &c., according to the 
manner of utterance 

S.-HA'. 1. An exclamation expressing triumph, contempt, or 
simple siurprise ; but the senses are distinguished by very 
different modes of utterance, and different modifications 
of featureG. 2. n. A sunk fence, not visible, without near 
approach. Mason. 

A-HAN I-GER, n. A name of the gar-fish. 

A-HEAD', (a-hed') adv. 1. Further forward than another 
thing ; in front ; originally a sea term, denoting further 
forward than another ship. 2. Onward ; forward ; to- 
wards the point before the stem or head ; as, move ahead. 

3. Headlong ; precipitantly. L'Estrange. 

, A-HEIGHT', (a-hlte') adv. Aloft ; on high. 

A-HIC-CY-AT'LI, n. A poisonous serpent of Mexico 

t A-HIGH , adv. On high. 

J-A-HoLD', ado. Near the wind. Shak. 

AHOVAF, n. A poisonous species of plum. 

A-HOY^, ezcl. A sea term used in hailing. 

AHRIMAN. See Ariman. 

A-HJIT'LA, n. A worm found in the lake of Mexico. 


A-HUIT'ZOTE, 71. An amphibious quadruped of the trop 
ical climate of America, 

t A-HUNG'RY, a. Hungry. Shak. 

A'lA, n. A Brazilian fowl of the spoon-bill kind, and re 
sembling that bird in form and size. 

AI-CU'RUS, 71. A large and beautiful species of parrot. 

AID, V. t. [Fr. aider.] To help ; to assist 5 to support. 

AID, 71. 1. Help ; succor ; support ; assistance. 2. The per- 
son who aids or yields support ; a helper ; an auxiliary 

3. In English law, a subsidy or tax granted by parliament. 

4. An aid-de-camp, so called by abbreviation. 
aID'ANCE, 71. Aid ; help ; assistance. [Little used.] Shak. 
t aID'ANT, a. Helping ; helpful ; supplying aid. 
*aID'DE-€AMP, 71, In military affairs, an officer whose 

duty is to receive and communicate the orders of a gen- 
eral officer. [It is desirable that this word should be natu 
ralized, and no longer pronounced aid-de-cong.] 

aID'ED, pp. Assisted ; supported ; furnished with succor. 

aID'ER, 7i. One who helps ; an assistant, or auxiliary. 

AlD'ING,;;pr. Helping ; assisting. 

aID'LESS, a. Helpless ; without aid ; unsupported ; unde- 
fended. Shak. 

t aI'GRE, a. Sour. Craven dialect. 

Al'GRET, I n. I. In zoology, a name of the small white 

aI'GRETTE, \ heron.— 2. In botany. See Egret. 

aI'GU-LET, n. A point or tag, as at the ends of fringes 

_ See Aiglet. 

aIK'RAW, n. A name of a species of lichen, or moss. 

AIL, V. t. [Sax. eglian.] To trouble ; to affect with unea- 
siness, either of body or mind. 

AIL, 77. Indisposition, or morbid affection. 

AlL'ING, ppr. Diseased -, indisposed •, full of complaints. 

aIL'MENT, 71. Disease ; indisposition ; morbid affection of 
the body. 

AIM, V. i. [qu. Ir. oigham.] To point at with a missive 
weapon ; to direct the intention or purpose ; to attempt 
to reach, or accomplish ; to tend towards ; to endeavor ; 
followed by at. 

AIM, V. t. To direct or point as a weapon ; to direct to a 
particular object ; as, to aim a musket. 

AIM, n. 1. The pointing or direction of a missile weapon ; 
the direction of any thing to a particular point or object, 
with a view to strike or affect it. 2, The point intended 
to be hit, or object intended to be affected. 3. A purpose ; 
intention ; design •, scheme. 4. Conjecture ; guess. [JVo« 
used.] Spenser. 

AIMED, pp. Pointed ; directed ; intended to strike or af- 

aIM'ER, 71. One that aims. 

aIM'ING, ppr. Pointing a weapon at an object •, directing 

_ any thing to an object ; intending ; purposing. 

aIM'LESS, a. Without aim. May. 

AIR, n. [Fr. air ; L, acr ; Gr. anp.] 1. The fluid which we 
breathe. Air is inodorous, invisible, insipid, colorless, 
elastic, possessed of gravity, easily moved, rarefied and 
condensed. Atmospheric air is a compound fluid, consist- 
ing of oxygen gas, and nitrogen or azote. The body of 
air surrounding the earth is called the atmosphere. 2, Air 
in motion ; a light breeze. 3. Vent ; utterance abroad ; 
publication ; publicity. 4. A tune •, a short soaig or piece 
of music adapted to words ; also, the peculiar modulation 
of the notes, which gives music its character ; as, a soft 
air. A song or piece of poetry for singing ; the leading 
part of a tune. 5. The peculiar look, appearance, manner 
or mien of a person. It is applied to manners or gestures, 
as well as to features. 6. Airs, in the plural, is used to de- 
note an affected manner, show of pride, haughtiness ; as, 
he puts on airs. — 7, In painting, that which expresses the 
life of action ; manner ; gesture ; attitude. 8. Any thing 
light or uncertain ; that is light as air. 9. Advice ; intel- 
ligence : information. [Ois.] Bacon. 

AIR, 7'. t. I. To expose to the air ; to give access to the 
open air 5 to ventilate ; as, to air a room. 2. To expose 
to heat ; to warm. 3. To dry by a fire j to expel damp- 

AIR'A, 71. Hair grass, a genus of plants. 

AIR'-BAL-LOON. See Balloon. 

AIR'-BLAD-DER, n. A vesicle or cuticle filled with air , 
also, the bladder of a fish. 

AIR'-BORN, a. Born of the air. Congreve 

AIR'-BRA-VING, a. Braving the winds. Shak. 

AIR'-BUILT, a. Erected in the air ; having no solid foun- 
dation ; chimerical. 

AIR'-DRAWN, a. Drawn in air ; imaginary. Shak. 

AIRED, pp. Exposed to air ; cleansed by air ; heated or 
dried by exposure to a fire ; ventilated. 

AIR'ER, 71. One who exposes to the air. _, 

AIR'-GUN, n. A pneumatic engine, resembling a musket 
to discharge bullets by means of air. 

AIR'HOLD-ER, 7(. An instrument for holding air. 

AIR'-HOLE, 71. An opening to admit or disciiarge air. 

AIR'I-NESS, n. 1. Exposure to a free current of air •, open 
ness to the air. 2. Gayety ; levity. 

AIR'ING, ppr. Exposing to the air ; warming ; drying. 

See Synopsis A, £, I o U, ?, long -FAR, FALL, WHAT •,— PREY ;— FTN, M ARiNE, BIRD ;— j Obsdete. 




AIR'ING, n. Ail exposure to the air, or to a fire, for warm- 
ing or drying ; also, a wallc or ride in the open air ; a 
short excursion. 

AIIl'-JACK-ET, 71. A leather jacket, to which are fastened 
bags or bladders filled with air. 

AIRLESS, a. Not open to a free current of air ; wanting 
fresh air, or communication with open air. 

Alii'LING, 71. A thoughtless, gay person. Jonson. 

AIR -PIPE, n. A pipe used to draw foul air from a ship's 

AIR'-POISE, n. An instrument to measure the weight of 
the air, 

AIR'-PUMP, 71. A machine for exhausting the air of a ves- 

AIR'^A€S, 71. Air-bags in birds. 

AIR '-SHAFT, n. A passage for air into a mine. 

AIR '-STIR-RING, a. Putting the air in motion. 

AIR '-THREAD, 7t. A name given to the spider's webs, 
which are often seen floating in the air. 

AIR'-THREAT-EN-ING, a. Threatening the air ; lofty. 

AIR'-VES-SEL, 11. A spiral duct in plants, containing air. 

AIR'Y, a. I. Consisting of air. 2. Relating or belonging 
to air; high in air. 3. Open to a free current of air. 4. 
Light as air ; resembling air ; thin ; unsubstantial ; with- 
out solidity. 5 Without reality ; having no solid foun- 
dation ; vain ; trifling. 6. Gay ; sprightly ; full of viva- 
city and levity ; light of heart ; lively. 

AIR'Y, or a'ER-Y, 71. [See Aery.] Among sportsmen, the 
nest of the hawk or eagle. 

AIR'Y-FLY'ING, a. Flying like air. Thomson. 

AIR'Y-LIGHT, a. Light as air. 

AISH, n. Stubble. Grose. 

AISLE, or AILE, (He) n. [Fr. aile.\ The wing of a quire ; 
a walk in a church. 

AIT, orEYGHT, (ate) n. A small island in a river. 

AI-ZOON'j 71. [Sax. atzon.] A genus of plants 

A-JAR' adv. Half-opened. 

A-Ja'VA, n. The seed of a plant brought from Malabar. 

A-JU'GA, 71. Bugle, a genus of plants. Encyc. 

A-JtJ'RU-€A-TIN'GA, n. A species of American parrot. 

A-Jtr'RU-€U-RAU, n. An American parrot. 

A-Ju'RU-PA-RA, n. A small parrot of America. 

AJ'U-TAGE, or AD'JU-TAGE, n. [Fr.] A tube fitted to 
the mouth of a vessel. 

AKE, 7J. i., less properly written acke. [Sax. ace.] 1. To 
be in pain ; usually, in pain of some continuance. Shak. 
2. To feel distress of mind ; to be grieved. 

AKE, 71. Continued pain, less severe than is expressed by 
pang, agony, and torment •, as, the tooth-ake. 

a'KER, 71. [Gr. aypos ; L. agerj Sax. accr. The most 

of land in the aker is fixed at 4840 square yards, making 
160 square rods, perclies, or poles. See Acre. 

A-KIN', a. 1. Related by blood, used of persons. 2. Al- 
lied by nature ; partaking of the same properties ; as, 
envy and jealousy are near akin. 

a'KING, ppr. Having continued pain ; suffering distress of 
mind, or grief. 

ASKING, n. Continued pain, or distress of mind. 

AL, in .Arabic, an adjective, or inseparable prefix, answer- 
ing to the Italian il, and Spanish el, and la. Its use is to 
render nouns definite, like the English the ; as, alkoran, 
the koran, or the book, by eminence ; alcove, alchimy, 
alembic, almanac, &c. 

AL, in English, is sometimes a contraction of the Saxon 
(sthel, noble, or illustrious. More generally, al, in com- 
position, is a contraction of aid, or alt, old, and it is pre- 
fixed to many names, as Mhurg. Sax. eald ; Germ, alt, 

AL, in the composition of Latin words, is written before I 
for ad, for the ease of pronunciation ; as, in allevo, al- 
ludo, for ad levo, ad ludo. 

AL'A-BAS-TER, n. [L. from Gr. aXa/Saorpov.] A sub- 
variety of carbonate of lime, found in large masses, form- 
ed by the deposition of calcareous particles in caverns of 
limestone rocks. Among the ancients, alabaster was also 
the name of a vessel, in which odoriferous liquors were 
kept ; so called from the stone of which it was made. 

AL'A-BAS-TER, a. Made of alabaster. 

A-LACK', exclam. An exclamation expressive of sorrow. 

A-LACK'A-DAY. An exclamation uttered to express regret 
or sorrow. 

rA-LAC'RI-OUS-LY, acZi;. Cheerfully. 

f A-LA€'RI-OUS-NESS, n. Briskness. 

A-LACRI-TY, n. [L. alacritas.] Cheerfulness •, gayety ; 
sprightliness ; a cheerful readiness or promptitude to do 
some act. 

A-LAD'I-NISTS, n. Free thinkers among the Mohamme- 

AL'A-LITE, n A crystalized mineral ; diopside; a semi- 
transparent pyroxene. 

A-LA-Mi'RE', 71. The lowest note but one, in Guido Are- 
tine's scale of music. Johnson. 

lypos ; 

correct orthography is aker.] Originally, an open field. 
But in Oreat Britain and the United States, the quantity 

AL-A-MO-DAL'1-TY, n. Confonnity to the prevailing 
mode, or fashion of the times. Encyc. [Little used.] 

AL-A-MoDE', adv. [Fr. a la mode.] According to the 
fashion^ or prevailing mode. Whitlock. 

AL-A-MoDE', n. A thin, glossy silk for hoods, scarfs, &c 

A-LAND', adv. At, or on land. Sidney. 

A-LAN'TUm' ( "''^^' '^* ^ 'distance. Grose. Craven dialect 

A-LaRM', n. [Fr. alarme, alarmer.] 1. Any sound, out- 
cry, or information, intended to give notice of approach 
ing danger. 2. A summon to arms. 3. Sudden surprise 
with fear or terror. 4. Terror ; a sensation excited by an 
apprehension of danger.— 5. In fencing, an appeal or 

A-LARM', V. t. 1. To give notice of danger ; to rouse to 
vigilance. 2. To call to arms for defense. 3. To sur- 
prise with apprehension of danger ; to disturb with terror. 

A-LARM'-B£LL, 71. A bell that gives notice of danger. 

A-LARM ED, (a-larmd') pp. Notified of sudden danger; 
surprised with fear ; roused to vigilance or activity by 
apprehension of approaching danger. 

A-LARM'ING, ppr. Giving notice of approaching danger ; 
rousing to vigilance. 

A-LARM'lNG, a. Exciting apprehension ; terrifying ; 
awakening a sense of danger. 

A-LARM'ING-LY, adv. With alarm ; in a manner to excite 

A-LARM'IST, 71. One that excites alarm. 

A-LARM'-POST, n. A place to which troops are to repair 
in case of an alarm. 

A-LARM'- WATCH, 7*. A watch that strikes the hour by 
regulated movement. Herbert. 

A-LAR'UM, for alarm, is a corruption. 

A-LASf, ezcl. [Dutch, helaas : Fr. helas.] An exclamation 
expressive of sorrow, grief, pity, concern, or apprehension 
of evil; sometimes followed by day or while; alas the 
day, like alack a day ; or alas the while, [Obs.] Spenser 
expressing an unhappy time. 

t A-LaTE', adv. Lately 

A-La'TED, a. [L. alatus. | Winged ; having dilatations 
like wings. Botany. 

AL'A-TERN, n. A name of a species of buckthorn. 

ALB, n. [L. albus.] A surplice or vestment of white linen, 
reaching to the feet. A Turkish coin. 

AL'BA-TROS, n. An aquatic fowl. 

AL-BE', ) [.Albeit is supposed to be a compound of all, 

AL-Be'IT. ) be, and it, and is equivalent to admit, or 
grant it all.] Be it so ; admit all that ; although ; not- 
withstanding. [JVow antiquated.] 

AL'BE-LEN, n. A fish of the trout kind. 

AL-BES'CENT, a. [L. albesco.] Becoming white, or rather 
whitish ; moderately white. 

AL'BI-€0RE, n [Port, albacor.] A marine fish, like a 

t AL-BI-FL€a'TI0N, 71. Making white. Chaucer. 

AL-BI-6EN'SES, AL-BE-6E0IS', n. A party of Reform- 
ers, who separated from the church of Rome, in the 12th 
century ; so called from the Albegeois, a small territory 
in France, where they resided. They are sometime'3 
confounded with the Waldenses. 

AL'BIN, n. [L. albus.] An opake, white mineral. 

AL-BI'NO, 7J. [L. albus.] A white descendant of black pa- 
rents, or a white person belonging to a race of blacks. A 
person unnaturally white. 

AL-BI'NOS, 71. A name signifying white men, given by the 
Portuguese to the white negroes of Africa. 

AL'BI-ON, n. An aiicient name of England, still used in 

AL-Bo'RA, n. A sort of itch, or rather leprosy. 

AL-Bo'RO, 71. A small red fish of the Mediterranean. 

AL-BU-6IN'E-0US, c. \Ij. albugo.] Pertaining to, or re- 
sembling the white of the eye, or of an egg. 

AL-Bu'GO, n. The white speck in the eye Also, a dis- 
easeof the eye. 

AL-Bu'LA, n. A species of tmttaceous fish. 

AL'BUM, 71. [L. albus.] 1. Among the Romans, a white 
table, board or register. 2. A book, in which foreigners 
or strangers insert autographs of celebrated persons, or in 
which friends insert pieces as memorials for each other. 

AL-Bu'MEN, 71. The white of an egg. 

AL-Bu'MIN-OUS, a. Pertaining to, or having the proper- 
ties of albumen. 
I AL'BURN, or AL-BURN'UM, n. [L. alMimum.] The 
I white and softer part of wood, between the inner bark 
I and the wood. In America, it is popularly called the 

AL'BURN, n. [L. alburnus.] A fish called the bleak. 

AL'CA-HEST, or AL KA-HEST, n. [Arabic] A pretended 
universal dissolvent, or menstruum. See Alkahest. 

AL-Ca'1€, a. Pertaining to Alcaus, a lyric poet. 

AL-€a'I€S, 71. plu. Several kinds of verse, so called from 
Alcaeus, tlieir inventor. 

AL-€aID', n. [Sp. alcayde ; Port, alcaide.] Among the 
Moors, Spaniards, and Portuguese, a governor. 

* See Synopsis. MOVE, BOOK, D6VE ;— BULL, UNITE.— € as K ; as J ; « as Z ; OH as SH ; TH as in this, f Obsolete, 




AL-€AN'NA, n. [Arabic] A plant ; and a powder, pre- 
pared from the leaves of the Egyptian privet. 

AL'€A-TRAZ, n. A pelican. 

A.L-€A-VA'LA, 71. In Spain, a tax on every transfer of 
property, real or personal. Encyc. 

AL-Ce'DO, 71. [L ] The king-fisher 

AL-eHEM'[€, I a. Relating to alchemy, or produced by 

AL-€HE]MII-€AL, i it 

AL-€HEM'I-€AL-LY, adv. In the manner of alchemy. 

AL'€HE-MIST, 71. One who practices alchemy. 

AL-€HE-MIST I€, /a. Practicing alchemy, or relating 

AL-€HE-MIST'I-€AL, \ to it. 

AL €HE-MY, n. [It. alcJiiviia.] 1. The more sublime and 
difficult parts of chemistry, and chiefly such as relate to 
the transmutation of metals into gold, the finding a 
universal remedy for diseases, and an alkahest, or uni- 
versal solvent, and other things now treated as ridicu- 
lous. This pretended science was much cultivated in 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, but is now 
held in contempt. 2. Formerly, a mixed metal used for 

AL€-Ma'NI-AN, a. Pertaining to Alcman, a lyric poet. 

AL'eO, 11. A quadruped of America. 

AL'€0-H0L, 71. [Ar.] Pure or highly rectified spirit, ob- 
tained from fermented liquors by distillation. 

AL-€0-HOL'I€, a. Pertaining to alcohol, or partaking of 
Its qualities, Med. Rep. 

AL-€0-HOL-I-Za'TION, n. The act of rectifying spirit, till 
it is wholly dephiegmated ; or of reducing a substance to 
an impalnable powder. 

AL'€0-HO-LlZE, v. t. To convert into alcohol ; to rectify 
spirit, till it is wholly dephiegmated ; also, to reduce a 
substance to an impalpable powder. 

AL'€OR, n. [Ar.] A small star. 

AL'eO-RAN. See Kojeian and Alkoean. 

* AL'€oVE, or AL-€oVE', n. [Sp. alcoba.] 1. A recess, or 
part of a room, separated by an estrade, or partition of 
columns, or by other corresponding ornaments ; in which 
is placed a bed of state, and sometimes seats for company. 
2 A recess in a library, or small lateral apartment for 

AL CY-ON, 77. The king-fisher. See Halcyon. 

AL CY-0-NlTE, n A fossil zoophite, somewhat resembling 
a fungus. J of Science, 

AL-CY-5'NI-UM, n. The name of a submarine plant. 
Also, a kind of astroit orcoral. 

AL'DER, n. [L. almis.] A tree, usually growing in moist 

" land, and belonging to the genus alnus. 

t AL-DER-LIeV'EST, a. Most beloved. Sliok. 

ALD'ER-MANj plu. Aldermen, ?<.. [Sax. aid or eald, old, 

'" comp. alder, older, and man.'] 1. Among our Saxon an- 
cestors, a senior or superior. The title was applied to 
princes, dukes, earls, senators, bishops, &c. 2. In pres- 
ent usage, a magistrate or officer of a town corporate, next 
in rank below the mayor. 

t AL-DER-MAN'I-TY, 71. The behavior and manners of an 
alderman. The society of aldermen. 

AL'DER-MAN-LY, a. Pertaining to, or like an alderman. 

" Sioift. 

AL'DERN, a. Made of alder. 

Ale, 71. [Sax. eala, eale, or aloth.] 1. A liquor made from 
an infusion of malt by fermentation. It differs from beer, 
in having a smaller proportion of hops. 2. A merry 
meeting in English country places, so called from the 
liquor drank. Ben Jonson. 

aLE'-BENCH, n. A bench in or before an ale house. 

aLE'-BER-RY, n. A beverage, made by boiling ale with 
spice, sugar, and sops of bread. 

aLE'-BREW-ER, 71. One whose occupation is to brew ale. 

aLE'-€GN-NER, 71, [ale and con.] An officer in London, 
whose business is to inspect the measures used in public 
houses, to prevent frauds in selling liquors. 

aLE'-€OST, n. Costraary, a plant. 

aLE'-FED, a. Fed with ale. Stafford 

aLE'-GAR, 71, [ale, and Fr. aigre, sour,] Sour ale; the 
acid of ale, 

aLE'-HOOF, n. [D. eiloof.] Ground-ivy. 

aLE'-HOUSE, 71. A house where ale is retailed. 

aLE'-HOUSE-KEEP-ER, n. One who keeps an ale-house. 

aLE'-KNIGHT (ale'nite) 71. a pot companion. Chaucer. 

aLH-SHOT, 71. A reckoning to be paid for ale. 

aLE -SIL-VER. 71. A duty paid to the lord mayor of Lon- 
don, by the sellers of ale within the city. 

^LE -STAKE, 71. A stake set as a sign before an ale-house, 

AliE -TaST-ER, n. An officer appointed to inspect ale, 
beer and bread. Cowel. 

aLB-VAT, n. A vat in which ale is fermented. 

aLE'-WASHED, a. Steeped in ale. 

aLE'-WIFE, n. A woman who keeps an ale-house. 

ALE'WIFE, or A'LOOF, n. [This word is properly aloof, 
the Indian name of a fish.] An American fish, resembling 
the herring. The established pronunciation is alewife, 
plu aleioives. 

A-LEC-TRY-OM'AN-CY, n. [Gr. aXsKTpvwv and fiav- 
T£ia.] An ancient practice of forete ling events by means 
of a cock. 

A-LEE', adv. In seamen''s language, on the side opposite 
to the wind, that is, opposite to the side on which it 

AL'E-GAR, 71. Sour ale ; acid made of ale. 

t AL'E-6ER, a. [Fr. ; Sp. alegre ; 'L.alacer.] Gay; cheer 
ful; sprightly. Bacon. 

t A-LEGGE', V t. To lighten ; to lessen ; to assuage. 

A-LEMB'DAR, n. A certain officer in Turkey. 

A-LEM'B1€, n. [Ar.] A chemical vessel used in distillation ; 
usually made of glass or copper. 

A-LENGTH', adv. At full length ; along ; stretched at fuU 
length. Chaucer. 

A-LEP'I-DOTE, n. [Gr. a and XtTTtf.] Any fish whose skin 
is not covered with scales. 

A-LERT', a. [Fr. alerte ; Sp. alcrto.] 1. Watchful ; vigi- 
lant ; active in vigilance. Hence the military phrase, 
upon the alert, upcm the watch. 2. Brisk; nimble; mov- 
ing with celerity. Spectator. 

A-LEilT'NESS, n. Briskness ; nimbleness ; sprightliness ; 
levity. Addison. 

A-LEU-ROM'AN-CY, n. [Gr. a'X£V(>ov and jxavTeia.} A 
kind of divination by meal. 

A-LEU'TIAN, ) a. Designating certain isles in the Pacific 

A-LEu'TI€, ) ocean, eastward of Kamtschatka. 

AL-EX-AN'DEBS, n. The name of a plant, 

AL-EX-aN'DER'S FOOT, n. The name of a plant. 

AL-EX-AN'DRI-AN, a. Pertaining to Alexandria. 

AL-EX-AN'DRiNE, or AL-EX-AN'DRI-AN, n. A kind of 
verse, consisting of twelve syllables, or of twelve and 
thirteen alternately. 

a\e^(x) and (papj-iaKov.] Expelling poison ; antidotal ; sudo- 
rific ; that has the quality of expelling poison or infection 
by sweat. 

A-LEX-l-PnAR'MI€, n. A medicine that is intended to 
obviate the efiiects of poison ; an antidote to poison or in- 

I-€AL, a. [Gr. aXe^u) and StiXrjrripiov.'] Resisting poison ; 
obviating the effects of venom. 

A-LEX-I-TER'I€, n. A medicine to resist the effects of 
poison, nearly synonymous with alexipharmic. 

AL'GA, n. [L.] Sea-weed. 

AL'GA-ROT, or AL'GA-ROTH, n. The name of an emetic 

•j- AL'GaTES, adv. On any terms ; every way. 

AL'GE-BRA, n. [Ar.] The science of quantity in general, 
or universal arithmetic. Algebra is a general method of 
computation, in which signs and symbols, which are com- 
monly the letters of the alphabet, are made to represent 
numbers and quantities. It takes an unknown quantity 
sought, as if granted ; and, by means of one or more 
quantities given, proceeds till the quantity supposed is 
discovered, by some other known quantity to which it is 

AL-6E-BRa'I€, ) a. Pertaining to algebra ; containmg 

AL- GE-BR a'I-€ AL, ) an operation of algebra, or deduced 
from suchoperation. 

AL-GE-BRa'IST, 71. One who is versed in the science of 

AL'GE-NEB, 71. A star of the second magnitude. 

AL-GE-RINE', n. A native of Algiers. 

AL-GE-RiNE', a. Belonging to Algiers 

t AL'GID, a. [L. algidus.] Cold. 

{ IlIiD-NeS, I «• C^"'^»^«« 5 cold. 

t AL-GIF'I€, a. Producing cold. 

AL'GOL, 71. A fixed star of the third magnitude. 

AL'GOR, 71. [Lat.] Among physicians, an unusual coldness 
in any part of the body. 

AL'GO-RITHM, or AL'GO-RISM, n. An Arabic term, sig- 
nifying numerical computation, or the six operations of 

t AL-GoSE', a. Extremely cold. 

AL'GOUS, a. [Ij. alga.] Pertaining to sea-weed ; abound- 
ing with, or like sea-weed. 

AL-GUA-ZlL', (al-gwa-zeeU) n. [Sp.] An inferior officer of 


a'LI-AS, [L.] Otherwise; as in this example— Simson, 
alias Smith ; a word used in judicial proceedings. 

a'LI-AS, 71. A second writ, or execution, issued when the 
first has failed to enforce the judgment. 

AL'I-Bl, 71. [L.] Elsewhere ; in another place ; a law term. 
When a person is charged with an offense, and he proves 
that he could not have committed it, because he was, at 
the time, in another place, he is said to prove an alibi. 

t AL'I-BLE, a. Nutritive ; nourishing. 

AL'IEN, (ale'-yen) a. [L. alienus.] 1. Foreign ; not 
belonging to the same country, land or government. 

* See Synopsis. A, K, T, 0, XJ, "9 long.— FAR, FALL, WHAT ;— PREY ;— ' IN, MAEiNE, BIRD ;— t Obsolete. 




2. Belonging to one who is not a citizen. 3. Estranged ; 
foreign ; not allied ; adverse to. 

AL lEN, (ale'yen) n. A foreigner ; one bom in, or belong- 
ing to, another country ; one who is not entitled to the 
privileges of a citizen. 

AL'TEN, (ale'yen) 1 v. t. [L. alieno.] 1. To transfer 

AL-iENE', (ale-yeen') \ title or property to another ; to 
sell. 2. To estrange ; to make averee or indifferent. — 
In this sense, it is more common to use alienate. 

aL-IEN-A-BIL'1-TY, (ale'yen-a-Ml'e-te) n. The capacity 
of being alienated or transferred. Burke. 

AL'IEN-A-BLE, (ale'yen-a-bl) a. That may be sold, or 
transferred to another. 

aL'IEN-A6E, (ale'yen-aje) n. The state of being an alien. 

aL'IEN-ATE, (ale'yen-ate) v. t. [L. alieno.] 1. To trans- 
fer title, property or right to another. 2. To estrange ; to 
withdraw, as the affections ; to make indifferent or averse, 
where lovft or friendship before subsisted. 

AL'IEN-ATE, a. [L. alienatus.] Estranged ; withdrawn 
from ; strangei to. 

t aL'IEN-ATE, 71. A stranger ; an alien 

AL-IEN-A'TION, (ale yen-a'shun) n. [L. alicnatio.] 1. 
A transfer of title ; oi a legal conveyance of property to 
another. 2. The statt" of being alienated. 3. A with- 
drawing or estrangeme n. 4. Delirium ; derangement of 
mental faculties ; insan 'y. Hooker. 

AL'IEN-A-TOR, n. One alienates or transfers property. 

AL-IEN-EE', 71. One to whom the title to property is trans- 
ferred. Blackstone. 

AL'IEN-ISM, n. Alienage. JV. Y. Reports. 

A-LlFE', adv. On my life. Shak. 

A-LIF'ER-OUS, a. [L. ala and /ero.] Having wings. 

AL'I-FORM, a. [L. ala and forma.'] Having the shape of 
a wing. 

A-LI6'ER-0US, a. [L. ala and gero.] Having wings. 

A-LIGGE'. See Alegge. 

A-LlGHT', (a-lite') v. i. [Sax. alihtan.] 1. To get down or 
descend, as from on horseback or from a carriage. 2. To 
descend and settle. 3. To fall or descend and lodge. ' 

A-LiKE', a. [Sax. gelic] Having resemblance or simili- 
tude ; similar. 

A-LiKE', adv. In the same manner, form or degree. 

A-LlKE'-MlND-ED, a. Having the same mind. 

AL'I-MENT, 71. [L. alimentum.] That which nourishes ; 
food ; nutriment. 

AL-l-MENT'AL, a. Supplying food ; that has the quality 
of nomishing. 

AL-I-JVIENT'AL-LY, adv. So as to serve for nourishment 
or food. 

AL-I-MENT'A-RI-NESS, n. The quality of supplying nu- 

AL-I-MENT A-RY, a. Pertaining to aliment or food ; hav- 
ing the quality of nourishing. 

AL-I-MENT -A 'TION, n. 1 . The act or power of affording 
nutrirnent. 2. The state of being nourished. Johnson. 

AL-I-Mo'NI-OUS, a. Nourishmg ; affording food. [Little 

ALT-MO-NY, n. [L. alimonia.] An allowance made for the 
support of a woman, legally separated from her husband. 

AL'I-PED, a. [L. aZa and pes.] Wing-footed ; having the 
toes connected by a membrane, which serves as a wing. 

A L'l-PED, 7^. An animal whose toes are connected by a 
membrane, and which thus serve for wings ; a cheiropter ; 
as the bat. Dumeril. 

AL'I-Q,UANT, a. [L. aliquantum.] In arithmetic, an ali- 
quant number or part is that which does not measure 
another number without a remainder. Thus 5 is an ali- 
quant part of 16. 

AL'I-QUOT, a. [L.] An aliquot part of a number or quan- 
tity is one which will measure it without a remainder. 
Thus 5 is an aliquot part of 15. 

A'LISH, a. Like ale ; having the qualities of ale. 

t AL'I-TURE, 71. Nourishment. 

A-LlVE', a. [Sa.x.gelifiav.] 1. Having life, in opposition 
to dead ; living. 2. In a state of action ; unextinguish- 
ed ; undestroyed •, unexpired ; in force or operation. 3. 
Cheerful ; sprightly ; lively ; full of alacrity. 4. Suscep- 
tible ; easily impressed ; having lively feelings. 

AL'KA-HEST, n. [At.] A universal dissolvent ; a men- 
struum capable of dissolvine; every body. 

AL-KA-LES'CEN-CY, n. A tendency to become alkaline 5 
or a tendency to the properties of an alkali. Ure. 

AL-KA-LES'CENT, a. Tending to the properties of an al- 
kali ; slightly alkaline. 

*ALKA-Lt,7i. ,• phi. Alkalies. [Ar.] In chemiMni, a term 
applied to all bodies which possess the following proper- 
ties : 1. a caustic taste ; 2. being volatilizable by beat ; 3. 
capability of combining with acids, and of destroying their 
acidity •, 4. solubility in water, even when combined with 
carbonic acid ; 5. capability of converting vegetable blues 
to green. Thomson. 

AL'KA-LI-F5^, V. t. To form, or to convert into an alkali- 

AL'KA-LI-F?^, V. i. To become an alkali. 

AL-KA-Ll6'E-NOUS, a. [alkali, and Or. yevvaw.] Produc- 
ing or generating alkali. 

AL-KA-LIM'E-TER, 71. [alkali, and Gr. uerpov.] An in 
strument for ascertaining the strength of alkalies. Ure 

AL'KA-LINE, a. Having the properties of alkali. 

AL-KA-LIN'I-TY n. The quality which constitutes an al- 
kali. Thomson. 

AL-Ka'LI-OUS, a. Having the qualities of alkali. Kinnier 

f AL'KA-LI-ZATE, a. Alkaline ; impregnated with alkali. 

t AL'KA-LI-ZATE, v. t. To make bodies alkaline. 

AL-KAL-I-Za'TION, n. The act of rendering alkaline by 
impregnating with an alkali. 

AL'KA-LIZE, V. t. To make alkaline ; to communicate the 
properties of an alkali to, by mixture. 

AL'KA-NET, 7?. The plant bugloss. 

AL-KE-KEN'6l,7i. The winter cherry. 

AL-KENNA, or AL-HEN'NA, n. Egyptian privet 

AL-KERMES, n. [Ar.] In pharmacy, a compound cor- 
dial, derived from the kermes berries. 

AL-KER'VA, 71. An Arabic name of the palma Christi. 

AL'KO-RAN, 71. [Ar. al, the, and koran, book. The 
Book, by way of eminence, as we say, the Bible.] The 
book which contains the Mohammedan doctrines of faith 
and practice. 

AL-KO-RAN'ISH, a. Relating to the Alkoran. 

AL'KO-RAN-IST, n. One who adheres strictly to the lettei 
of the Alkoran, rejecting all comments. The Persians are 
generally Alkoranists ; the Turks, Arabs, and Tartars ad- 
mit a multitude of traditions. 

AL-KUS'SA, n. A fish of the silurus kind. 

ALL, (awl) a. [Sax. eal ; Dan. al ; G. all ; Sw. all.] 1. Ev- 
ery one, or the whole number of particulars. 2. The 
whole quantity, extent, duration, amount, quality, or de- 

ALL, adv. Wholly ; completely ; entirely. 

ALL, n. 1. The whole number. 2. The whole •, the en 
"tire thing; the aggregate amount. This adjective is 
much used as a noun, and applied to persons or things. — 
.dll in all is a phrase which signifies, all things to a per- 
son, or every thing desired. — ^t all is a phrase much used 
by way of enforcement or emphasis, usually in negative 
or interrogative sentences. He has no ambition at all ; 
that is, not in the least degree. — Ml, in composition, en- 
larges the meaning, or adds force to a word ; and it is 
generally more empbatical than most. In some instan- 
ces, all is incorporated into words, as in almighty, al- 
ready, always ; but in most instances, it is an adjective 
prefixed to other words, but separated by a hyphen. 

ALL-ABAN'DONED, a. Abandoned by all. 

ALL-AB-HOR'RED, a. Detested by all. Shak. 

ALL-Ae-€OM'PLISHED, a. Fully accomplished ; whose 
" education is highly finished. 

ALL-AD-MIR'ING, a. Wholly admiring. Shak. 

ALL-AD-VlS'ED, a. Advised by all. Warhurton. 

ALL-AP-PRoVED, a. Approved by all. More. 

ALL-A-ToN'ING, a. Atoning for all. Dryden. 

ALL-BEaR'ING, a. Producing every thing ; omniparous 

ALL-BEAU'TE-OUS, a. Perfectly beautiful. Pope. 

ALL-BE-HoLD'ING, a. Beholding all things. 

ALL-BLAST'ING, a. Blasting all ; defaming or destroying 
all. Mnrston. 

ALL-BOUN'TE-OUS, ) a. Perfectly bountiful ; of infinite 

ALL-BOUN'Tl-FUL, \ bounty. 

ALL-CHaNG'ING, a. Perpetually changing. Shak. 

ALL-CHEER'ING, a. That cheers all ; that gives gayety 
"or cheerfulness to all. Shak. 

ALL-€OM-MAND'ING, a. Having command or sovereign- 

"" ty over all. Raleigh. 

ALL-€OM-PLY'ING, a. Complying in every respect. 

ALL-€OM-PoS'lNG, a. That makes all tranquil or peace- 
ful. Crashain. 

ALL-€OM-PRE-HEN'SIVE, a. Comprehending all things. 
Olanville. _ 

ALL-€ON-CeAL'ING, a. Hiding or concealing all. 

ALL-€ON'aUER-INfr, a. That subdues all. Milton. 

ALL-CON serous, a. Conscious of all ; all-knowing. 

ALL-€ON-STRaIN ING, a. Constraining all. Drayton. 

ALL-CON-SuM ING, a. That consumes or devours all. 

ALL-DaR'ING, a. Daring to attempt every thing. Jonson. 

ALL-DE-STROY'ING, a. Destroying every thing. Fan 

ALL-DEV'AS-TA-TING, a. Wasting every thing. 

ALL-DE-VOUR'TNG, a. Eating or consuming all. Pope 

ALL-DIM'MING, a. Obscuring every thing. Marston. 

ALTi-DIS-€6V'ER-ING, a. Discovering or disclosing eveiy 

" thing. More. 

ALL-DTS-GRA'CED, a. Completely disgraced. Shak. 

ALL-DIS-PENS'ING, a. Dispensing all things ; affording 
dispensation or pennission. Milton. 

ALL-Dl-ViNE', a. Supremely excellent. Howell. 

See Synopsis. MOVE, BOOK, D6VE •— BI.'LL, UXfTE.— € as K ; 6 as J ; S as Z ; CII as SH ; TH as in thin 




ALL-DI-VIN'ING, a. Foretelling all things. Fanshaw 

ALL-DREAD'ED, a. Dreaded by all. Shak. 

ALL-EF-FI"CIENT, a. Of perfect or unlimited efficacy or 

ALI^ EL'O-aUENT, a. Eloquent in the highest degree. 

ALL-EM-BPiA'ClNG, a. Embracing all things. Crashaw. 

ALL-END'ING, a. Putting an end to all things. Shak. 

ALL-EN-LlGHT'EN-lNG, a. Enlightening all things. 

ALL-EN-Ra GKD, a. Highly enraged. Hall. 

ALL-FLa MING, a. Flaming in all directions. Beaumont. 

ALL-F50LS'DAY, 71. The first of April. 

ALL-FOR-GIV ING, a. Forgiving or pardoning all. 

ALL-FoURS, n. A game at cards, played by two or four 
persons. — To go on all fours is to move or walk on four 
legs, or on the two legs and two arms. 

ALL-GIV!ER, 71. The Giver of all things. Milton. 

ALL-GOOD', a. Completely good. Dryden. 

ALL-G66D', 71. The name of the plant good-Henry. 

ALL-GRa'CIOUS, a. Perfectly gracious. 

ALL-GUlD'ING, a. Guiding or conducting all things. 

4LL-Ha1L', excl. [all, and Sax. heel, health.] All health ; a 
phrase of salutation, expressing a wish of all health or 
safety to the person addressed. 

ALL-HAL'LOW, ) n. All Saints' day, the first of Novem- 

ALL-HAL'LOWS, ) ber ; a feast dedicated to all the 
saints in general. 

ALL-HAL'LOW-TIDE, 71. The time near All Saints, or 
November first. 

ALL-HAP'PY, a. Completely happy. 

ALL-HeAL', n. The popular name of several plants. 

ALL-HeAL'ING, a. Healing all things. Selden. 

ALL-HELP'ING, a. Assisting all. Selden. 

ALL-HiD'ING, a. Concealing all things. Shak. 

ALL-HON'ORED, a. Honored by all. Shak. 

ALL-HURT'_ING, a. Hurting all things. Shak. 

ALL-i'DOL-I-ZFNG, a. Worshiping everything. Crashaw. 

ALL-IM't-TA-TING, a. Imitating every thing. More. 

ALL-IN-FORM'ING, a. Actuating all by vital powers. 

ALL-IN'TER-EST-ING, a. Interesting in the highest de- 

ALL-IN-TER'PRET-ING,a. Explaining all things. Milton. 

ALL-JUDG'TNG, a. Judging all possessing the sovereign 

" right of judging. Rome. 

ALL-JUST', a. Perfectly just. 

ALL-KiND', a. Perfectly kind or benevolent. 

ALL-KNoW'ING, a. Having all knowledge ; omniscient. 

ALL-Ll'CENSED, a. Licensed to every thing. Shak. 

ALL-LqV'ING, a. Of infinite love. More. 

4LL-Ma'KING, a. Making or creating all ; omnific. 

ALL-\IA-TuR'ING, a. Maturing all things. Dryden. 

ALL MER'CI-FUL, a. Of perfect mercy or compassion. 

ALL-MUR'DER-ING, a. Killing or destroying every thing. 

ALL-O-BE'Dt-ENT, a. Entirely obedient. Crashaxo. 

ALL-0-REY'ING, a. Receiving obedience from all. 

ALT^-OB-LIV'I-OQS, a. Causing total oblivion. Shak. 

ALL-OB-S€CR'ING, a. Obscuring every thing. King. 

ALL-Pa'TIENT, a. Enduring every thing without mur- 

ALT^PEN'E-TRA-TING, a. Penetratmg every thing. 

ALL-PER'FE€T, a. Completely perfect. 

ALL-PER'FE€T-NESS, 71. The perfection of the whole 5 
entire perfection. More, 

ALL-PIE R'CING, a. Piercing every thing. Marston. 

ALL-POW'ER-FUL, a. Almighty ; omnipotent. Swi/i. 

ALI^PRaIS'ED, a. Praised by all. Shak. 

ALL-RtJL'ING, a. Governing all things. Milton. 

ALL-SA-Ga'CIOUS, a. Having all sagacity ; of perfect dis- 

ALL-SaINTS'-DAY, 71. The first day of November, called 

" also all-hallnws ; a feast in honor of all the saints. 

ALL-SANC'TI-F-f-ING, a. Sanctifying the whole. West. 

ALL-SaV'ING, a. Saving all. Selden. 

ALL-SEARCH'ING, a. Pervading and searching every 
thing. South. 

ALL-SEE'ING, a. Seeing every thing. Dryden. 

ALL-SEER', 71. One that sees everv thing. Shah. 

ALL-SHaK'ING, a. Shaking all things. Shak. 

ALL-SHUN'NED, a. Shunned by all. Shak. 

ALL-SoULS'-DAY, n. The second day of November ; a 

"feast or solemnity held by the church of Rome, to suppli- 
cate forthe souls of the faithful deceased. 

ALL'-SPiCE, 72. The berry of the pimento. 

ALL-STJF-FX"CIEN-CY, n. Complete or infinite ability. 

ALL-SUF-Fl"CIENT, a. Sufficient to every thing •, infinite- 

"ly able. Hooker. 

ALL-SUF-Fi"CIENT, n. The all-sufficient Being ; God. 

ALL-SUR-ROUNIVING, a. Encompassing the whole. 

ALL-SUR-VEY'ING, n. Surveying every thhig. 

ALL-SUS-TaIN'ING, a. Upholding all things. 

ALL-TELL'ING, a. Telling or divulging every thing. 

ALL-TRiUMPH-ING, a. Triumphant every where or 

" over all. Jonson. 


ALL-WATCH'ED, a. Watched throughout. Shak. 

ALL- WISE', a. Possessed of infinite wisdom. South. 

ALL-WIT'TED, a. Having all kinds of wit. Jonson. 

ALL-W6R'SHIPED, a. Worshiped or adored by all. 

ALL-W6R'THY, a. Of infinite worth; of the highest 

" worth. 

AL'LA-GITE, n. A mineral. 

AL'LAN-ITE, n. A mineral. A siliceous oxyd of cerium 

AL-LAN-TOIS', or AL-LAN-TOID', n. [Gr. aWas and 
eiSos.] A thin membrane, situated between the chorion 
and amnios in quadrupeds. 

t AL'LA-TRATE, v. t. [L. allatro.] To bark, as a dog. 

AL-LaY', v. t. [Sax. alecgan, alegan.] 1. To make quiet ; 
to pacify, or appease. 2. To abate, mitigate, subdue, or 
destroy. 3. To obtund or repress as acrimony. 4. For- 
merly, to reduce the purity of ; as, to allay metals. But, 
in this sense, alloy is now exclusively used. See Alloy! 

ALLaY', n. 1. Formerly J a baser metal mixed with a 
finer ; but, in this sense, it is now written alloy, which see. 
2. That which allays, or abates the predominant qualities. 

AL-LAY'ED, (al-lade') pp. Layed at rest ; quieted ; tran - 
quilized ; abated ; [reduced by mixture. Obs.'] 

AL-LAY'ER, 71. He, or that, which allays. 

AL-LaY'ING, ppr. Quieting ; reducing to tranquillity ; 
abathig ; [reducing by mixture. Obs.'\ 

AL-LaY'MENT, n. The act of quieting ; a state of rest af- 
ter disturbance ; abatement ; ease. Shak. 

AL'LE, (al'ly) n. The little auk, or black and white diver. 

t AL-LECT', V. t. To entice. Huloet's Diet. 

t AL-LE€T-A'TION, n. Allurement ; enticement. Coles. 

t AL-LECT IVE, a. Alluring. Chaucer. 

t AL-LE€T'IVE, n. Allurement. Eliot. 

AL-LEDGE , (al-ledj') v. t. [L. allego.} 1. To declare ; to 
affirm ; to assert ; to pronounce with positiveness. 2. 
To produce as an argument, plea, or excuse ; to cite or 

t AL-LED6E'A-BLE, a. That may be alledged. Brown. 

AL-LED6'ED, (al-ledjd') pp. Affirmed ; asserted, whether 
as a charge or a plea. 

t AL-LEDGE'MENT, 71. Allegation. 

AL-LED6 ER, n. One who affirms or declares. 

AL-LEDfrING, ppr. Asserting ; averring ; declaring. 

AL-LE-Ga'TION, 71. 1. Affirmation ; positive assertion or 
declaration. 2. That which is aff.rmed or asserted ; that 
which is offered as a plea, excuse, or justification. — 3. In 
ecclesiastical courts, declaration of charges. 

AL-LE6E'. See Alledge. 

AL-Le'6E-AS, or AL-LE'6l-AS, n. A stuff manufactured 
in the East Indies. 

fAL-LEGE^MENT, 71. Allegation. 

AL-LE-GHa'NE-AN, a. Pertaining to the mountains call- 
ed Alleghany, or Allegheiiny. 

AL-LE-GHa'NY, 71. The chief ridge of the great chains of 
mountains which run from N. E. to S. W. through the 
Middle and Southern States of North America. 

AL-Le'GI-ANCE, 71. [old Fr., from L. a^ZiVo.] The tie or 
obligation of a subject to his prince or government ; the 
duty of fidelity to a king, government, or state. 

fAL-LE'Gl-ANT, a. Loyal. Shak. 

AL-LE-GOR'I€, \ a. In the manner of allegory ; figura- 

AL-LE-GOR'I-CAL, S live. 

AL-LE-GOR'I-CAL-LY, adv. In a figurative manner ; by 
way of allegory. 

AL-LE-GOR'I-€AL-NESS, 71. The quality of being allegori- 

AL'LE-GO-RIST, n. One who teaches in an allegorical man- 
ner. Whiston. 

AL'LE-GO-RiZE, v. t. 1. To form an allegory ; to turn in- 
to allegory. 2. To understand in an allegorical sense. 

AL'LE-GO-RiZE, v. i. To use allegory. 

AL'LE-GO-RiZED, pp. Turned into allegory. 

AL'LE-GO-Rl-ZING, ppr. Turning into allegory, or un- 
derstanding in an allegorical sense. 

AL'LE-GO-RY, 71. [Gr. aWyjyopia.'j A figurative sentence 
or discourse, in which the principal subject is described 
by another subject resembling it in its properties and cir- 
cumstances. The principal subject is thus kept out of 
view, and we are left to collect the intentions of the writ- 
er or speaker, by the resemblance of the secondary to the 
primary subject. Allegory is in words what hieroglyph- 
ics are in painting. We have a fine example of an alle- 
gory in die eightieth psalm. 

AL-LE-GRET'TO, [from allegro,] denotes, in music, a 
movement or time quicker than andante, but not so quick 
as allecrro. Busby. 

AL-Le'GRO. \ It. merry, cheerful.] In trmsjc, a word de- 
noting a brisk movement ; a sprightly part or strain. 

AL-LE-LtJ'IAH, n. [Heb Hi ^hbn.] Praise to Jehovah ; a 
word used to denote pious joy and exultation, chiefly in 
hymns and anthems. 

AL-LE-MAND', n. A slow air in common time, or grave, 
solemn music, with a slow movement. Also a brisk dance 

S« Synopsis. A, E, T, 5, U, ^, long.—FAR, FALL, WHAT ;— PREY -—PIN, MARiNE, BiRD ;— f Obsolete. 




AL-LE-MAN'N[€, a. Belonging to the Memanni, ancient 
Germans, and to Alemannia, their country. 

AL-LERION, n. In heraldry^ an eagle without beak or 
feet, with expanded wings. 

AL-LE-VEfjR', n. A small Swedish coin. 

AL-Le'VI-ATE, v. t. [Low L. allevio.] 1. To make light ; 
but always in a figurative sense. To remove in part ; to 
lessen •, to mitigate ; applied to evils ; as, to alleviate sor- 
row^ 2. To make less by representation ; to extenuate 

AL-Le'VI-A-TED, pp. Made lighter ', mitigated ; eased v 

AL-Le'VI-A-TING, ppr. Making lighter, or more tolera- 
ble ; extenuating. 

AL-LE-VI-aTIOxV, n. 1. The act of lightening, allaying, 
or extenuating ; a lessening, or mitigation. 2. Tliat which 
lessens, mitigates, or makes more tolerable. 

■f AL-Le'VI-A-TiVE, ?!. That which mitigates. 

AL'LEY, (al'ly) n. [Fr. allee.] 1. A walk in a garden ; a 
narrow passage. 2. A narrow passage or way in a city, 
as distinct from a public street. 

AL-LI-a'CEOUS, a. [L. allium.] Pertaining to allium, or 
garlic. Barton. 

AL-Ll'ANCE, n. [Fr. alliance.] 1. The relation or union 
between families, contracted by marriage. 2. The union 
between nations, contracted by compact, treaty, or league. 
3. The treaty, league, or compact, wliich is the instru- 
ment of confederacy. 4. Auy union or connection of in- 
terests between persons, families, states, or corporations. 
5. The persons or parties allied. .Addison. 

t AL-LT'ANT, n. An ally. Wotton. 

AL-Ll"CrEN-CY, n. [lu. allicio.] The power of attracting 
any thing ; attraction ; magnetism. Qlanville. {Little 

t AL-Li"CIENT, n. That which "ttracts. 

AL-LI'ED, (al-lide') pp. Connected by marriage, treaty, or 

AL'LI-GATE, v. t. [L. alligu.] To tie together ; to unite 
by some tie. 

AL-LI-Ga'TION, n. 1. The act of tying together. [Little 
uised.] 2. A rule of arithmetic, for finding the price or 
value of compounds consisting of ingredients of different 

AL-LI-Ga'TOR, n. [Sp. lagarto.] The American crocodile. 

AL-LI-Ga'TOR-PEaR, n. A West India fruit. 

AL-LIG'A-TURE, n. See Ligature, which is the word in 

AL-LlNE'MENT, n. [Fr. alignement.] A reducing to a 
line, or to a square ; a line ; a row. Asiat. Res. 

AL'LI-OTH, n. A star in the tail of the great bear. 

AL-LIS'ION, (al-lizh'un) n. ['L.aUido.] A striking against. 

AL-LIT-ER-A'TION, n. [L. ad and liter a.] The repeti- 
tion of the same letter at the beginning of two or more 
words immediately succeeding each other, or at short in- 

AL-LIT'ER-A-TiVE, a. Pertaining to, or consisting in, al- 

AL-LO-€a'TION, n. ['L.ada.nd locatio.] The act of putting 
one thing to another ; hence its usual sense is the admis- 
sion of an article of account, or an allowance made upon 
an account ; a term used in the English exchequei . 

AL'L0-€HR0-ITE, n. An amorphous, massive, opake min- 
eral, found in Norway. 

AL-LO-€u'TION, n. [L. allocutio.] 1. The act or manner 
of speaking to. 2. An address ; a formal address. .Addi- 
son. [Rarely used.] 

AL-Lo'DI-AL, a. Pertaining to allodium ; held independ- 
ent of a lord paramount ; opposed to feudal. 

AL-Lo'DI-AN is sometimes used, but not authorized. 

AL-LoDI-UM, n. [Fr. alien.] Freehold estate ; land which 
is the absolute property of the owner ; real estate held in 
absolute independence, without being subject to any rent, 
service, or acknowledgment to a superior It is thus op- 
posed to feud. In England, there is no allodial land, all 
land being held of the king ; but in the United States, 
most lands are allodial. 

AL-LoNGE', (al-lunj') n. [Fr. allonger.] 1. A pass with 
a sword ; a thrust made by stepping forward and extend- 
ing the arm ; a term used in fencing, often contracted into 
lunge. 2. A long rein, when a horse is trotted in the hand. 

AL-LOO , v.t. or i. To incite dogs by a call. See Hal- 

AL'LO-PHAIN'E, n [Gr. aWos.] A mineral. 

f AL'LO-dUY, 71 Address; conversation. 

AL-LOT', V. t. [ci ad and lot.] 1. To divide or distribute 
by lot. 2 To distribute, or parcel out in parts or por- 
tions ; or lo distribute a share to each individual concern- 
ed. 3. To grant, as a portion ; to give, assign, or appoint 
In general. 

AL-LOT'MENT, n 1. That which is allotted ; a share, 
part, or portion granted or distributed •, that which is as- 
signed by lot. 2. A part, portion, or place appropriated. 

AL-LOT'TED, pp. Distributed by lot ; granted ; assigned. 

AL-LOT'TER-Y ia used by Shakspeare for allotment, bul 
is not authorized by usage. 

AL-LOT'TING, ppr. Distributing by lot ; giving as por- 
tions ; assigning. 

AL-LOW, V. t. [Fr. allouer.] I. To grant, give, or yield 
2. To admit ; to own or acknowledge. 3. To approve, 
justify, or sanction. 4. To afford, or grant as a Ck »npen- 
sation. 5. To abate or deduct. 6. To pern^'t ; to grant 
license to. 

AL-LOVV'A-BLE, a. That may bd permitted as lawful, or 
admitted as true and propt' ; not forbid ; not unlawful oi 

AL-LOW A-BLE-NESS, n The quality of being allowable ; 

AL-LOW' A-BLY, adv. In an allowable manner. 

AL-LOW ANCE, 71. 1. The act of allowmg. 2. Permission ; 
license ; approbation ; sanction ; usually slight approba- 
tion. 3. Admission •, assent to a fact or state of things • a 
granting. 4. Freedom from restraint ; indulgence. 5. 
That which is allowed •, a portion appointed ; a stated 
quantity, as of food or drink ; hence, in seamen's lan- 
guage, a limited quantity of meat and drink, when provis- 
ions" fall sl.ort. 6. Abatement ; deduction. 7, Establish- 
ed charac+cr ; reputation. [Obs.] Shak. 

AL-LOW'ANCE, v. t. To put upon allowance ; to restrain 
or limit to a certain quantity of provisions or drink. 

AL-LOW'ED, (al-lowd') pp. Granted ; permitted : assented 
to ; admitted ; approved ; indulged ; appointed ; abated. 

AL-LOW'ER, n. One that approves or authorizes. 

AL-LOW'ING, ppr. Granting ; permitting ; admitting ; ap- 
proving ; indulging ; deducting. 

AL-LOY', V. t. [Fr. allier.] 1. To reduce the purity of a 
metal, by mixing with it a portion of one less valuable. 
2. To mix metals. Lavoisier. 3. To reduce or abate by 

AL-LOY', n. 1. A baser metal mixed with a finer. 2. The 
mixture of different metals ; any metallic compound. 3. 
Evil mixed with good. 

AL-LOY'AGE, n. [Fr. alliage.] 1. The act of alloying met- 
als, or the mixture of a baser metal with a finer, to reduce 
Its purity •, the act of mixing metals. 2. The mixture of 
different metals. Lavoisier. 

AL-LOY'ED, (al-loyd') pp. Mixed ; reduced in purity ; de- 
based ; abated by foreign mixture. 

AL-LOY'ING, ppr. Mixing a baser metal with a finer, tt« 
reduce its purity. 

ALL'SPlCE. See under the compounds of aZL 

ALLS, n. All one's goods. A vulgarism. 

fAL-LU-BES'CEN-CY, n. Willingness ; content. 

AL-LtJDE', V. i. [L. alludo.] To refer to something not di 
rectly mentioned ; to have reference ; lo hint at by re 
mote suggestions. 

AL-LuD'ING, ppr. Having reference , hinting at. 

AL-LtJ'MI-NOR, 11. [Fr. allumer.] One who colors or paints 
upon paper or parchment, giving l^glit and ornament to 
letters and figures. This is now written limner. 

AL-LtJRE', V. t. [Fr. leurrer.] To attempt to draw to ; to 
tempt by the ofter of some good, real or apparent ; to in- 
vite by something flattering or acceptable. 

f AL-LuRE , n. Now written lure. 

AL-LuR'ED, (al-lurd') pp. Tempted ; drawn, or invited, 
by something that appears desirable. 

AL-LuRE'MENT, n. That which allures ; any real or ap- 
parent good held forth, or operating, as a motive to action ; 
temptation ; enticement. 

AL-LuR'ER, n. He, or that, which allures. 

AL-LuR'ING, ppr. 1. Drawing : tempting ; inviting by 
some real or apparent good. 2. a. Inviting ; having the 
quality of attracting or tempting. 

AL-LuR'ING-LY, adv. In an alluring manner 5 enticingly 

AL-LtJR'ING-NESS, n. The quality of alluring. 

AL-LtJ'SION, (al-lu'-zhun)7i. [Fr.,frnm alhisio, Low h.] A 
reference to something not explicitly mentioned ; a hint ; 
a suggestion. 

AL-Ltf'StVE, a. Having reference to something not fully 

AL-LU'STVE-LY, adv. By way of allusion. 

AL-LtT'SIVE-NESS, n. The quality of being allusive. 

AL-Lti'SO-RY, a. Allusive ; insinuating. Heath. 

AL-LU'VI-AL, a. 1. Pertaining to alluvion ; added I'o land 
by the wash of water. 2. Washed ashore or down a 
stream ; formed by a current of water Kincan. 

AL-Lu'VI-ON, In. [L. alluvia.] 1. The insensible in- 

AL-LtJ'VI-UM, \ crease of earth on a shore, or bark Df a 
river, by the force of water, as by a current or by waves 
2. A gradual washing or carrying of earth or other sub- 
stances to a shore or bank 5 the earth thus added. 3. The 
mass of substances collected by means of the action of 
water. Buckland. 

AL-LtJ'VI-OUS, a. The same as alluvial, and less frequent- 
ly used. 

AL-L"?', V. t. [Fr. allier.] I. To unite, or form a relation, 
as between fiimilies by marriage, or between princes and 
states by treaty, league, or confederacy. 2. To form a 

* See Synopsis. MOVE, BOOK, D6VE ;— BULL, UNITE.— € as K ; G as J ; S as Z ; fP t(S P-TI ; Til a?= in fhi.^. t Obsolete 




1 elation by similitude, resemblance, or friendship. — J^ote. 
This w ^xh is more generally used in the passive form, as, 
families are allied by blood ; or reciprocally, as, princes 
ally themselves to powerful states. 

AL-I.T , n. 1. A prince or state united by treaty or league ; 
a conf-^ derate. 2, One relateu oy marriage or other tie. 

AI^Ly iNG, ppr. Uniting by marriage or treaty 

AlVMA-€ '^N-TAR. See Almucantar. 

A.L'MA-DiE, n. A bark canoe used by the Africans ; also, a 
long boat used at Calicjt, in India. 

AL-'MA-6EST, ?i. [aZ,andGr- ^tytCTT?;.] A bopk or collec- 
tion of problems in astronrmy and geometry. 

AL-Ma'GRA, 71. A fine, deep red ochre. 

AL'MA-NAC, 71. [Ar.] A small book or table, containing 

'" a calendar of days, weeks, and months, with the times of 
the rising of the sun and moon, changes of the moon, 
eclipses, hours of full tide, stated festivals of churches, 
stated terms of courts, observations on the weather, &c., 
for the year ensuing. 

AL'MA-NAC-MA-KER, n. A maker of almanacs 

AL'MAN-DIXE, n. [Fr.] Precious garnet. 

AL'ME, or AL'MA, n. Girls in Egypt, whose occupation is 
to amuse company with singing and dancing. 

AL-MeNA, 71. A weight of two pounds. 

AL-MlGHT I-NESS, n. Omnipotence ; infinite or bound- 

" less power ; an attribute of Oud only. 

AL-MiGOT'Y, a. Possessing all power: omnipotent; be- 

'■ ing of unlhnited might ; being of boundless sufficiency. 

AL-MlGHT'Y, n. The omnipotent God. 

*AL'MOND, (it is popularly pronounced a'?ft072<f,) 71. [Fr. 
amande.] 1. The fruit of the almond tree. 2. The ton- 
sils, two glands near the basis of the tongue, are called 
almonds, from their resemblance to that nut. — 3. In Por- 
tugal, a measure by which wine is sold. — 4 Among 
lapidaries, almonds are pieces of rocky crystal, used in 
adorning branch candlesticks. 

AL'MOND-FUR'NACE, among refiners, is a furnace in 
which the slags of litharge, left in refining silver, are re- 
duced to lead, by the help of charcoal. 

AL'MOND-TREE, n. The tree which produces the almond. 

AL'MOND-VVIL'LOW, ti. A kind of tree. 

AL'MON-ER, 77. An officer whose duty is to distribute char- 
ity or alms. The grand ahnoner, in France, is the first 
ecclesiastical dignitary, and has the superintendence of 

AL'MON-RY, 71. [corrupted into ambry, aumbry, or aum- 
ery.'l The place where the almoner resides, or where the 
alms are distributed. 

* AL-MOST', adv. Nearly ; veil nigh ; for the greatest part, 

ALMS, (amz) n. [Sax.] Any thing given gratuitous- 
ly to reli'^ve the poor, as money, food, or clothing. 


ALMS'-BOX, > 71. Vessels appropriated to receive alms. 


ALMfe'-DEED, 7i. An act of charity ; a charitable gift. 

■(• ALMS'-FOLK, n. Persons supporting others by allms. 

ALMS'-GIV-ER, n. One who gives to the poor. 

ALMS'-GIV-ING, n. The bestowment of charity, 

ALMS'-HOUSE, n. A house appropriated for the use of the 
poor, who are supported by the public, 

ALMS'-IVIEN, ) n. Persons supported by charity or by 

ALMS'-PeO-PLE, \ public provision, 

AL'MU-€AN-TAR, n. [Ar.] A series of circles of the 
sphere passing through the centre of the sun, or of a star, 
parallel to the horizon. 

AL MU-€AN-TAR'S STAFF. An instrument having an 
arch of fifteen degrees, used to take observations of the 

AL-MtJ'DE, n. A wine measure in Portugal. 

AL'MUG, or AL'GUM, n. In Scripture, a tree or wood, 
about which the learned are not agreed. 

AL'NAGE, 71. [Fr. aulnage.] A measuring by the ell. 

AL'NA-GER, or AL'NA-GAR, 7i. A measurer by the ell. 

AL'NIGHT, 71, A cake of wax with the wick in the midst. 

AL'OE, (al'o) n. ; plu. Aloes, (al oze) [L, alo'i ; Gr, a\oT].'] 
In botany, a genus of monogynian hexanders, of many 
species ; all natives of warm climates, 

AL'OES, in medicine, is the inspissated juice of the aloe ; a 
stimulating stomachic purgative. 

AL'oES-WOOD, 77, See AoALLocHUM. 

AL-0-ET'I€, or AL-0-ET'I-€AL, a. Pertaining to aloe or 
aloes ; partaking of the qualities of aloes. 

AL-0-ET'I€, 71. A medicine consisting chiefly of aloes. 

A-LOFT', adv. 1, On high ; in the air ; high above the 
ground, — 2, In scamen^s language, in the top ; at the 
mast head ; or on the higher yards or rigging, 

A-LOFT', prep. Above, Milton. 

A-L0'6l-ANS, n. [Gr. a and \oyog.'j In church history, a 
sect of ancient heretics, who denied Jesus Christ to be 
the Logos. 

AL'O-GO-TRO-PIIY, n. [Gr, a\oyog and rpo^v.] A dispro- 
portionate nutrition of the parts of the body. 

•f AL'O-GY, n [Gr. a and Aoyoj.] Unreasonableness ; ab- 
surdity. Brown. 

A-LoNE', a. [all and one ; Germ, allein ; D. alleen.] 1 
Single ; solitary ; without the presence of another ; appli 
ed to a person or thing. 2. It is applied to two or more 
persons or things, when separate from others, in a place 
or condition by themselves ; without company. 3. Only 

A-LoNE', adv. Separately ; by itself. 

t A-LoNE'LY, a. or adv. Only ; merely ; singly. 

t A-LoNE'NESS, n. That state which belongs to no other 

A-LONG', adv. [Sax. and-lang, or ond-lang.] 1. By the 
length ; lengthwise ; in a Une with the length. 2. On- 
ward ; in a line, or with a progressive motion.— ,/3ZZ along 
signifies the whole length ; through the whole distance. — 
Along with signifies in company ; joined with. — illong 
side, in seamen's language, signifies side by side. — Along 
shore is by the shore or coast, lengthwise, and near the 
shore. Lying along is lying on the side, or pressed down 
by the weight of sail, 

t A-LONGST', adv. Along ; through, or by the length. 

A-LOOF', adv. 1, At a distance, but within view, or at a 
small distance, 2, Not concerned in a design ; declining 
to take any share ; keeping at a distance from the point, 
or matter in debate, 

AL'O-PE-CY, 71. [Gr. aXwirr]^.'] A disease called the fox- 
evil, or scurf, which is a falling ofi'of the hair. 

A-Lo'SA, 77. A fish of passage, called the shad. 

A-LOUD', adv. Loudly ; with a loud voice, 

t A-LoW, adv. In a low place. 

ALP, ALPS, 71. [qu. Gr. a\(pos ; L. albus."] A high moun 
tain. The name, it is supposed, was originally given to 
mountains whose tops were covered with snow. 

AL-PAG'NA, 77. An animal of Peru. 

AL'PHA, 71. [Heb. f|l'?N.] The first letter in the Greek al- 
phabet, answering to A, and used to denote ^rst, or be- 
ginning. As a numeral, it stands for 07ie. 

AL'PHA-BET, n. [Gr. a\(pa and /^Tjra.] The letters of a 
language arranged in the customary order. 

AL'PHA-BET, v. t. To arrange in the order of an alphabet ; 
to form an alphabet in a book, or designate the leaves by 
the letters of the alphabet, 

AL-PHA-BET-A'RI-AN, n. A learner while in the A, B, C. 

AL-PHA-BET'I€, } a. In the order of an alphabet, or 

AL-PHA-BET'I-€AL, jl in the order of the letters as cus- 
tomarily arranged. 

AL-PHA-BET'I-€AL-LY, adv. In an alphabetical man- 
ner : in the customary order of the letters. 

AL-PHe'NIX, 71. White barley sugar, used for colds. 

AL'PHEST, 71. A small fish. 

AL-PHON'SIN, n. A surgical instrument for extracting 
bullets from wounds. 

AL-PHON'SIN Ta'BLES. Astronomical tables made by 
Alphonsus, king of Arragon. Bailey. 

AL'PHUS, 71, [Gr, aX^os.] That species of leprosy called 

*AL'P1NE, a, [L. alpinus.] 1. Pertaining to the Alps, or to 
any lofty mountain ; very high ; elevated. 2. Growing 
on high mountains. 

* AL'PiNE, 77. A kind of strawberry growing on lofty hills. 

AL'PIST, or AL'PIA, n. The seed of the fox-taD. 

AL'Q,UIER, n. A measure in Portugal. 

AL'aUI-FOUj 7!. A sort of lead ore, 

AL-READ'Y, (all-red'-e) adv. Literally, a state of complete 
"preparation; but, by an easy deflection, the sense is, at 
this time, or, at a specified time. 

t ALS, adv. Also ; likewise. Spenser. 

A'L'SO, adv. [all and so ; Sax. eal and swa.] Likewise , 
" in like manner. < 

ALT, or AL TO, a. [It.] In music, a term applied to high 
notes in the scale. 

AL-Ta'I€, or AL-Ta'IAN, a. [Tart, alatau.] Pertaining 
to the Altai. 

AL'TAR, n. [L. altare.] 1. A mount ; a table, or elevated 
"place, on which sacrifi^ces were anciently ofiered to some 
deity, 2, In modern churches, the communion table , 
and, figuratively, a church ; a place of worship, 

AL'TAR-CLOTH, n. A cloth to lay upon an altar in 

'" churches. 

AL'TAR-PIeCE, 71. A painting placed over the altar in a 
church. Warton. 

AL'TAR-WISE, adv. Placed in the manner of an altar. 

AL'TAR-A6E, 71, The profits arising to priests from obla- 
" tions, 

AL'TAR-IST, ) 77, In old laws, the priest to whom the 

AL'TAR-THANE, \ altarage belonged ; also, a chaplain 

AL'TER, t;, f, [Fr. alterer , 1,. alter.] ], To make some 
" change in ; to make different in some particular ; to vary 
in some degree, without an entire change. 2. To change 
entirely or materially, 

AL'TER, V. i. To become 'n some respects, different ; to 

* See Synopsis. A, K, T, O, U, V, long —FAR, FALL, WHAT ;— PREY ; PIN, MARINE, BtRD ;— f Obsolete. 


^I/TER-A-BIL'I-TY, n. The quality of being susceptible 

* of alteration. 
AL'TEE,-A-BLE, a. That may become different ; that may 

i^L'TER-A-BLE-NESS, n. The quality of admitting alter- 
"ation ; variableness. 

AL'TER-A-BLY, adv. In a manner that may be altered, or 
^L'TER-A6E, n. rfromL. aZo.] The breeding, nourishing 

* or fostering of a child. [JVot an English word.] 
AL'TER-ANT, a. Altering ; gradually changing. 
AL'TER-ANT, n. A medicine which gradually corrects 

the state of the body ; an alterative. 

AL-TER-A'TION, n. [L. altcratio.] The act of making 
" different, or of varying in some particular , an altering, or 
partial change. 

AL'TER-A-Ti VE, a. Causing alteration ; having the power 

"to alter. 

A.L'TER-A-TlVE, n. A medicine which gradually induces 

" a change in the habit or constitution, and restores healthy 

AL'TER-€ATE, v. i. [L. altercor.] To contend in words ; 
to dispute with zeal, heat, or anger ; to wrangle. 

AL-TER-€a'TION, n. [L. altercatio.] Warm contention 
in words ; dispute carried on with heat or anger ; contro- 
versy 5 wrangle. 

AL'TERN, a. [L. alternus.] Acting by turns ; one suc- 
ceeding another ; alternate, which is the word generally 

AL'TER-NA-CY, n. Performance or actions by turns. 
[Little iLsed.] 

AL-TERN'AL, a. Alternative. [Little used.] 

AL-TERN'AL-LY, adtJ. By turns. May. [Little used.] 

AL-TERN'ATE, a. [L,. alternatus.} Being by turns ; one 
following the other m succession of time or place ; hence, 

AL-TERN'ATE, n. That which happens by turns with 
something else ; vicissitude. Prior. 

* AL'TERN- ATE, v. t. [L. alterno.] To perform by turns, 
or in succession ; to cause to succeed by turns ; to change 
one thing for another reciprocally. 

* AL'TERN-ATE, v.i. 1. To happen or to act by turns. 2. 
To follow reciprocally in place. 

AL-TERN'ATE-LY, adv. In reciprocal succession ; by 
turns, so that each is succeeded by that which it succeeds, 
as night follows day, and day follows night. 

AL-TERN'ATE-NESS, n. The quality of being alternate, 
or of following in succession. 

AL'TERN-A-TING, ppr. Performing or following by turns. 

AL-TERN-a'TION, n. 1. The reciprocal succession of 
things in time or place ; the act of following and being 
followed in succession. 2. The different changes, or al- 
tera 'ions of orders, in numbers. 3. The answer of tiie 
congregation speaking alternately with the minister. 4. 
Alternate performance, in the choral sense. 

AL-TERN'A-TiVE, a. [Fr. alternatif.] Offering a choice 
of two things. 

AL-TERN'A-TiVE, n. That which may be chosen or 
omitted ; a choice of two things, so that if one is taken, 
the other must be left. 

AL-TERN'A-TiVE-LY, adv. In the manner of alterna- 
tives ; in a manner that admits the choice of one out of 
two things. 

AL-TERN'A-TiVE-NESS, n. The quality or state of bemg 

AL-TERN'I-TY, n. Succession by turns ; alternation. 

AL-THE'A, n. [Gr. aXOaia.] In botany, a genus of polyan- 
drian monadelphs, of several species 5 called in English 

AL-THoUGH', ^all-tho') ohs. verb, or used only in the 
imperative ; (commonly classed, though less correctly, 
among conjunctions.) [all and though ; Sax. thah, or 
theah ; Ir. daighim. See Though.] Grant all this ; be it 
so ; allow all ; suppose that ; admit all that ; as, " al- 
though the fig-tree shall not blossom." Hab. iii. That is, 
grant, admit, or suppose what follows—" the fig-tree shall 
not blossom." 

t AL'TI-GRADE, n. Rising on high. 

AL-TIL'0-aUENCE, n. [L. altus and loquor, loquens.] 
Lofty speech ; pompous language. 

AL-TIM'E-TER, n. [L. altus, and Gr. ixerpov.] An instru- 
ment for taking altitudes by geometrical principles. 

AL-TIM'E-TRY, n. The art of ascertaining altitudes bv 
means of a proper instrument. 

AL'TIN, 71. A money of account in Russia, value 3 kopecks. 

AL-TIN'€AR, n. A species of factitious salt or powder. 

AL-TIS'O-NANT, ) a. [L. altus and sojians.] High-sound- 

AL-TIS'0-NOUS, \ ing, lofty, or pompous. 

Aij'TI-TUDE, n. [L. altitudo.] 1. Space extended up- 
ward ; the elevation of an object above its foundation ; 
the elevation of an object or place above the surface on 
which we stand, or above the earth. 2. The elevation 
of a point, a star, or other object above the horizon. 3. 
Figuratively, high degree •, highest point of excellence. 

29 AMA 

AL-T1"V'0-LANT, a. [L. altus and volans.l Flyinc; himi 

AL'TO. [It., from L. altus.] High. 

AL'TO-0€-Ta'VO. [It.] An octave higher. 

AL'TO-RE-LIK'VO. [It.] High relief, in sculpture, is the 
projection of a figure half or more, without being entirely 
detached. Cy^c. 

AL'TO-RI-PIE'NO. [It.] The tenor of the great chorus. 

AL'TO-VI-0-LA. [It.J A small tenor viol. 

AL'TO-YI-O-Ll'NO. [It.l A small tenor violin. 

AL-TO-GETH'ER, adv. Wholly ; entirely ; completely ; 
without exception. 

AL'U-DEL, n. In chemistry, aludels are earthen pots with- 
out bottoms. 

AL'UM, n [L alumen ] A mineral salt, of great use in 
medicine and the arts It is a triple sulphate of alumina 
and potassa. 

AL'UMED, a. Mixed with alum. Barret. 

AL'UM-EARTH, n. A massive mineral 

A-LtJ^MI-NA ( "' "^^ earth, or earthy substance. 
A-LtJ'MIN-I-FORM, a. Having thft form of alumina 
AL'U-MIN-lTE, 71. Subsulphate of alumina, a niinera.. 
A-Lu'MI-NOUS, a. Pertaining to alum or alumina. 
A-Lu'MI-NUM, 71. Tlie name given to the supposed metal- 
lic base of alumina. 
AL UM-ISH, a. Having the nature of alum ; somewhat re- 
sembling alum. 
AL UM-SLATE, n. A mineral of two species, common ana 

AL'UM-STONE, n. The siliceous subsulphate of alumina 

and potash. Cleaveland. 
A-Lu'TA, 71. [L.] A species of leather-stone. 
AL-U-Ta TION, n. [L. aluta.] The tanning of leather. 
AL'VE-A-RY, n. [L. alvearium.] The hollow of the ex 

ternal ear, or bottom of the concha. 
AL'VE-O-LAR,, } a. [L. alveolus.] Containing sockets 
AL'VE-0-LA-RY, j hollow cells, or pits ; pertaining to 

AL'VE-O-LATE, a. [L. alveolatus.] Deeply pitted, so as 

to resemble a honey-comb. 
AL'VE-OLE, or AL'VE-0-LUS, n. [L. dim. of alveus.] 1. 
A cell in a bee-hive, or in a fossil. 2. The socket in the 
jaw, in which a tooth is fixed. 3. A sea fossil. 
AL'VE-0-LITE, n. [L. alveolus, and Gr. XiQas-] In natu- 
ral history, a kind of stony polypiers. 
AL'VINE, a. [from alvus, the l«lly.j Belonging to the 

belly or intestmes. Darwin. 
AL-WAR'GRIM, n. The spotted plover. 
AL'WAY, ) adv. 1. Perpetually ; throughout all time 
AL'WAYS, I 2. Continually ; without variation. 3. Con- 
'" tinually or constantly during a certain period, or regular 
ly at stated intervals. 4. At all convenient times ; regu 
larly. .Blway is now seldom used. 
A. M. stand for artimn magister, master of arts, the second 
degree given by universities and colleges ; called, in some 
countries, doctor of philosophy. — A. M. stand also for 
anno mundi, in the year of tiie world. 
AM, the first person of the ve rb to be, in the indicative 
mode, present tense [Sax. eom ; Gr. eijxi ; Goth, im ; 
Pers. ajii.] 
A'MA, or Ha'MA, n. [D. aam.] A vessel to contain wine 

for the eucharist •, a wine measure. 
AM-A-BIL'I-TY, 71. [L. ajnabilis.] Loveliness ; the power 

of pleasing. Taylor, 
A-MAD'A-VAD, n. A small, curious bird. 
AM-A-DET'TO, 71. A sort of pear. 
A-MAD'0-GAD£, 71. A small, beautiful bird in Peru 
AM'A-DOT, 71. A sort of pear. Johnson. 
AM'A-DOU, n. A variety of the boletus igniarius. This Is 
written also amadow, and called black match, and pxfro 
technical spunge, on account of its inflammability. 
A-MaIN', adv. [Sax. a and mcegn.] With force, strength, 

or violence ; violently ; furiously ; suddenly ; at once. 
A-MAL'GAM, n. [Gr. fiaXayfia.] 1. A mixture of mercu- 
ry or quicksilver with another metal. 2. A mixture cr 
compound of different things. 
A-MAL'GA-MATE, v.t. 1. To mix quicksilver with another 
metal. Gregory uses amalgamize. 2. To mix different 
things ; to make a compound ; to unite. 
A-MAL GA-MATE, v. i. To mix or unite in an amalgam ; 

to blend. 
A- MAL'GA-MA-TED, pp. Mixed with quicksilver ; blend- 
A-MAL'GA-MA-TING, ppr. Mixing quicksilver with ano- 
ther metal ; compoujiding. 
A-MAL-GA-Ma'TION, 71. 1. The act or operation of mix- 
ing mercury with another metal. 2. The mixing or 
blending of different things. 
f A-MAL'GAME, v. t. To mix metals by amalgamation 

t A-MAND', v. t. To send one away. Cockeram. 
t AM-AN-Da'TION, n. Sending on a message. 
AM'A-LOZK, n. A large aquatic fowl of Mexico. 

See Synopsis. MOVE, BQQK, DoVE ;— BIJLL, UNITE.— C as K ; G as J ; S as Z ; CH as SII ; TH as in this. + Obsolete 




A-MAN'DO-LA, n. A green marble. 

A-MAN-U-EN'SIS, n. [L. from maiius.] A person whose 
employment is to write what another dictates. 

AM'A-RANTH, or AM-A-RANTH'US, n. [Gr. aiiapavros.'] 
F'ower-geiitle ; a genus of plants, of many species, 

AM'A-RANTH, n. A color inclining to purple. 

AiM-A-RANTH INE, a. Belonging to amaranth ; consist- 
ing of, containing, or resembling amaranth. 

A-MAR'1-TUD£, n. [L. amariiudo ] Bitterness. [JSTot 

Vllich tiSBu, 

f A-MARULENCE, n Bitterness. 

1 A-MAR^r-LENT, a. Bitter. 

AM-A-R\ L'LIS, 71. In botany, .ily-daffodil. 

A-MASS', V. t. [Ft, amasser.] 1. To collect into a heap ; 
to gather a great quantity ; to accumulate. 2. To collect 
in great numbers ; to add many things together. 

A-MASS', n. An assemblage, heap, or accumulation. [This 
is superseded by inass.] 

A-MASS'ED, (a-masf) pp. Collected in a heap, or in a great 
quantity or number ; accuumlated. 

A-MaSS'1NG, ppr. Collecting in a heap, or in a large quan- 
tity or number. 

A-MASS'MENT, n. A heap collected ; an accumulation. 

■f A-MaTE', v. i. To accompany ; also, to terrify, to per- 

AM-A-TEuR', n. [Fr.] A person attached to a particular 
pursuit, study, or science, as to music or painting ; one 
who has a taste for the arts. Burke. 

t AM-A-TOR'€U-LIST, n. An insignificant lover. 

AM-A-TO'RI-AL, AM-A-To'Rl-OUS, or AM'A-TO-RY, a. 
[L ajnatorius.] 1. Relating to love ; causing love ; pro- 
duced by sexual intercourse. — 2. In anatomy, a term ap- 
plied tq_the oblique muscles of the eye. 

AM-A-To'RI-AL-LY, adv. In an amatorial manner. 

AM-AU-RO'SIS, n. [Gr. afiaupoj.] A loss or decay of sight, 
without any visible defect in the eye, except an immova- 
ble pupil ; called also gutta serena. 

A-MaZE', v. t. To confound with fear, sudden sui-prise, or 
wonder ; to astonish. 

A-MaZE', 71. Astonishment ; confus/nn ; perplexity, aris- 
ing from fear or wonder. It is chiefly used in poetry, 
and is nearly synonymous with amazement. 

A-MaZ'ED, (a-mazd') pp. Astonished ; confounded with 
fear, surprise, or wonder. 

A-MaZ'ED-LY, adv. ^Vith amazement ; in a manner to 
confound. [Little used.] 

A-MAZ'ED-NESS, n. The state of being confounded with 
fear, surprise, or wonder ; astonishment ; great wonder. 

A-jMaZE'MENT, 71. Astonishment ; confusion or perplex- 
ity, from a sudden impression of fear, surprise, or won- 

A-MaZ'ING, ppr. 1. Confounding with fear, surprise, or 
wonder. 2. a. Very wonderful ; exciting astonishment 
or perplexity. 

A-MAZ'fNG-LY, adv. In an astonishing degree. 

AM A-ZON, 71. [Gr. « and //a^o?.] 1. The Amazons are 
said, by historians, to have been'a race of female warriors, 
who founded an empire on the river Thermodon, in Asia 
Minor._ 2. A warlike or m isculine woman ; a virago. 

AM-A-Zo'NI-AN, a. I. Pertaming to or resembling an Am- 
azon. Applied to females, \)o\A ; of masculine manners ; 
warlike. 2. Belonging to the river Amazon or Maranon, 
in South America, or to Amazonia. 

AMB, AM. About ; around •, used in composition. [Sax. 
emh, ymb ; W. am ; Gr. aix(pL ; L. am or amb.] 

AM-Ba'GES, 71. [L. amb and ago.] 1. A circumlocution ; 
a circuit of words to express ideas which may be ex- 
pressed in fewer words. 2. A winding or turning, 

AM-Ba'GJ-OUS, a. Circumlocutory ; perplexed ; tedious. 

f AM-BAS-SaDE', 71. Embassy. Skak. 

A?iI-BAS'SA-DOR, n. [This is the more common orthogra 
phy ; but good authors write a\so embassador ; and, as the 
orthography of embassy is established, it would be better 
to write embassador. See Embassador.] 

AM-BAS'SA-DRESS, n. The wife of an ambassador. 

AM'BE, or AM'BI, n. [Gr. aju/???.] Literally, a brim •, but in 
surgery, an instrument for reducing dislocated shoulders. 
Also tlie mango tree. 

•■^M'BER, 71. [Fr, ambre ; Sp,] A hard, semi-pellu- 
cid substance, tasteless, and without smell, except when 
pounded or heated, when it emits a fragrant odor. It is 
found in alluvial soils, or on the sea shore, in many 
places ; particularly on the shores of the Baltic, in Europe, 
and at Cape Sable, in Maryland, in the United States. 

AM BER, a. Consisting of, or resembling amber. 

AM'BER, V. t. To scent with amber. 

AM'BER-nRINK, n. A drink resembling amber in color. 

AM'BER-DROP-PING, a. I>;opping amber. Milton. 

AMBER-SEED, n. Musk-seed, resembling millet. 

AM'BER-TREE, n. The English name of a species of an- 
thuspermum, a shrub. 

AM'BER-GRIS, n. [amber, and Fr. g:is.] A solid, opake 
ash-colored, inflammable substance, variegated like mar 
ble, remarkably light, rugged on its surface, and highly 
valued as a material in perfumery. 

AM-BI-DEX-TER, n. [L. ambo and dexter.] 1. A person 
who uses both hands with equal facility, 2. A double 
dealer ; one equally ready to act on either side in party 
disputes. — 3. In law, a juror who takes money of both 
parties, for giving his verdict ; an embracer. 

The faculty of using both hands with equal facility 
double dealing ; the taking of money from both parties 
for a verdict. 

AM-BI-DEX'TROUS, a. Having the faculty of using both 
hands with equal ease ; practicing or siding with both 

AM'BI-ENT, a. [L. amblens.] Surrounding ; encompassing 
on all sides ; investing. 

AM-BIG'E-NAL, a. [L. ambo and geyiu.] An ambigenal 
hyperbola is one of the triple hyperbolas of the second 
order, having one of its infinite legs falling within an an- 
gle formed by the asymptotes, and the other without, 

Afll'BE-GLT, n. 7\ji entertainment, or feast, consisting of a 
medley of dishes. King. 

AM-BI-Gu'I-TY, 71, [L. ambignitas.] Doubtfulness or un- 
certainty of signification, from a word's being susceptible 
of different meanings ; double meaning, 

AM-BIG'U-OUS, a. [L, ambiguus.] Having two or more 
meanings ; doubtful ; being of uncertain signification ; 
susceptible of different interpretations, 

AM-BIG'U-OUS-LY, adv. In an ambiguous manner ; with 
doubtful meaning. 

AM-BIG'U-OLJS-NESS, n. The quality of being ambigu- 
ous ; uncertainty of meaning ; ambiguity ; and, hence, 

AM-BIL,'E-VOUS, a. [L. ambo and Imvus.] Left-handed , 
on both sides. 

AM-BIL'0-GY, 77, [L, ambo, and Gr, \oyos.] Talk or lan- 
guage of doubtful meaning, 

AM-BIL'0-aUOUS, a. [L. ambo and loquor.] Using am- 
biguous expressions. 

AM'BIT, n. [L. ambitus.] The line that encompasses a 
thing ; in geovietry, the perimeter of a figure. The pe- 
riphery or circumference of a circular body. 

AM-Bi"TION, 77. ['L. ambitio.] A desire of preferment or of 
honor ; a desire of excellence or superiority. It is used 
in a good sense ; as, emulation may spring from a lauda- 
ble ambition. It denotes, also, an inordinate desire of 
power or eminence, often accompanied with illegal 
means to obtain the object, 

AM-Bl"T10N, V. t. [Fr. ambitionner.] Ambitiously to seek 
after. King. [Little used.] 

AM-Bi"TIOUS, a. 1. Desirous of power, honor, office, su- 
periority, or excellence ; aspiring ; eager for fame. 2 
Showy ; adapted to command notice or praise. 3. Eager 
to swell or riss higher. 

AM-Bl"TIOUS-LY, adv. In an ambitious manner. 

AM-Bi"TIOUS-NESS, ti. The quality of being ambitious. 

AM'BLE, V. i. [Fr. ambler.] 1. To move with a certain 
peculiar pace, as a horse, first lifting his two legs on one 
side, and then changing to the other. 2. To move easy, 
without hard shocks. 3. To move by direction, or to 
move affectedly. 

AM'BLE, 71. A peculiar pace of a horse. 

AIM'BLER, 71. A horse wMch ambl«s ; a pace 

AM'BLI-GON, or AM'BLY-GON, n. [Gr. a/^/SXus and 
yMVLu.] An obtuse-angled triangle. 

ABI-BLIG'O-NAL, a. Containing an obtuse angle, 

AM'BLI-GO-NITE, n. [Gr. a|u/?At)ywvtoj.] A greenish-col 
ored mineral. 

AM'BLING, ppr. or a. Lifting the two legs on the same 
side, at first going off, and then changing. 

AM'BLING-LY, adv. With an ambling gait. 

AM'BLY-0-PY, 71. [Gr, afxfS'Xvs and wif ,] Incipient amau- 
rosis ; dullness or obscurity of sight, 

AM'BO, 71, [Gr. a/i/Swv ,- L. umbo.] A reading desk, or pul- 

AM-BRE-a'DA, n. A kind of factitious amber. 

AM-BRo'SIA, (am-bro'-zha) n. [(Jr. a and /?porof.] 1. In 
heathen antiquity, the imaginary food of the gods. 2. 
Whatever is very pleasing to th'^ taste or smell. 

AM-BRo'Sl-A€, a. Having the qualities of ambrosia. 

AM-BRo'SIAL, (am-bro'-zhal) a. Partaking of the nature 
or qualities of ambrosia ; fragrant ; delighting the taste 
or smell. Ben Jonson uses ambrosiac in a like sense, and 
Bailey has ambrosian, but these seem not to be warranted 
by usage. 

AM-BRo'SlAN, a. Pertaining to St. Ambrose. 

AM'BRO-SIN, 71. In the middle ages, a coin stnick by the 
dukes of Milan, on which St. Ambrose was represented 

AM'BRY, 71. [contracted from Fr. aumonerie, almonry.] 1 
An almonry ; a place where alms are deposited for (lis ■ 
tribution to the poor. 2. A place in which are deposited 

See Synopsis. A E. I O. U. Y, long.— FAR, FALL, WH^T ;— PREY ;— PlN, MARINE, BIRD ;— \ Obsolete 


tiie utensils for house-keeping ; also a cupboard ; a place 

for cold victuals. 
AMBS-ACE', (amz-ase') n. [L. ambo, and ace^l A double 

ace, as when two dice turn up the ace. 
AM'BU-LANT, a. [L. amSwZans.] Walking ; moving from 

place to place. 
AM-BU-LA'TION, n. [L. ambulatio.] A walking about ; 

the act of walking. 
t AM'BU-LA-TlVE, a. V/alking. 
AM'BU-LA-TOR, n. In entomotogy, a species of lamia. 

AM'BU-LA-TO-RY, a. 1. That has the power or faculty 

of walking. 2. Pertaining to a walk. 3. Moving from 

place to place ; not stationary. 
AM'BLT-LA-TO-RY, 71. A species of ichneumon 
AM'BU-RY, or AN'BCJ-RY, n. [qu. L. umbo ; Gr. au8o}v.'] 

Among farriers, a tumor or wart on a horse, full of blood. 

♦ AM BUS-GADE, n. [Fr. embuscade.] 1. A lying in wait 
for the purpose of attacking an enemy by surprise. 2. A 
private station in whicli troops lie concealed with a view 
to attack their enemy by surprise ; ambush . Shakspeare 
uses the word ambuscado. 

AM'BUS-€ADE, v. t. To lie in wait for, or to attack from 
a concealed position. 

AM'BUS-€A-DED, pp. Having an ambush laid against, or 
attacked from a private station. 

AM'BUS-€A-DING, ppr. Lying in wait for ; attacking 
from a secret station. 

AM'BIJSH, n. [Fr. embUche.] 1. A private or concealed 
station, where troops lie in wait to attack their enemy by 
surprise. 2. The state of lying concealed, for the purpose 
of attacking by surprise ; a lying in wait. 3. The 
troops posted in a concealed place for attacking by sur- 

AM'BUSH, V. t. To lie in wait for ; to surprise by assailing 
unexpectedly from a concealed place. 

AM'BUSH, V. i. To lie in wait, for the purpose of attacking 
by surprise. Trumbull. 

AM'BUSHED, pp. Lain in wait for ; suddenly attacked 
from a concealed station. 

AM'BUSH-ING, ppr. Lying in wait for. 

AM'BtJSH-MENT, 7U An ambush ; which see. 

r AM-BUST', a. [L. ambustus.] Burnt ; scalded. 

AM-BUS'TI0N,7i. [L.avibustio.] Aburning; aburn or scald. 

A-MEI'VA, n. A species of lizard found in Brazil. 

AM'EL, n. [Fr. email.] The matter with which metallic 
bodies are overlaid ; but its use is superseded by enamel. 

A-MeL'IO-RATE, v. t. [Fr. ameliorer.] To make better ; 
to improve ; to meliorate. Christ. Obs. Buchanan. 

A-MeL'IO-RATB, v. i. To grow better ; to meliorate. 

A-MeL-IO-Ra'TION, n. A making or becoming better ; 
improvement ; melioration. 

* A-MEN'. This word, with slight differences of orthogra- 
phy, is in all the dialects of the Assyrian stock. As a 
verb, it signifies to confirm, establish, verify ; to trust, or 
give confidence ; as a noun, truth, firmness, trust, confi- 
dence ; as an adjective, firm, stable. In English, after 
the oriental manner, it is used at the beginning, but more 
generally at the end of declarations and prayers, in the 
sense of, be it firm, be it established. The word is used 
also as a noun. " All the promises of God are amen in 
Christ ;" that is, firmness, stability, constancy. 

A-Me'NA-BLE, a. [It. menare ; Fr. mcner.] Liable to an- 
swer ; responsible ; answerable ; liable to be called to 

t AM'EN-AGE, v. t. To manage. Spenser. 

t AM EN-ANCE, n. Conduct ; behavior. Spenser. 

A-MEND', V. t. [Fr. amender ; L. emendo.] 1. To correct ; 
to rectify by expunging a mistake. 2. To reform, by 
quitting bad habits •, to make better in a moral sense. 3. 
To con-ect ; to supply a defect ; to improve or make bet- 
ter, by adding what is wanted, as well as by expunging 
what is wrong. 

A-MEND', V. i. To grow or become better, by reformation, 
or rectifying something wrong in manners or morals. 

A-MEND', n. [Fr.] A pecuniary punishment or fine. 
The amende honorable, in France, is an infamous punish- 
ment inflicted on traitors, parricides, and sacrilegious 
persons. These words denote also a recantation in open 
court, or in presence of the injured person. 

A-MEND' A-BLE, a. That may be amended ; capable of 

A-MEND' A-TO-RY, a. That amends ; supplying amend- 
ment ; corrective. 

A-MEND'ED, pp. Corrected ; rectified ; reformed ; improv- 
ed, or altered for the better. 

A-MEND'ER, n. The person that amends. 

T A-MEND'FUL, a. Full of improvement. 

A-MEND'ING, ppr. Conecting : reforming ; altering for 
the better. 

A-MEND'MENT, n. 1. An alteration or change for the bet- 
ter ; reformatum of life. 2. A word, clause, or paragraph, 
added or proposed to be added to a bill before a legislature. 
— 3. In law, the correction of an error in a writ or process. 

31 AMM 

A-MENDS', n. plu. [Fr. amende.] Compensation for an id 

jury : recompense ; satisfaction ; equivalent. 
A-MEN'I-TY, M. [L amcenitas ;FT.a77ienite.] Pleasantness 

agreeableness of situation ; that which delignts the eye 
AM'ENT, 71. [L. amentum.] In botany, a species of inflo- 

rescence^from a common, chaffy receptacle. 
A-MEN-Ta'CEOUS, a. Growing in an ament ; resembling 

a thong. 
t A-MEN'TY, n. [Fr. amentie.] Madness. 
A-MERCE', (a-mers') v. t. [a for on, or at, and Fr. merci,] 

1. To inflict a penalty at mercy ; to punish by a pecunia- 
ry penalty, the amount of which is not fixed by law, but 
left to the discretion or mercy of the court. 2. To inflict 
a pecun%ry penalty •, to punish in general. 

A-MERCE'A-BLE, a. Liable to amercement. 

A-MER'CED, (a-merst')pp. Fined at the discretion of a court 

A-MERCE'M£N1', (a-mers'-ment) n. A pecuniary penalty 
inflicted on an offender at the discretion of the court. 

A-MER'CER, n. One who sets a fine at discretion upon an 

t A-MER'CIA-MENT, n. Amercement. Selden. 

A-MER'I-€A, n. [from Amerigo Vespucci.] One of the 
great continents. 

A-MER'I-€AN, a. Pertaining to America. 

A-MER'I-€AN, n. A native of America ; originally applied 
to the aboriginals, or copper-colored races, found here by 
the Europeans ; but now applied to the descendants of 
Europeans born in America. 

A-MER'I-€AN-ISM, n. An American idiom •, the love 
which American citizens liave for their own country. 

A-MER'I-€AN-lZE, v. t. To. render American ; to natu- 
ralize in America. 

A-MER'I-CIM, n. A species of lizard. 

AM'ESS, 71. A ^riest"s vestment. See AiircE. 

t AM-E-THOD'I-€AL, a. Out of method : irregular. 

t A-METH'O-DIST, n. A quack. 

AM'E-THYST, n. [L. amethystus.] A sub-species of 
quartz, of a violet blue color, of different degrees of in- 
tensity. It is wrought into various articles of jewelry. 

AM'E-THYST, in heraldry, signifies a purple color. 

AM-E-THYST'INE, a. Pertaining to or resembling amethyst 

AM'I-A, n. A genus of fish in Carolina. 

A'MI-A-BLE, a. [Fr. amiable ; L. amabilis.] 1. Lovely ; 
worthy of love •, deserving of affection 5 applied usually 
to persons. 2. Pretending or showing love. Shak. 

A'MI-A-BLE-NESS, n. The quality of deserving love ; 

A'MI-A-BLY, adv. In an amiable manner ; in a manner 
to excite or attract love. 

AM'I-ANTH, > 71. [Gt. ajuavTog.] Earth-flax, or moun- 

AM-I-ANTH'US, ) tain flax ; a mineral substance, some- 
what resembling flax. 

AM-I-ANTH'I-FORM, a. Having the form or likeness of 

AM-I-ANTH'IN-lTE, n. A species of amorphous mineral, 
a variety of actinolite. 

AM-I-ANTH'OID, 71. [amianth, and Gr. £t8os.] A mineral 
wJiich occurs in tufts, composed of long capillary fila- 
ments, flexible and very elastic. 

AM-I-ANTH'OID, a Resembling amianth in form. 

AM'I-€A-BLE, a. [L,. amicabilis.] 1. Friendly; peace- 
able ; harmonious in social or mutual transactions. 2 
Disposed to peace and friendship. 

AM'I-€A-BLE-NESS, n. The quality of being peaceable or 
friendly •, friendliness. 

AM'I-€A-BLY, adv. In a friendlv manner. 

fA-MI'CAL, a. Friendly. fF. Watson. 

AM'ICE, 71. [L. amictus.] A square linen cloth that a Cath- 
olic priest ties about his neck, hanging down behind un- 
der the alb, when he officiates at mass. 

A-MID', I prep, [a, and Sax. 7/iirf<^.J 1. In the midst or 

A-MIDST', \ middle. 2. Among ; mingled with. 3. 
Surrounded, encompassed, or enveloped with. Amid is 
used mostly in poetry. 

A-MID'-SHIPS. In marine language, the middle of a ship 
with regard to her length and breadth. 

AM'I-LOT, n. A white fish in the Mexican lakes. 

AMISS', a. 1. Wrong ; faulty ; out of order ; improper 

2. adv. In a faulty manner ; contrary to propriety, truth^ 
law, or morality. 

t A-MISS', 71. Culpability ; fault. Shak. 

t A-MISS'ION, n. Loss. More. 

t A-MIT', V. t. To lose. Brown. 

AM'I-TY, n. [Fr. amitii.] Friendship, in a general sense, 
between individuals, societies, or nations ; harmony- 
good understanding. 

AM'MA, 71. [Heb. DN.] 1. An abbess, or spiritual moth 
er. 2. A girdle er truss used in ruptures. [Gr. a/u/^a. J 

AM'MAN, n. [G amtmavn ; D. amptman.] In some Euro- 
pean nations, a judge who has cognizance of civil causes 
In France, a notary. 

AM'MTTE, or HAM'MTTE, n. [Gr. a////of.] A sand-stone 
or free-stone, of a pale-brown color. 

eSynopsis MOVE BQQK, D6VE ;— BIJLL, UNITE •,— € as K ; G as J • S as Z ; CH as SH ; TH as in this, f ObsoleU 

AMO 32 

AM'MO-CETE, n. An obsolete name of the ammorfj/te. In 

Cuvier, the name of a genus of fish. 
AM'MO-€HRYSE, n. [Gr. ajujuoj and XF"""?-] -^ yellow, 

soft stone , found in Germany. 
AX MO-DYTE, 71. [Gr. au//oj and 6vo).\ The sand eel, a 

genus of fish of the apodal order. 
AM-MO'NI-A, or AM'MO-NY, n. Volatile alkali ; a sub- 
stance, which, in its purest form, exists in a state of gas. 
AM-MO'NI-A€, o*- AM-MO-Nl'A-€AL, a. Pertaining to 

ammonia, or pi ssessing its properties. 
AM-Mo'NI-A€, or AM-Mo'ISI-AG GUM, n. A gum resin, 

from Afr ica and the East. 
AM-MC' JNII-AN, a. Relating to Ammonias, surnamed Sac- 
cas, of Al'^xandria, the founder of the eclectic system of 
AM MO-JNiTE, 7t. [cornu ammonis, from Jupiter Jlmmon.'] 
Serpent-stone, or cornu ammonis, a fossil shell, curved 
into a spiral form, like a ram's horn. 
AM-M6'NI-UM, ?i. A name given to the supposed metallic 

basis of ammonia. 
AM-i\IO-NT'U-RET, n. The solution of a substance in am- 
monia. Ed, Encyc. 
AM-MU-Nl"TION, n. [L. ad and munitio.] Military stores, 
or provisions for attack or defense. In mudem usage, 
the signification is confined to the articles which are used 
in the discharge of fire-arms and ordnance of all kinds ; 
as powder, balls, bombs, various kinds of shot, &c. — jS/ra- 
munition-bread, bread, or other provisions to supply troops. 
AM'NES-TY, n. [Gr. ajuvjycma.] An act of oblivion ; a 
general pardcn of the offenses of subjects against the gov- 
ernment, or the proclamation of sucn pardon, 
t AM-N1€'0-LIST, n. One who dwells near a river. 
AM-NIG'E-NOU?, a. Born of a river. 
AM'NI-OS, or A M'NI-ON, n. [Gr. aixviov.] The innermost 

membrane su .rounding tlie fetus in the womb. 
AM-Nl-OT'I€, a. Obtained from the liquor of the amnios. 
AM-O-Be'AN, a. Alternately answering. JVarton. 
AM-0-Be'UM, n. [Gr. aiioi(3aios.] A poem in which per- 
sons are represented as speaking alternately 
t AM-0-Ll''TION, 71. A removal ; a putting away. Bp. 

A-Mo'MUM, 71. [Gr. a^w/iov.] A genus of plants, all na- 
tives of warm climates, and remarkable for their pungen- 
cy and aromatic properties. — True amomum is a round 
fruit, from the East, of the size of a grape. 
A-M6NG', (a-mung') ) p?-ej?. [Sax. onmang, ongcmang.'] 

A-M6NGST', (a-mungsf) \ 1. In a general or primitive 
sense, mixed or mingled with. 2. Conjoined or associated 
with, or making part of the number. 3. Of the number. 
A-Mo'NI-AN, a. [from. Jlmmon or HAmmon.] Pertaining to 
Jupiter Ammon, or to his temple and worship in Upper 
AM-O-RA'DOp 71. [L. amor.] A lover. See Inamorato, 

wliich is chiefly used. 
A-Mo'RE, n. A name given, by Marcgrave, to a tribe of 

fish, ofjhree species, the pizuma, guacu, and tinga. 
AM-0-Re'ANS, 71. A sect of Gemaric doctors or commen- 
tators on the Jerusalem Talmud. 
AM-O-RET', n. [L. amor ; Fr. amourette.] A lover ; an am- 
orous woman ; also, a love-knot, or a trifling love afl^air. 
AM'O-RIST, 71. [L. amor.} A lover ; a gallant ; an inamo- 
rato. Boyle. 
t A-MORN'INGS, adv. In the mornings. 
AM-0-Ro'SA, 71. j^It.J A wanton woman. 
■ ■" ' ■ lover-, a man enamored. 

imoreux.] 1. Inclined to love ; hav- 
ing a propensity to love, or to sexual enjoyment ; loving ; 
fond. 2. In love ; enamored. Shak. 3. Pertaining or 
relating to love ; produced by love ; indicating love. 
Milton. Waller. 
AM'0-ROUS-LY, adv. In an amorous manner. 
AM'O-ROUS-NESS, n. The quality of being inclined to 

love, or to sexual pleasure ; fondness. 
A-MORPH'A, 71. [Gr. a and nop(pri.] False or bastard indi 

go, a native plant of Carolina. 
A-MORPH'OUS, a. [Gr. a and jJiofxpv.] Having no deter- 
minate form 5 of irregular shape. 
A-MORPH'Y, 7J. Irregularity of form ; deviation from a de- 
terminate shape. Swift. 
A-MOR'l ', adv. [L. mors, mortuus.] In the state of the 

dead. Shak. 
A-M0R-iI-Za'TI0N, or A-MORT'IZE-MENT, 71. The 
act or right of alienating lands or tenements to a corpora- 
A-MORT'lZE, V. t. [Norm, amortiier.j In English law, 
to alienate in mortmain, that is, to sell to a corporation, 
sole or aggregate, ecclesiastical or temporal, and their 
sucj;essors. 7'his was considered as selling to dead hands. 
A-MO'TION, 71. [L. amotio.] Pv.emovai Warton. 
A-MOUNT', V. i. [Fr. monter.] 1. To rise to or reach, by 
an accumulation of particulars into an aggregate whole 3 
to compose :n the whole. 2. To rise, reach, or extend 

Afti-U-K,0'C5/i., n. I ll.J A 

AM-O-RO'SO, 71. Jit.] A 
AM'O-ROUS, a. [Fr. amo 


to, in effect, or substance ; to result in, by consequence 
when all things are considered. 

A-MOUNT', 71. 1. The sum total of two or more particula., 
sums or quantities. 2. The effect, substance, or result ^ 
the sum. 

A-MOUNT'ING, ppr. Rising to, by accumulation or addi 
tion ; resulting, in effect or substance. 

A-MOUR', 71. [Fr.] An unlawful connection in love ; a 
love intrigue ; an affah- of gallantry. 

t A-M5V'AL, n. [L. amoveo.] Total removal. 

I A-MoVE', V. t. [L. amoveoi] To remove. Hall. 

AM'PEL-ITE, 71. [Gr. ajuTrcXoj.J Cannel coal, or candle 
coal, an inflammable substance. 

AM-PHIB'I-AL, or AM-PHIB'I-A, n. [Gr. a/^^i and /Stoj.' 
In zoology, amphibials are a class of animals, so formeS 
as to live on land, and for a long time under water. 

AM-PHIBT-O-LlTE, n. [Gr. an^ifiios and At0oj.] A frag- 
ment of a petrified amphibious animal. 

AM-PHIB-I-0-LOG'I-€AL, a. Pertaining to amphibiology 

Aftl-PHIB-I-OL'O-GY, n. [Gr. afx^i, jSios, and \oyos.] A 
discourse or treatise on amphibious animals, or the histo- 
ry and description of such animals. 

AM-PHIB'I-CUS, a. 1. Having the power of living in two 
elements, air and water. 2. Of a mixed nature ; partak- 
ing of two natures. 

AM-PHIB'I-OUS-NESS, n The qxiality of being able to 
live in two elements, or of partaking of two natures. 

AM-PHIB'I-UM, 71. That which lives in two elements, as 
in air and water. 

AMPHI-BOLE, n. [Gr. aii(pi0o\os ; ajxcpt and /SaXAw.] A 
name given by Haiiy to a species of minerals, including 
tlie treuiolite, hornblend, and actinolite. 

AM-PHI-BOL'I€, a. Pertaining to amphibole ; resembling 
amphibole. Cooper. 

AM-PHEB-0-LOG'I-CAL, a. Doubtful ; of doubtful meaning 

AM-PHIB-0-LOG'I-€AL-LY, adv. With a doubtful meaning. 

AM-PHI-BOL'0-GY, n. [Gr. aixcpiPoXoyi-a.] A phrase or 
discourse susceptible of two interpretations ; and, hence, 
a phrase of uncertain meaning. 

AM-PHIB'0-LOUS, a. [Gr. a//0(/?oXo?.] Tossed from one to 
another ; strikmg each way, with mutual blows. [L. u.] 

AM-PHIB'0-LY, 71. [Gr. a[x(pij3oXia.] Ambiguity of mean- 
ing. Spelman. [Rarely used.] 

AM'PHI-BRACH, n. [Gr. a/^^V and ^pa^vi.] In poetry, a 
foot of three syllables, the middle one long, the first and 
last short ; as, habere, in Latin. 

AM'PHI-€OME, 71. [Gr. a^icpi and /co//*?.] A kind of figured 
stone, of a round shape. 

AM-PHI€-TY-ON'I€, a. Pertaining to the august council 
of Amphictyons. 

AM-PHIG'TY-ONS, n. In Grecian history, an assembly or 
council of deputies from the different states of Greece, 
who sat at Thermopylae, but ordinarily at Delphi. 

AM'PHI-GENE, n. [Gr. a/jKpi and yevos.] In mineralogy, 
anothei name of the leucite or Vesuvian. 

AM-PHI-HEX-A-He DRAL, a. [Gr. a//^£,and hexahedral.] 
In crystalography, when the faces of the crystal, counted 
in two different directions, give two Iiexahedral outlines, 
or are found to be six in number. 

AM-PHIM'A-CER, 7)-. [Gr. afJiCpifxaKpoi.] In ancient poetry , 
a foot of three syllables., the middle one short, and the 
others long, as in castitas. 

AM-PHIS'BEN, ; n. [Gr. aucbicBaiva.] A genus of ser- 

AM-PHIS-BE'NA, \ pents. 

AM-PHIS'CI-i, or AM-PHIS'CIANS, n. [Gr. aiKpi and 
aKia.] In geography, the inhabitants of the tropics, whose 
shadows, m one part of the year, are cast to the north, 
and in the other, to the south. 

AM'PHI-TANE, n. A name given by ancient naturalists to 
a fossil, called by Dr. Hill, pyricuhium. 

AM-PHI-THe'A-TRE, } n. [Gr. apcpidearpov.] An edifice 

AM-PHI-THe'A-TER, <f in an oval or circular form, hav- 
ing its area encompassed with rows of seats, rising higher 
as they recede from the area, on \.'hich people used to sit 
to view the combats of gladiators and of wild beasts, and 
other sports. 

AM-PHI-THe'A-TRAL, a. Resembling an amphitheatre 

AM-PHI-THE-AT'RI-€AL, a. Pertaining to, or exhibited 
in, an amphitheatre. Warton. 

AM'PHI-TRTTE, n. [Gr. aiKpirpirrj.] A genus of marine 

animals, of the Linnean order mollusca. 
AMTHOR, ) n. [L. amphora.] Among the Greeks and 
AM'PHC)-RA, \ Romans, a liquid measure. 
AM'PLE, a. [Fr. ample ,• L. amphis.] 1. Large ; wide ; 
spacious ; extended ; as, ample room. 2. Great in bulk, 
or size. Shak. 3. Liberal ; unrestrained ; without par- 
simony ; fully sufficient ; as, ample justice. 4. Liberal ; 
magnificent; as, a7)2pZe promises. 5. Diffusive ; not brief 
or contracted ; as, an ample narrative. 
AMTLE-NESS, 71. Largeness ; spaciousness ; sufficiency ; 

* See Synapsis 5, E, I, O V,^, long.— F KB., FALL, WfHAT ;— PREY ;— PIN, MARINE, BtRD •,— t Obsolete 




AM-PLEX'I-€AUL, a. [L. amplexor.] In botany, surround- 
ing, or embracing the stem, as the base of a leaf. 

IM'PLI-ATE, V. t. [L. amplio.] To enlarge ; to make 
greater ; to extend. [Little used.] 

A.M-PLI-a'TION, n. 1. Enlargement; amplification ; dif- 
fuseness. [Little used.] — 2. In Roman antiquity, a defer- 
ring to pass sentence. 

AM-PLir'I-€ATE, v. t. [L amplifico.] To enlarge ; to 

AM-PLIF-I-€a'TION, n. [L. amplificatio.] 1. Enlarge- 
ment ; extension. — 2. In rhetoric, diffusive description, 
or discussion , exaggerated representation ; diffuse nar- 
rative, or a dilating upon all the particula'-s of a subject. 

AM'PLI-FIED, pp. Enlarged ; extended. 

AM'PLI-FI-ER, n. One who amplifies or enlarges. 

AM'PLI-FY, V. t. [Fr. amplifier ; L. amplifico.] 1. To en- 
large ; to augment ; to increase or extend —2. In rhetoric, 
to enlarge in discussion, or by representation ; to treat 
copiously, so as to present the subject in every view. 3. 
To enlarge by addition 

AM'PLI-FY, v.i.l. To speak largely, or copiously ; to be 
diffuse in argument or description •, to dilate upon. 2. 
To exaggerate •, to enlarge by representation or descrip- 

AM'PLI-FY-ING, ppr. Enlarging ; exaggerating ; diffu- 
sively treating. 

AM'PLI-TUDE, n. [L. amplitudo.] 1. Largeness ; ex- 
tent applied to bodies. 2. Largeness ; extent of capa- 
city, or intellectual powers. 3. Extent of means or 
power ; abundance ; sufficiency. — Amplitude, in astrono- 
viy, is an arch of the horizon intercepted between the 
east and west point, and the centre of the sun or star at 
its rising or setting. — Amplitude of the range, in projec- 
tiles, is the horizontal line subtending the path of a body 
thrown, or the line- which measures the distance it has 
moved. — Magneti^al amplitude is the arch of the horizon 
betveen the sun or a star, at rising or setting, and the 
east or west point of the horizon, by the compass. Encyc. 

AMPLY, adv. Largely ; liberally ; fully ; sufficiently ; co- 
piously ; in a diffusive manner. 

AM'PU-TATE, V. t. [L. amputo.] 1. To prune branches 
of trees or vines ; to cut off. 2. To cut off a limb or other 
part of an animal body ; a term of surgery. 

AM'PU-TA-TED, p;?. Cut off; separated from the body. 

AM'PU-TA-TING, ppr. Cutting off a limb or part of the 

AM-PU-Ta'TION, n. [L. amputatio.] The act or operation 
of cutting off a limb or some part of the body. 

AM'U-LET, n. [L. amuletum.] Something worn as a rem- 
edy or preservative against evils or mischief, such as dis- 
eases and witchcraft. Amulets, in days of ignorance, 
were common. 

AM-UR-€6S'I-TY, n. The quality of lees. 

A-MuSE', V. t. [Fr. amuser.] 1. To entertain the mind 
agreeably ; to occupy or detain attention with agreeable 
objects, whether by singing, conversation, or a show of 
curiosities. 2. To detain ; to engage the attention by 
hope or expectation. 

A-MuS'ED, (a-muzd') pp. Agreeably entertained ; having 
themind engaged by something pleasing 

A-MtJSE'MENT, n. That which amuses, detains, or enga- 
ges the mind ; entertainment of the mind ; pastime ; a 
pleasurable occupation of the senses, or that which fur- 
nishes it, as dancing, sports, or music. 

A-MuS'ER, n. One who amuses, or affords an agreeable 
entertainment to the mind. 

A-^ItfS'ING, ppr. or a. Entertaining ; giving moderate 
pleasure to the mind, so as to engage it ; pleasing. 

A-MuS'ING-LY, adv. In an amusing manner. 

A-Mu'SIVE, a. That has the power to amuse or entertain 

A-MU'SIVE-LY, adv. In an amusive manner. 

A-MYG'DA-LATE, a. [I,, amygdalus.] Made of almonds. 

A-MYG'DA-LATE, n. An emulsion made of almonds ; 
milk of almonds. 

A-MYG'DA-LINE, a. Pertaining to or resembling the al- 

A-MYG'DA-LlTE, n. A plant ; a species of spurge. 

A-MYG'DA-LOID. n. [Gr. aiivy^aXta.] Toad-stone. 

A-MYG'DA-LOID-AL, a. Pertaining to amygdaloid. 

AM-Y-La'CEOUS, a. [L. am%jlum.] Pertaining to starch, 
or the farinaceous part of grain ; resembling starch. 

AM'Y-LINE, n. [L amylum.] A farinaceous substance 

between gum and starch 
AM'Y-RALD-ISM, n. In church history, the doctrine of 

universal grace, as explained by Amyraldus. 
A MYZ'TLI, 71. A Mexican name of the sea-lion. 
AN, a. [Sax. an, ane, one ; D. een ; Ger. ein : Sw. and 
Dan. en ; Fr. on, un, une ; Sp. un, uno ; It. uno, una ; L. 
umis, una, unum ; Gr. ev ; Ir. ein, ean, aon ; W. un, yn.] 
One ; noting an individual ; either definitely, known, cer- 
tain, specified, or understood ; or indefinitely, not certain, 
known, or specified. Definitely ; as, " Noah built an ark 
of gopher wood." " Paul was aw eminent apostle." In- 

definitely ; as, " Bring me an orange." Before a conso 
nant, the letter n is dropped ; as, a man. 

AN, in old English authors, signifies if i as, ^'^ an it please 
your honor." 

A'NA, aa, or a. [Gr. ava.] In 77ierftca? ^prescriptions, it sig- 
nifies an equal quantity of the severa' ingredients ; as, 
wine and honey, ana, Qa, or a g ii. that is, of wine and 
honey each two ounces. 

A'NA, as a termination, is annexed to the names of authors 
to denote a collection of their memorable sayings. Thus, 
Scaligerana is a book containiiig the sayings of Scaliger. 
It was used by the Romans, as in Collectaneus, collected, 

AN-A-BAP'TISM, 77. The doctrine of the Anabaptists 

AN-A-BAP'TIST, n. [Gr. ava and (3aTrricrTr]s.] One who 
holds the doctrine of the baptism of adults, or of the inva-"^ 
lidity of infant baptism, and the necessity of rebaptiza- 
tion in an adult age. 

AN-A-BAP-TIST'I€, ) a. Relating to the Anabaptists 

AN-A-BAP-TIST'I-€AL, i or to their doctrines. 

AN-A-BAP'TIST-RY, n. The sect of Anabaptists. 

t AN-A-BAP-TIZE', v. t. To rebaptize. Whitlock. 

ANA€A, n. A species of paroquet, about the size of a 

AN-A-€A]VIP'TI€, a. [Gr. ava and Ka/irrro.] Reflecting or 

AN-A-€AMP'TieS, 71. The doctrine of reflected light. Sec 

AN-A-€aR'DIUM, n. The cashew-nut, or marking nut. 

AN-A-€A-THAR'TI€, a. [Gr. ava and KaBapca.] Throw- 
ing upwards ; cleansing, by exciting vomiting, expecto- 
ration, &c. 

AN-A-€A-THaR'TI€, n. A medicine which excites dis- 
charges by the mouth or nose. 

AN-A-CEPH-A-L^-O'SIS, n. [Gr. avaKE<pa\dLwaii.] Re- 
capitulation of the heads of a discourse. 

AN-A€H'0-RET. See Anchoret. 

AN-A-€HO-RET'I-eAL, a. Relating to an anachoret, or 

AN-A€H'R0-NISM, n. [Gr. ava and ;^poi/off.] An error in 
computing time ; any error in chronology. 

AN-A€H-RO-NIS'TI€, a. Erroneous in date ; containing 
an anachronism. Warton. 

AN-A-€LAS'TI€, a. [Gr. ava and /cXaaij.] Refracting ; 
breaking the rectilinear course of light. 

AN-A-CLAS TICS, n. That part of optics which treats of 
the refraction of light, commonly called dioptrics, which 

AN-A-COE-No'SIS, 71. [Gr. avaxoivwo-jj.] A figure of rhet- 
oric, by which a speaker applies to his opponents for their 
opinion on the point in debate. 

AN-A-€OND'A, n. A name given in Ceylon to a large 
snake, a species of boa. 

A-NAC-RE-ON'TIC, a. Pertaining to Anacreon. 

A-NAC-RE-ON'TI€, n. A poem composed in the manner 
of Anacreon. 

AN'A-DeME, n. [Gr. avaSri/ia.] A chaplet or crown of 
flowers. W. Browne. 

AN-A-DI-PLo'SIS, 71. [Gr. ava and Snr\oos.'] Duplication, 
a figm-e in rhetoric and poetry, consisting in the repeti- 
tion of the last word or words in a line or clause of a sen- 
tence, in the beginning of the next. 

A-NAD'RO-MOUS, a. [Gr. ava and Spojios.] Ascending ; a 
word applied to such fish as pass from the sea into fresh 
waters, at stated seasons. 

AN'A-GLYPH, n. [Gr. ava and yXt)0w.] An ornament 
made by sculpture. 

AN-A-GLYPTIC, a. Relating to the art of carving, en- 
graving, enchasing, or embossing plate. 

AN'A-GO-GE, or AN'A-G0-6Y, n. [Gr. avaywyn.] An ele- 
vation of mind to things celestial ; the spiritual meaning 
or application of words. 

t AN-A-GO-GET'I-CAL, a. Mysterious. 

AN-A-GOG'I-€AL, a. Mysterious ; elevated ; spiritual. 

AN-A-GOG'I-CAL-LY, adv. In a mysterious sense ; with 
religious elevation. 

AN-A-GOG'ICS, 71. Mysterious considerations. 

ANA-GRAM, n. [Gr. ava and ypa/z/za.] A transposition o' 
the letters of a name, by which a new word is formed. 
Thus Oalenus becomes angelus ; William JK^oy, (attorney 
general to Charles I., a laborious man,) reay be turned 
into Imoyl in law. 

AN-A-GRAM-MAT'IC, ) Makin? in amiTram 

AN-A-GRAM-MAT'I-€AL,J ^- ^lafemg an anagram. 

AN-A-GRAM-MAT'I-€AL-LY, adv. In the manner of au 

AN-A-GRAM'MA-TISM, 71. The act or practice of making 
anagrams. Camden. 

AN-A-GRAM'MA-TIST, n. A maker of anagrams. 

AN-A-GRAM'MA-TiZE, 7?. i. To make anagrams 

AN'A-GROS, 71. A measure of grain in Spain, containing 
something less than two bushels. 

* See Synopsis. MOVE, BOOK, D6VE ;— BIJLL, UNITE.— € as K ; G as J ; S as Z • CH as SH ; TH as in this, f Obsolete , 




A'NAL, a. [L. anus.\ Pertaining to the anus 

A-NAL'CIM, ) n. Cubic zeolite, found in aggregated or 

A-NAL'CIME, \ cubic crystals. 

AN'A-LE€TS, n. [Gr. ava and Xsyco.] A collection of 
short e«!says, or remarks, Evcyc. 

AN'A-LEM-MA, n. [Gr. avaXijjjiixa.] 1. In geometry, a 
projection of the sphere on the plane of the meridian, or- 
thographical ly made by straight lines, cucles, and ellip- 
ses, the eye being supposed at an infinite distance, and 
in the east or west points of the horizon. 2. An instru- 
ment of wood or brass, on which this kind of projection is 

AN-A-LEFSIS, n. [Gr. ava'Xv^'is.] The augmentation or 
nutrition of an emaciated body •, recovery of strength af- 
ter a disease. 

AN-A-LEP'T[€, a. Corroborating ; invigorating ; giving 
strength after disease. 

AN-A-LEP'TI€, n. A medicine which gives strength ; a 

t AN-AL'0-GAL, a. Analogous. Hale. 

AN-A-L06'I-€AL, a. Having analogy ; used by way of 
analogy ; bearing some relation. 

AN-A-L06'I-€AL-LY", adv. In an analogical manner ; by 
way of similitude, relation, or agreement. 

AN-A-L06'I-€AL-NESS, n. The quality of being analogi- 

AN-AL'0-6ISM, n. [Gr. avaXoyKTiiog.] An argument from 
the cause to the effect. Johnson. Investigation of things 
by the analogy they bear to each other. Crabbe. 

AN-AL'0-6IST, n. One who adheres to analogy. 

AN-AL'0-6lZE, v. t. To explain by analogy ; to form 
some resemblance between different things ; to consider 
a thing with regard to its analogy to something else. 

A-NAL'0-GOUS, a. Having analogy ; bearing some resem- 
blance or proportion. 

A-NAL'0-GOUS-LY, adv. In an analogous manner. 

A-NAL'0-6Y, n. [Gr. avaXoyia.l 1. An agreement or 
likeness between things in some circumstances or elfects, 
when the things are otherwise entirely difliferent. 2. 
With grammarians, analogy is a conformity of words to 
the genius, structure, or general rules of a language. 

A-NAL'Y-SIS, 71. [Gr. avakvais.'] 1. The separation of a 
compound body into its constituent parts ; a resolving. 
2. A consideration of any thing in its separate parts •, an 
examination of the different parts of a subject, eacli sepa- 
rately. It is opposed to synthesis. — In mathematics, anal- 
ysis is the resolving of problems by algebraic equations. — 
In logic, analysis is the tracing of things to their source, 
and the resolving of knowledge into its original princi- 
ples. 3. A syllabus, or table of the principal heads of a 
continued discourse, disposed in their natural order. 4. 
A brief, methodical illustration of the principles of a 
science. — In this sense, it is nearly synonymous with 

AN'A-LYST, n. One who analyzes, or is versed in analy- 
sis. Kirwan. 

AN-A-LYT'ie, \ a. Pertaining to analysis ; that re- 

AN-A-LYT'I-€AL, \ solves into first principles ; that 
separates into parts, or original principles •, that resolves 
a compound body or subject. It is opposed to synthetic. 

AN-A-LYT'I-CAL-LY, adv. In the manner of analysis. 

AN-A-LYT'I€S, n. The science of analysis. 

AN'A-L"?ZE, V. t. [Gr. avaXvii).'] To resolve a body into 
its elements ; to separate a compound subject into its 
parts or propositions, for the purpose of an examination 
of each separately. 

AN'A-L?ZED, -pp. Resolved into its constituent parts or 
principles, for examination. 

AN'A-LYZ-ER, n. One who analyzes ; that which ana- 
lyzes, or has the power to analyze. 

AN'A-L^Z-ING, ppr. Resolving" into elements, constituent 
parts, or first principles. 

* AN-A-MORPH'0-SIS, n. [Gr. ava and ^op^wcrif.J In per- 
spective drawings, a deformed or distorted portrait or fig- 
ure, which, in one point of view, is confused or unintel- 
ligible, and, in another, is an exact and regular representa- 

A-Na'NAS, 71. The name of a species of pine-apple. 

AN'A-PEST, 71. [Gr. ava and iratw.] In poetry, a foot, con- 
sisting of three syllables, the two first short, the last long. 

AN-A-PEST'I€, 71. The anapestic measure. 

AN-A-PEST'I€, a. Pertaining to an anapest , consisting of 
anapestic feet. 

A-NAPH'0-RA, n. [Gr. from ava^epw.] 1. A figure in 
rhetoric, 'when the same word or words are repeated at 
the beginning of two or more succeeding verses or clauses 
of a sentence — 2. Among physicians, the discharge of 
blood, or purulent matter by the mouth. 

AN-A-PLE-ROT X€, a. [Gr. avaTr\r)po(,).] Filling up ; sup- 
plying or renc ^^ting flesh. 

AN-A-PLE-RC r'I€, n. A medicine which renews flesh or 
wasted parts. Coxe 

AN'AR€H, n. The author of confusion ; one who exclt 
revolt. Milton 

A-NAR€H'I€, ) a. Without rule or government ; in a 

A-NaR€H'I-€AL, ) state of confusion ; applied to a state 
or society. Fielding uses anarchial. 

f AN'AR€H-ISM, n. Confusion. 

AN'AR€H-IST, n. An anarch ; one who excites revolt, oi 
promotes disorder in a state 

AN'AR€H-Y, n. [Gr. avap')(^La.] Want of government ; a 
state of society when there is no law or supreme power 
or when the laws are not efficient ; political confusion. 

A-NAR'HI-€HAS, n. The sea wolf. 

Z'NAS, 71. [L.] A genus of water fowl. 

AN-A-SAR'CA, 71. [Gt. ava and aap^.] A species of drop- 
sy, from a serous humor spread between the skin end 

AN-A-SXR'COUS, a. Belonging to anasarca, or dropsy ; 

A-NAS-TO-MAT'IC, a. Having the quality of removing 

A-NAS'TO-MOSE, v.i. [Gr. ava and (TTOjjia.] To inoscu- 
late ; to unite the mouth of one vessel with another, as 
the arteries with the veins. 

A-NAS-TOM'O-SY, or A-NAS-TO-Mo'SIS, 71. The moscu- 
lation of vessels, or the opening of one vessel into another, 
as an artery into a vein -, the communication of two ves- 
sels, as a vein with a vein. 

A-NAS-TO-MOT'I€, a. Opening the mouths of vessels, or 
removing obstructions. 

A-NAS-TO-MOT'I€, n. A medicine supposed to have the 
power of opening the mouths of vessels, and promoting 

A-NAS'TRO-PHE, ) n. [Gr. avaarpo^r}.] In rhetoric and 

A-NAS'TRO-PHY, ) ^?-oj«7rea7-, an inversion of the natu- 
ral order of words. 

AN'A-TASE, n. [Gr. avaraaig.] Octahedrite ; octahedral 
oxyd of titanium ; a mineral that shows a variety of col- 
ors by reflected light. 

A-NATH'E-MA, 71. [Gr. avaOeiia.] Excommunication with 
curses. Hence, a curse or denunciation by ecclesiastical 
authority, accompanying excommunication. 

A-NATH-E-MAT'1-€AL, a. Pertaining to anathema. 

A-NATH-E-MAT'I-€AL-LY, cdu. In the manner of anath 

AN-A-THEM-A-TI-Za'TION, n. The act of anathematiz 
ing. Encyc. 

A-NATH'E-MA-TiZE, v. t. To excommunicate with a de- 
nunciation of curses ; to pronounce an anathema against 

A-NATH'E-MA-TISM, n. Excommunication. Tooker. 

A-NATH'E-MA-TiZED, pp. Excommunicated with curses 

A-NATH'E-MA-TlZ-ER, n. One who anathematizes. 

A-NATH'E-MA-TlZ-ING, ppr. Pronouncing an anathema 

AN-A-TIF'ER-OUS, a. [L. anas and fero.] Producing 
ducks. Brown. 

A-NAT'0-CISM, 71. \1j. anatocismus.'] Interest upon inter- 
est ; the taking of compound interest. [Rarely used.] 

AN-A-TOM'I-€AL, a. Belonging to anatomy or dissec- 
tion ; relating to the parts of the body when dissected or 

AN-A-TOM'I€AL-LY, adv. In an anatomical manner ; by 
means of dissection. 

A-NAT'O-MIST, n. One who dissects bodies ; one who is 
skilled in the art of dissection, or versed in the doctrinfl 
and principles of anatomy. 

A-NAT'0-MiZE, v. t. To dissect an animal ; to divide in- 
to the constituent parts, for the purpose of examining 
eaclr by itself; to lay open the interior structure of the 
parts of a body or subject, 

A-NAT'0-MiZED, pp. Dissected, as an animal body 

A-NAT'0-MlZ-ING, ppr. Dissecting. 

A-NAT'0-MY, ??. [Gr.avaTonT].'] 1. The art of dissecting, 
or artificially separating, the different parts of an animal 
bodj', to discover their situation, structure, and economyr 

2. The doctrine of the structure of the body, learned by 
dissection. 3. The act of dividing any thing, corporea 
or intellectual, for the purpose of examining its parts. 4. 
The body stripped of its integuments ; a skeleton ; an im- 
proper use of the word, 5. Ironically, a meager person. 

AN-A-TREP'T1€, a. [Gr. avaTpsirw.] Overthrowing ; de- 
feating ; prostrating. 

AN'A-TRON, n. [Gr. vtrpov.] 1. Soda, or mineral fixed 
alkali, 2. Spume, or glass gall, a scum which rises upon 
melted glass, in the furnace, and, when taken off", dis- 
solves in the air, and then coagulates into common salt 

3. The salt which collects on the walls of vaults. 
AN'BU-RY, 71. A disease in turneps, or an injury occasion- 
ed by a fly„ 

AN'CES-TOR, 71. [Fr. ancestres ; L. antecessor.] One from 
whom a person descends, either by the father or mother, 
at any distance of time, in the tenth or hundredth gene- 
ration. An ancestor precedes in the order of nature or 
blood ; a predecessor in the order of office. 

* See Syno^isis A, K. I, o, C, ■?, long.—FkR, FALL, WHA.T ;— PRSY j— PIN, MARINE, BIRD ;— t Obsolete 



* AN-CES'TEAL, a. Relating or belonging to ancestors ; 
claimed or descending from ancestors. 

AI^'CES-TRY, 71. A series of ancestors or progenitors ; 
lineage, or those who compose the line of natural descent. 
Hence, birth, or honorable descent. 

aN'CHEN-TRY. See Ancientry. 

AN'€Hl-LOPS, n. [Gr. atytXw;^.] The goat's eye ; an ab- 
scess in the inner angle of the eye ; an incipient fistula 

AJV'€HOR, n. [L. anchora.] 1. An iron instrument for 
holding a ship or other vessel at rest in water. — M 
anchor is when a ship rides by her anchor. Hence, 
to lie or ride at anchor. — To cast anchor, or to anchor, is 
to let go an anchor, to keep a ship at rest. — To weigh 
anchor is to heave or raise the anchor out of the ground. 
n. In a figurative sense, that whic-h gives stability or se- 
curity ; that on which we place dependence for safety. — 
3. In a.rchitecture, anchors are carved work, somewhat 
resembling an anchor. — in heraldry, anchors are emblems 
of hope. 

AN'€HOR, V. t. 1. To place at anchor ; to moor. 2. To 
fix or fasten on ; to fix in a stable condition. 

AN'€HOR, V. i. 1. To cast anchor ; to come to anchor. 2. 
To stop ; to fix or rest on. 

f AN'GHOR-A-BLE, a. Fit for anchorage. 

A]M'€!H0R-A6E, n. 1. Anchor-ground ; a place where a ship 
can anchor. 2. The hold of a ship at anchor, or rather 
the anchor and all the necessary tackle for anchoring. 3. 
A duty imposed on ships for anchoring in a harbor. 

AN'€HORED, jpp. Lying or riding at anchor 5 held by an 
anchor ; moored ; fixed in safety. 

AN'CHO-RESS, n. A female anchoret. 

ANeHO-RET, or AN'€HO-RITE, n. [Gr. avaxwQVrm- 
Written by some authors, anachoret.] A hermit ; a re- 
cluse ; one who retires from society into a desert or soli- 
tary place, to avoid the temptations of the world, and de- 
vote himself to religious duties, 

AN'CHOR-GRO JND, n. Ground suitable for anchoring. 

AN'€HOR-HOLD, n. The hold or fastness of an anchor ; 

AN'€HOR-ING, ppr. Mooring ; coming to anchor ; casting 

AN'CHOR-SMITH, n. A maker of anchors. 

* AN-CHO VY, } n. [Port, and Sp, ayichova.] A small fish, 

* AN CHO-VY, \ caught, in vast numbers, in the Medi- 
terranean, and used as a sauce or seasoning 

AN-CHO VY-PEaPi., n. A fruit of Jamaica 

*aN'CIENT, a. (Usually pronounced, most anomalously, 
ancient.) [Fr. ancien.] 1. Old ; that happened or ex- 
isted in former times, usually at a great distance of 
time ; as, ancient authors, ancient days. 2. Old ; that 
has been of long duration ; as, an ancient city. 3. 
Known from ancient times 5 as the ancient continent, op- 
posed to the neio continent. 

* aN'CIENT, ?i. Generally used in the plural, ancients. 
1. Those who lived in former ages, opposed to moderns. — 
In Scripture, very old men. Also, governors, rulers, po- 
litical and ecclesiastical. Hooker uses the word for sen- 
iors. 2. Ancient is also used for a flag or streamer, in a 
ship of war. 

* aN'CIENT-LY, adv. In old times ; in times long since 

*aN'CIENT-NESS, ?j. The state of being ancient 5 anti- 
quity ; existence from old times. 

* AN'CIENr-RY, n. Dignity of birth ; the honor of ancient 
lineage. Suik. 

t * aN'OIENI Y, n. Age ; antiquity. Martin. 

* aN'CIENT-Y, n. In some old English statutes and au- 
thors, eldership, or seniority. 

AN-Cl'LE, n. [L.] The ancient shield of the Romans. 

AN'CIL-LA-RY, a. [L. ancilla.] Pertaining to a maid-ser- 
vant, or female service ; subservient as a maid-servant. 

AN-CIP'I-TAL, a. [L. anceps.] Doubtful, or double ; dou- 
ble-faced or double-formed. 

AN'OOME, n. A small ulcerous swelling, coming suddenly. 

AN'€0N, n. [L. ancon.] The olecranon, the upper end of 
the ulva, or elbow. Coxe. 

AN'€oNE, ri. [L. ancon.] In architecture, the corner of a 
wall, cross-beam, or rafter. 

AN'€0-NY, n. In iron works, a piece of half-wrought iron, 
in the shape of a bar in the middle, but rude and un- 
wrought at the ends. 

AND, CO )i;. [Sax. and; Ger und.] And is a conjunction, 
connective, or conjoining word. It signifies that a 
word or part of a sentence is to be added to what pre- 
cedes. Thus, give me an apple and an orange 5 that is, 
give me an apple, add, or give, in addition to that, an or- 

t AN'DA-BA-TISM, n. Uncertainty. 

AN'DA-LU-SITE, n. A massive mineral, of a flesh or rose 
red color. 

AN-DANTE, [It.] In music, a word used to direct to a 
movement moderately slow, between largo and allegro. 

AN'DA-RAe, p.. Red orpiment. Coxe. 

AN DE-AN, a. Pertaining to the Andes. 

AN-Di'RA. 71. A species of bat in Brazil. 

AND'I-RON. (and-i'-urn) n. [Teutonic, andena, or cindela. 
Sax. hrand-isen.l An iron utensil, used, in Great Britain, 
where coal is the common fuel, to support the ends of a 
spit ; but, in America, used to support the wood in fire- 

AN-DO-RIN'HA, n The Brazilian swallow. 

AN-DRA-NAT'O-MY, n. [Gr. avri^, av^^og.] The dissec 
tion of a human body, especially of a male 

AN'DRE-O-UTE, n A mineral, the harmotome, or cross- 

AN-DR06'Y-NAL, or AN-DROG'Y-NOUS, a. [Gr. avnp 
and yvvv.] Having two sexes ; being male and female ; 
herinaphroditical.— In botany, the name is applied to 
plants which bear both male and female flowers froni ' 
the same root. 

AN-DROG'Y-NAL-LY, adv. With the parts of both sexes 

AN-DROG'Y-NUS, n. A hermaphrodite. Johnson. - 

AN'DROID, n. [Gr. avrip and £i6os.] A machine in the hu- 
man form, which, by certain springs, performs some of 
the natural motions of a living man. 

AN-DROM'E-DA, n. A northern constellation, behind Peg 
asus, Cassiopeia, and Perseus. 

AN-DROPH'A-GI, n. [Gr. avrtp and ^ayw.l Man-eaters , 
but the word is little used, being superseded by anthro- 

A-NeAR', prep. Near. Atterbury. 

AN'E€-DOTB, n. [Gr. a and ckSotos. \ In its original sense, 
secret history, or facts not generally known. But m more 
common usage, a particular or detached incident or fact 
of an interesting nature ; a biographical incident ; a sin- 
gle passage of private life. 

AN-E€-DOT'I-€AL, a. Pertaining to anecdotes. 

t A-NeLE', v. t. [Sax. all.] To give extreme unction. 

AN-E-MOG'RA-PHY, 71. [Gr. avenos a.n& ypa^-j.] A de- 
scription of the winds. 

AJV-E-MOL'0-GY, n. [Gr. avepos and \oyos.] The doctrine 
of winds, or a treatise on the subject 

AN-E-MOM'E-TER, n. [Gr. avsiiog and /i<erfj£w.] An in- 
strument or machine for measuring the force and veloci- 
ty of the wind. 

A-NEM'O-NE, In. [Gi: avefxwvr].] Wind-flower; a genua 

A-NEM'0-NY, ) of plants of numerous species.— Sea- 
Anemone. See Animal Flower. 

* A-NEM'0-S€OPE, n. [Gr. avefiog and (jKOTreu).] A ma 
chine which shows the comse or velocity of the wind. 

A-NENT', prep. About ; concerning ; over against : a Scot- 
tish word. 

aNES, or AWNS, n. The spires or beards of corn. 

AN'EU-RISM, n. [Gr. ava and evpvvw.] A preter-iatural 
dilatation or rupture of the coats of an arterj^ 

AN-EU-RIS'MAL, a. Pertaining to an aneurism. 

A-NEW', adv. Over again ; another time ; in a new form . 
as, to create anew. 

A-NEWST', or A-NEUST', adv. Nearly ; almost. 

AN-FRA€'TU-OUS, a. [Ij. anfractus.] WinAing; full of 
windings and turnings ; written less correctly, anfractw 
ose. Ray. 

AN-FRA€-TU-OS'I-TY, In. A state cf being full ol 

AN-FRA€'TU-OUS-NESS, ] windings and turnings. 

AN-FRA€'TUSE, n. A mazy winding. 

AN-Gx'i.-RI-A'TION, n. [L. angaria.] Compulsion , exer- 

AN-GEI-OT'O-MY. See ANGioTor-v. 

* aN'GEL, 71. (Usually pronounced angel, but most anoma- 
lously.) [L. a7igelus ,• Gr. ayyeXos.] 1. Literally, a mes- 
senger ; one employed to communicate news or informa- 
tion from one person to another at a distance. 2 A 
spirit, or a spmtual, intelligent being, employed by God 
to communicate his will to man. 3. In a bad sense, an 
evil spirit ; as, the angel of the bottomless pit. 4. Christ, 
the Mediator and Head of the church. Rev. x. 5. A 
minister of the gospel, who is an embassador of God. 
Rev. ii. and iii. C. Any being whom God employs to 
execute his judgments. Rev. xvi. 7. In the style of 
love, a very beautiful person. Shah. 

* aN'GEL, 71. A fish found on the coast of Carolina. 

* aN'GEL, n. A gold coin formerly current in England, 
bearing the figure of an angel. 

* aN'GEL, a. Resembling angels ; angelic. Shah. 

* aN'GEL-aGE, n. The existence or state of angels. 

* aN'GEL-FISH. n. A species of shark. 
AN-GEL'I€, or AN-GEL'I-€AL, a. [L. angelicus.] Re 

sembling angels ; belonging to angels, or partaking 0*. 

their nature ; suiting the nature and dignity of angeis. 
AN-GEL'I-€A, 7i. A genus of digynian pentanders, con 

taining several soecies. 
AN-GEL'I-€AL-LY, adv. Like an angel. 
AN-GEL'I-€AL-NESS, n. The quality of being angelic 

excellence more than human. 

* See Synopsis. MOVE, BOOK, D6VE ;- BPJLL, UNITE ,— € as K ; 6 as J ; S as Z ; CH a-s SH ; TH as in tAw f Obsoletfj 



AX 6EL-ITES, n. In church history, a sect so called from 
Angelicura in Alexandria, where they held their first 

AiN' 6EL-LIKE, a. Resembling, or having the manners of 

XN-GEL-0L'0-6Y, n. A discourse on angels , or the doc- 
trine of angelic beings. Ch. Spectator. 

AN'6E-L0T, n. [Fr. anche.] 1. An instrument of music, 
somewhat resembling a lute. 2. An ancient English 
coin. A small, rich sort of cheese. 

aN'6EL-SH0T, 71. [Fr. ange.] Cham-shot, being two 
halves of a cannon ball fastened to the ends of a chain. 

aN'GEL-WINGED, a. Winged like angels. 

aX'6EL-W0R-SHIP, 71. The worshiping of angels. 

AN'GER, (ang'-ger) n. [L. anger.] 1. A violent passion 
of the mind, excited by area), or supposed injury ; usually 
accompanied with a propensity to take vengeance, or to 
obtain satisfaction from the offending party. 2. Pain ; 
smart of a sore or swelling ; the literal sense of the word, 
but little used. 

ANGER, V. t. 1. To excite anger ; to provoke ; to rouse 
resentment. 2 To make painful ; to cause to smart ; to 

AN GER-LY adv. In an angry manner ; more generally 
written angrily. 

t AN'GER-NESS, n. The state of being angry. 

AN-6l'NA, 71. [L. from ango.] A quinsy ; an inflamma- 
tion of the throat ; a tumor impeding respiration. 

AN-Gl'NA PE€'-TO-RIS. An anomalous or spasmodic af- 
fection of the chest and organs of respiration ; or a dis- 
ease of the hearrL. Coxe. 

AN-GI-OGRA-PHY, 71. [Gr. ayyeiov and ypacpr).] A de- 
scription of the vessels in the human body. 

AN-GI-OL'O-GY, n. [Gr. ayyeLov and Xoyos.] A treatise 
or discourse on the vessels of the human body. 

AN-6I-0-M0N-0-SPERM'0US, a. [Gr. uyyEiov, iiovos, 
and (TTTEp/^a.J Producing one seed only in a pod. 

AN''6l-0-SPERM, n. [Gr. ayy^Lov and aKepjxa.] In botany, 
a plant which has its seeds inclosed in a pericarp. 

AN-GI-0-SPERM'OUS, a. Having seeds inclosed in a pod 
or other pericarp. 

AJV-GI-OT'0-MY, 71. [Gr. ayyuov and t£//v&).] The open- 
ing of a vessel, whether a vein or an artery, as in bleeding. 

ANGLE, 71. [Fr. angle.] In popular language, the point 
where two lines meet, or the meeting of two lines in a 
point ; a corner. In geometry, the spa^e comprised be- 
tween two straight lines that meet in a point, or between 
two straight converging lines, which, if extended, would 
meet ; or the quantity by which two s raight lines, de- 
parting from a point, diverge from each other. The 
point of meeting is the vertex of the angle, and the lines 
containing the angle are its sides or legs. 

AN'GLE, 71. A hook ; an instrimient to take fish, consist- 
ing of a rod, a line and a hook, or a line and hook. 

AN'GLE, V. i. 1. To fish with an angle, or with line and 
hook. 2. V. t. or i. To fish for •, to try to gain by some 
bait or insinuation, as men angle for fish. 

AN'GLED, a. Having angles — iised only in compounds. 

AN'GLER, 7?. One that fishes with an angle ; also, a fish, 
a species of lophius. 

AN'GLE-ROD, n. The rod or pole to which a line and 
hook are fastened. 

AN'GLES, n. [L. Angli.] A people of Germany, from 
whom the name of England was derived. 

AN'GLI€, } a. [from Angles.] English •, pertaining to 

AN'GLI-€AN, ] England or the English nation. 

AN'GLI-GISM, 71. An English idiom ; a form of language 
peculiar to the English. Milton. 

AN'GLI-CIZE, V. t. To make English ; to render conform- 
able to the English idiom. 

AN'GLING, ppr. Fishing with an angle, 

AN'GLING, 71. A fishing with a rod and line. 

AN-GLO-Da'NISH, a. Pertaining to the English Danes, or 
the Danes who settled in England. 

AN-GLO-NORM'AN, a. Pertaining to the English Nor- 
mans. Wotton. 

AN-GLO-SAX'ON, a. Pertaining to the Saxons who settled 
in England, or English Saxons. 

AN-GLO-SAX'ON, n. A kind of pear ; also the language 
of the English Saxons. 

AN-GO'LA-PEA, or PIG'EON-PEA. A species of cytisus. 

AN'GOR, %: [L.] 1. Pain ; intense bodUy pain. 2. The 
retiring of the native bodily heat to the centre, occasion- 
ing head-ache, palpitation, and sadness. 

AN'GRED, or AN'GERED, pp. Made angry ; provoked. 

AN'GRI-LY, adv. In an angry manner ; peevishly ; with 
indications of resentment. 

AN'GRY, a. 1. Feeling resentment ; provoked. 2. Show- 
ing anger ; wearing the marks of anger ; caused by an- 
ger. 3. Inflamed, as a sore ; red ; manifesting inflam- 
mation. 4. Raging ; furious ; tumultuous. 

ANG-Sa'NA, or ANG-Sa'VA, n. A red gum of the East 
Indies, like that of dragon's blood. 

AN'GU, n. Bread made of the cassada plant. 

AN'GUI-FER, ?(. [L. anguis and fero.] In astronomy^ 
cluster of stars in the form of a man holding a serpen. 
Serpentarius, one of the twelve signs of the zodiac. 

AN-GUIL'LA, 7!. [L.] In zoology, an eel; also the name 
of a Mediterranean fish. 

AN-GUIL'LI-FORM, a. [L. anguilla and forma.] In the 
form of an eel, or of a seipent. 

AN'GUISH, n. [Fr. angoisse.] Extreme pain, either of 
body or mind. 

AN'GUISH, V. t. To distress with extreme pain or grief 

AN'GUISHED, pp. Extremely pained ; tortured ; deeply 

AN'GU-LAR, a. 1. Having an angle, angles, or comera 
pointed. 2. Consisting of an angle ; forming an angle. 

AN-GU-LAR'I-TY, n. The quality of having an angle or 

AN'GU-LAR-LY, adv. With angles or corners ; in the di- 
rection of the angles. 

AN'GU-LAR-NESS, n. The quality of being angular. 

AN'GU-LA-TED, a. Formed with angles or corners. 

t AN-GU-LOS'I-TY, n. Angularity. 

AN'GU-LOUS, a. Angular ; having corners •, hooked. 

t AN-GUST', a. [L. angustus.] Narrow ; straight. 

AN-GUS-Ta'TION, 71. [L. angustus.] The act of making 
narrow ; a straightening. 

AN-GUST'I-€LAVE, n. [L. angustus.] A robe or tunic 
embroidered with purple studs or knobs, or by purple 
stripes, worn by Roman knights. 

AN-HE-La'TION, 71. [L. anhelo.] Shortness of breath ; a 
panting ^ difficult respiration. 

AN-HE-LoSE', a. Out of breath ; panting •, breathing with 
difficulty. [Little used.] 

AN'HI-MA, n. A Brazilian aquatic fowl. 

AN'HY-DRITE, n. A species of sulphate of lime. 

AN-Hy'DROUS, a. [Gr. avvSpos.] Destitute of water. 

t AN-I-ENT'ED, a. [It. nientc.] Frustrated ; brought to 
naught. Chaucer. 

A-NiGHT', (a-nite') adv. In the night time.— Anights, in 
the plural, is used of frequent and customary acts. Shak. 

AN'IL, ?i. [Sp. anil.] A shrub from whose leaves and stalks 
indigo is made ; India-ofera. 

A-NIU:'NESS, ) 71. [L. anilis, anilitas.] The state of being 

A-NIL'I-TY, ) an old woman ; the old age of a woman ; 

t AN'l-BIA-BLE, a. Susceptible of animation. 

t AN-1-MAD-VER'SAL, n. That which has the power of 

AN-I-MAD-VER'SION, n. [L. animadversio.] Remarks by 
way of censure or criticism ; reproof ; blame. It may 
sometimes be used for punishment. 

t AN-I-MAD-VER'SIVE, a. That has the power of perceiv- 
ing. Glanville. 

t AN-I-MAD-VER'SIVE-NESS, n. The power of animad- 

AN-I-MAD-VERT', v. i. [L. animadverto.] 1. To turn the 
mind to •, to consider. 2. To consider or remark upon by 
way of criticism or censure. 3 To inflict punishment. 

AN-I-MAP-VERT'ER, n. One who animadverts, or makes 
remarks by way of censure. 

AN-I-MAD-VERT'ING, ppr. Considering ; remarking by 
way of criticism or censure. 

AN'I-MAL, n. [L.] An organized body, endowed with life 
and the power of voluntary motion ; a living, sen^fitive, 
locomotive body ; as, man is an intelligent animal. By 
way of contempt, a dull person is called a stupid ani- 

AN'I-MAL, a. That belongs or relates to animals. 

AN-I-MAL'€U-LAR, or AN-I-MAL'€U-LINE, a. Relat 
ing to animalcules. London Quarterhj Review. 

AN-I-MAL'€ULE, n. [L. animalculum, animalcula ] / 
little animal ; an animal whose figure cannot be discern- 
ed without the aid of a magnifying glass. 

AN'I-MAL-FLOW-ER, n. In zoology, sea anemone, sea- 
nettle, or urtica marina. 

AN'I-MAL-ISM, 71. Sensuality. 

t AN-I-MAL'I-TY, n. Animal existence. Smith. 

AN-I-MAL-I-Za'TION, 71. The act of giving animal life, or 
endowing with the properties of an animal. 

AN'I-MAL-iZE, V. t. To give annual life to ; to endow 
with the properties of animals. 

AN'I-MAL-iZED, pp. Endowed with animal life. 

AN'I-MAL-IZ-ING, ppr. Giving animal life to. 

AN'I-MATE, V. t. [L. animo ] 1. To give natural life to ; 
to quicken ; to make alive. 2. To give powers to, or to 
heighten the powers or eflfect of a thing. 3. To give spiri 
or vigor ; to infuse courage, joy, or other enlivening pas- 
sion ; to stimulate or incite. 

AN'I-MATE, a. Alive; possessing animal life. [Used 
chiefly in poetry for animated.] 

AN'I-MA-TED, pp. 1. Being endowed with animal life 
2. a. Lively ; vigorous ; full of spirit ; indicating anima 

See Synopsis. X, E, T, 6, tj, Y, long —FAR, FALL, WHAT 5— PR£Y ;— PIN, MARINE, BIRD - f Ohsolfie. 




AN'I-MA-TING, ppr. Giving life ; infusing spirit ; enliven- 

AN'I-MA-TING-Lr, adv. In an animating manner. 

AN I-Ma'TION, n. 1. The act of infusing life ; the state of 
being animated. 2. Tlie state of being lively, brisk, or 
full of spirit and vigor. 

AN'l-MA-TiVE, a. That has the power of giving life or 
spirit. Johnson. 

AN'I-MA-TOR, n. One that gives life ; that which infuses 
life or spirit. 

AN'IME, n. [Fr.] In heraldry, a term denoting that the 
eyes of a rapacious animal are borne of a different tincture 
from the animal himself. 

AN'IME, n. [Sp.] A resin exuding from a tree, 

AN-I-MET'TA, n. Among ecclesiastical writers, the cloth 
which covers the cup of the eucharist. 

t AN-I-M6SE', a. Full of spirit. 

t AN-I-MoSE'NESS, n. Spirit ; heat. 

AN-1-MOS'I-TY, 71. [L. auimositas.} Violent hatred accom- 
panied with active opposition •, active enmity. 

A-NIN'GA, n. A root growing in the West Indiesj like the 
China plant, used in refining sugar. 

AN'ISE, n. [L. anisuvi."\ An annual plant, placed by Linne 
under the genus pimpinella. 

AN'ISE SEED, n. The seed of anise. 

ANK'ER, n. A measure of liquids used in Holland, contain- 
ing about 32 English gallons. 

ANK'LE, (ank'kl) n. [Sax. ancleow ; D. enkel.'\ The joint 
which connects the foot with the leg. 

ANK'LE-BONE, n. The bone of the ankle. 

ANK'LED, a. Relating to the ankles. 

AN'NAL-IST, n. A writer of annals. 

AN'NAL-IZE, JO. t. To record ; to write annals. \^J\rot 
much used.'] 

AN'NALS, n. plu. [L. annales.] 1. A species of history 
digested in order of time, or a relation of events in chro- 
nological order, each event being recorded under the year 
in which it 1 appened. 2. The books containing annals. 

AN'NATSj n. [L. annus.] A year's income of a spiritual 

AN-NeAL', v. t. [Sax. anmlan.] 1. To heat ; to heat, as 
glass and iron, for the purpose of rendering them less brit- 
tle, or to fix colors, jish. 2. To temper by heat. 

AN-NeAL'ED, (an-neeld') pp. Heated ; tempered ; made 
malleable and less brittle by heat. 

AN-NeAL'ING, ppr. Heating ; tempering by heat. 

AN-NEX', v. t. [L. annecto.] 1. To unite at the end ; to 
subjoin, to affix. 2. To unite, as a smaller thing to a 
greater. 3. To unite to something preceding, as the main 
object ; to connect with. 

AN-NEX', V. i. To join ; to be united. Tooke. 

I AN-NEX', n. The thing annexed. Brown. 

AN-NEX-a TION, n. The act of annexing, or uniting at 
the end ; conjunction 5 addition ; the act of connecting 5 

AN-NEX'ED, (an-nexf) pp. Joined at the end ; connected 
with ; affixed. 

AN-NEX'ING, ppr. Uniting at the end •, afiixing. 

AN-NEX'ION, n. The act of annexing ; annexation 5 addi- 
tion. [Little used.] 

AN-NEX'MENT, n. The act of annexing ; the thing an- 
' nexed. Shak. 

AN-Nl'HI-LA-BLE, a. That may be annihilated. 

AN-Nl'HI-LATE, v. t. [L. ad and nihilum.] 1. To reduce 
to nothing 5 to destroy the existence of. 2. To destroy 
the form or peculiar distinctive properties, so that the 
specific thing no longer exists. 

AN-Ni'HI-LATE, a. Annihilated. Sioift. 

AN-Nl'HI-LA-TED, pp. Reduced to nothing ; destroyed. 

AN-Nl'III-LA-TING,;?^?-. Reducing to nothing; destroy- 
ing the specific form of. 

AN-Ni-HI-La'TION, 71. 1. The act of reducing to nothing 
or non-existence ; or the act of destroying the form or 
combination of parts under which a thing exists, so that 
the name can no longer be applied to it. 2. The state of 
being reduced to nothing. 

AN-NI-VERS'A-RI-LY, adv. Annually. HalL 

AN-NI-VERS'A-RY, a. [L. anniversarius.] Returning 
with the year, at a stated time 5 annual ; yearly. 

AN-NI-VERS'A-RY, n. 1. A stated day, returning with the 
revolution of the year. The term is applied to a day on 
which some remarkable event is annually celebrated. 2. 
The act of celebration ; performance in honor of an 

f AN'NI-VERSE, n. Anniversary. 

AN'NO DOM'I-Nl. [L.] In the year of our Lord, noting 
the time from our Savior's incarnation : as. Anno Domini, 
or A. D. 1800. 

t AN-NOI'SANCE, n. A nuisance. 

AN-NOM-I-Na'TION, n. [L. ad and nominatio.] 1. A 
pun ; the use of words nearly alike in sound, but of dif- 
ferent meanings •, a paronomasy. 2. Alfiteration. 

AN-No'NA, n [L. annona.] The custard apple, a genus of 
several species. 

AN'NO-TATE, v. i. [L. annoto.} To comment ; to make 
remarks on a writing. Tatlcr. 

AN-NO-Ta'TION, n. [L. annotatio.l 1. A remark, note 
or commentary on some passage of a book, intended to 
illustrate its meaning. 2. The first symptoms of a fever 
or attack of a paroxysm. Coxe. 

AN'NO-TA-TOR, n. A writer of notes ; a commentator ; a 

AN-NOT'TA, 71. Orlean, or roucou ; a hard, dry paste. 

AN-NOUNCE', (ail-nouns') v. t. [Fr. annoncer.] l.To pub- 
lish ; to proclaim ; to give notice, or first notice. 2. To 
pronounce ; to declare by judicial sentence. 

AN-NO(JN'CED, (an-nounsf) pp. Proclaimed ; first pub- 

AN-NOUNCE'MENT, (an-nouns'ment) n. The act of giv 
ing notice ; proclamation ; publication. Month. Mag. 

AN-NOUN'CER, 71. One tliat announces, or first gives no- 
tice ; a proclaimer. 

AN-NOUN'CING, ppr. Introducing notice; first publish- 
ing ; proclaiming. 

AN-NOY', V. t. [Norm, annoyer.] To incommode ; to in- 
jure or disturb by continued or repeated acts ; to tease, 
vex or molest. 

AN-NOY', n. Injury or molestation from continued acts or 
inconvenience. Shak. 

AN-NOY'ANCE, n. That which annoys, or injures ; tha 
act of annoying ; the state of being annoyed. 

AN-NOY'ED, (an-noyd') pp. Incommoded, injured or mo- 
lested by something that is continued or repeated. 

AN-NOY'ER, n. One that annoys. 

t AN-NOY'FUL, a. Giving trouble ; incommoding ; mo- 
lesting. Chaucer. 

AN-NOY'ING, ppr. Incommoding ; hurting ; molesting. 

t AN-NOY 'OUS, a. Troublesome. Chaucer. 

AN'NU-AL, a. [Fr. annuel.] 1. Yearly ; that returns every 
year ; coming yearly. 2. Lasting or continuing only one 
year or season ; that requires to be renewed every year. 
3. Performed in a year. 

AN'NLT-AL, n. A plant that lives but one year, or rather 
but one summer. Martyn. 

AN'NU-AL-LY, adv. Yearly ; returning every year ; year 
by year. 

AN'NU-A-RY, a. Annual. J. Hall. 

AN-Nu'I-TANT, n. One who receives or is entitled to re- 
ceive an annuity. 

AN-NU'I-TY, n. [Fr. annuite.] A sum of money, payable 
yearly, to continue for a given number of years, for life 
or for ever ; an annual income, charged on the person of 
the grantor ; or an annual allowance. 

AN-NUL', V. t. [Fr. annuller.] 1. To make void ; to nul- 
lify ; to abrogate ; to abolish. 2. To reduce to nothing ; 
to obliterate. 

AN'NU-LAR, a. [L. aniiulus.] Having the form of a ring j 
pertaining to a ring. 

AN'NU-LA-RY, a. Having the form of a ring. Ray. 

AN'NU-LA-TED, a. Furnished with rings, or circles, like 
rings ; having belts. 

AN'NU-LET, n. [L. annulus.] In architecticre, a small, 
square member in the Doric capital, under the quarter 
round.— In heraldry, a little circle, borne as a charge in 
coats of arms. 

AN-NUL'LED, (an-nuld') pp. Made void ; abrogated. 

AN-NUL'LING, jw- Abrogating ; abolishing. 

AN-NUL'MENT, n. The act of annulling. 

AN-NtJ'ME-RATE, v. t. [L. annumero.] To add to a form- 
er number ; to unite to something before mentioned 

AN-NU-ME-Ra'TION, n. Addition to a former number. 

AN-NUN'CIATE, v. t. To bring tidings ; to announce. 

AN-NUN-ClA'TlON, v. L An announcing; the tidings 
brought by the angel to Mary, of the incarnation of 
Christ. Also the day celebrated by the church, in mem 
ory of the angel's salutation of the blessed Virgin, which 
is the 25th of March. 2. Proclamation ; promulgation 

AN-NUN-CIa'TOR, n. One who announces. 

AN'0-DYNE, n. [Gr. a or av, and oSwr].] Any medicine 
whichallays pam, or causes sleep. 

AN'O-DyNE, a. Assuaging pain ; causing sleep, or insen- 

AN-0-DY'NOUS, a. Belonging to anodynes. Coles. 

A-NOINT', V. t. [Fr. oindre.] 1. To pour oil upon ; to 
smear or rub over with oil or unctuous substances ; also 
to spread over, as oil. 2. To consecrate by unction, or 
the use of oil. 3. To smear or daub. 4. To prepare, in 
allusion to the consecrating use of oil. 

A-NOINT'ED, pp. Smeared or rubbed with oil ; set apart 
consecrated with oU. 

A-NOINT'ED, 71. The Messiah, or Son of God. 

A-NOINT'ER, n. One who anoints. 

A-NOINT'ING, ppr. Smearing with oil ; pouring on oil, or 
other oleaginous substance ; consecrating. 

A-NOTNT'ING, 71. The act of smearing with oil j a conse- 

* See Synopsis. MOVE, BOOK, D6VE ,— BIJLL, UNITE.- C as K ; G as J ; S as Z ; CH as SH ; TH as in this, t Obsclete 




A-NOINT'MENT, n. The act of anointing, or state of being 

A-No'LE, 71. A species of lizard in the Wsst Indies. 

A-XOM' A-LI-PE U, a. [Gr. avit)na\ia.] An epitliet given to 
fowls, -vhose middle toe is united to the exterior by three 
plialanges, and to the interior by one only. 

A-JNfOM'A-LI-PED, ii. An anomalous-footed fowl. 

A-jVOMA-LISM, 71. An anomaly ; a deviation from rule, 

A-NO:,I-A-LIS'Tie, I a. Irregular ; departing from 

A-NOM-A-LIS'Tr-€AL, ] common or established rules. 

A-NOM'A-LOUS, a. Irregular ; deviatuig from a general 
rule, method or analogy. 

A-XOM'A-LOUS-LY, adv. Irregularly ; in a manner differ- 
ent from common rule, method or analogy. 

A-NOM'A-LY, 71. [Fr. anomalie,] I. Irregularity ; devia- 
tion from the common rule. — 2. In astronomy, an irregu- 
lari).y in the motion of a planet. — 3. In miisic, a false 
scale or interval. 

A-No'ME-ANS, 71. [Gr. avofioLOS.] In church histonj, the 
pure Arians, as distinguished from the Semi-Arians. 

A-No'MI-A, n. [Gr. avoixia,] A genus of bivalve shells, so 
called from their unequal valves ; the beaked cockle. 

AA^'0-MlTE, n. A fossil shell of the genus anomia. 

AN-0-MO-RHOM'BOID, n. [Gr. avo[xoios.] A genus of 
spars, pellucid, and crystalme, of no determinate form 

AN'O-MY, 7!. [Gr. avofiia.] A violation of law. Bramhall. 
[Rarely used.'] 

A-NON', adv. [Sax. oii an.] 1. Quickly ; without inter- 
mission ; soon 5 immediately. 2. Sometimes ; now and 
then ; at other times. 

A-jVON'T-MOUS, a. [Fr. anonyme ; L. anonymus.'] Name- 
less ; wanting a name ; without the real name of the au- 

A-NON'Y-MOU&-LY, adv. Without a name. 

AN O-PLO-THER, 1 n. [Gr. av, owXov and drjpiov.'] 

AN-0-PLO-THE'EI-Ui>I, \ A name which Cuvier has 
given to a genus of animals. 

A-NOP'SY, 71. [Gr. av and coi^.] Want of sight ; invision. 
[Little wsefZ.] 

AN'0-REX-Y, n. [Gr. a and ops^is.] Want of appetite, 
without a lothing of food. Coxe. 

AN-6TH'ER, a. [an, or one, and other.] 1. Not the same ; 
different. 2, One more, in addition to a former number, 
indefinitely. 3. Any other ; any different person, indefi- 
nitelj^ This word is often used without a noun, becom- 
ing a substitute for the name of the person or tiling. 

t AN-6TH'ER-GAINES, adv. Of another kind. 

t AN-oTH'ER-GATES, adv. Of another sort. 

t AN-oTH'ER-GUESS, a. Of a different kijid. 

AN-6TH'E?.-GUISE, a. Of a different kind ; different. 
[This is a vulgar word, and usually contracted into othei-- 

A-NOT'TA, 71. An elegant red color, formed from the pelli- 
cles or pulp of the seeds of the bixa. 

t A-NOUGH', A-NOW. See Enough, Enow. 

AN'SA-TED, a. [L. ansatus.] Having a handle or handles, 
or something in the form of handles. 

AN'SER, 71. [L.J 1. In zoology, the name of the goose, 
whether tame or wUd. — 2. In astronomy, a smaU star, in 
the milky way. 

AN'SER-INE, a. [L. anserinus.] 1. Resembling the skin 
of a goose ; uneven. 2. Pertaining to the ansers. 

AN'SERS, 71. In Liane's system, the third order of aves or 

t AN'SLaIGHT, (an'slate) ti. An attack ; an affray. 

AN'SWER, (an'ser) v.t. [Sax. andsicarian.] 1. To speak 
in return to a call or question, or to a speech, declaration 
or argument of another person. 2. To be equivalent to ; 
to be adequate to, or sufficient to accomplish the object. 
3. To comply with, fulfill, pay or satisfy. 4. To act in 
return, or opposition. 5. To bear a due proportion to ; to 
be equal or adequate ; to suit. 6. To perform what was 
intended ; to accomplish. 7. To be opposite to ; to face. 
8. To write in reply ; to reply to another writing, by way 
of explanation, refutation or justification. 9 To solve. 

XN'SWER, V. i. 1. To reply ; to speak by way of return. 
2. To be accountable, liable or responsible. 3. To vindi- 
cate, or give a justificatory account of. 4. To correspond 
with ; to suit with. 5. To act reciprocally. 6. To stand 
as opposite or correlative. 7. To return, as sound rever- 
berated ; to echo. 8. To succeed ; to effect the object in- 
tended ; to have a good effect. 

XNSWER, n. 1. A reply ; that which is said, in return to 
a call, a question, an argument, or an allegation. 2. An 
account to be rendered to justice. — 3. In laic, a counter- 
statement of facts, in a course of pleadings ; a confutation 
of what the other party has alledged. 4. A writing, 
pamphlet or book, in reply to another. 5. A reverberated 
sound ; an echo. 6. A return ; that which is sent in con- 
sequence of some petition. 7. A solution, the result of a 
mathematical operation. 

AN'SW£R-A-BLE, a. i . That may be answered ; to 
which a reply may be made. 2. Obliged to give an ac- 
comit, or liable to be called to account ; amenable ; re- 
sponsible. 3. Obliged or liable to pay, indemnify or 
make good. 4. Correspondent ; agreeing with ; in con- 
formity with. 5. Suitable ; suited 5 proportionate. 6 
Equal ; correspondent ; proportionate. 

AN SWER-A-BLE-NESS, ?i. The quality of being answer- 
able, liable, responsible, or correspondent. 

AN'SWER-A-BLY, adv. In due proportion, correspondence 
or conformity ; suitably. 

AN'SWERED, pp. Replied to ; fulfilled ; paid ; complied 
with ; accomplished ; solved ; confuted, 

AN'SWER-ER, n. One who answers ; he or that which 
makes a return to what another has spoken ; he who 
writes an answer. 

AN SV\^ER-1NG, ppr. Replying ; coiTespondmg to ; fUlfiU 
ing ; solving ; succeeding ; reverberating ; confutmg. 

ANSAYER-JOB'BER, 7!. One who makes a business of 
writing answers. Swift. 

AN'T, in old authors, is a contraction of an it, that is, if it 
See An. 

ANT, 71. [Sax. amet.] An emmet ; a pismne. 

tNT-l^IvCR ■ ''• ^ quadruped that feeds upon ants. 

ANT-EGGS, 72.' Little white balls found in the hillocks tf 
ants, usually supposed to be their eggs, but found, on ex- 
amination, to be the young brood, in their first state. 

ANT-HILL, n. A little tumulus or hillock, formed by ants, 
for their habitation. 

AN'TA, n. In ancient architecture, a square column, at the 
corner of a building ; a pilaster ; written also aiHe. 

ANT-AC ID, 71. In pharmacy, an alkali, or a remedy for 
sourness or acidity ; better written anti-acid. 

ANT-A€'RID, n. That which corrects acrimony ; better 
written anti-acrid. 

AN-TAG 0-NISM, t;. Opposition of action ; counteraction 
of things or principles. Good. 

AN-TAG'O-NIST, /?. [Gr. avTi and aywvKrrris.] 1. One 
who contends with another in combat 5 used primarily in 
relation to the Grecian games. An adversary. 2. An op- 
ponent in controversy. Campbell. — 3. In anatoTuy, a mus- 
cle which acts in opposition to another. 

AN-TAG'O-NIST, ffi. Counteracting; opposing. 

AN-TAG-0-NIS'TI€, a. Opposing in combat ; contending 

AN-TAG 0-NlZE, v. i. To contend against ; to act in op- 
position ; to oppose in argument. 

t AN-TAG'0-NY, 7J. Contest; opposition. Milton. 

AN-TAL'GliC, a. [Gr. avri and aXyos.] Alleviating pain ; 
anodyne. [Little used.] 

ANT-A-NA-CLa SIS, 7!. [Gr. avravaKXaaig.] 1. In rheto- 
ric, a figure, which consists in repeating the same word 
in a different sense ; as, whilst we live, let us live. 2. It 
is also a repetition of words, beginning a sentence, after a 
long parenthesis. 

ANT-A-NA-Go'6E, 71. [Gr. avri and avayuyyr].] In rheto- 
ric, a figure, which consists in replying to an adversary, 
by way of recrimination. 

ANT-A-'PHRO-DISI-AO, a. [Gr. avri and acppoSimos.'] 
Antivenereal ; having the quality of extinguishing or les- 
sening venereal desire. 

ANT-A-PHRO-DIsa-A€, n. A medicine that lessens or 
extinguishes the venereal appetite. 

ANT-A-PHRO-DIT 1€, a. Antivenereal, abating t^ie vene- 
real appetite, or efiicacious against the venereal disease. 

ANT-A-PHR0-DIT'1€, 71. A medichie which abates the 
venereal appetite, or is good against the venereal disease. 

ANT-A-P0-PLE€'TI€, a. Good against apoplexy. 

ANT-AR€'TI€, a. [Gr. avn and ap/cro?.] Opposite to the 
northern, or arctic pole ; relating to the southern pole, or 
to the region near it 

AN-Ta'RES, n. The name of a star of the first magni- 

acting^tlie gout^ 

A remedy which cures or allevi- 

[Gr. avri and apOpiris.] Counter- 


ates the gout. 

the asthma. 

[Gr. uvn and ao-0jua.] Opposing 

A remedy for the asthma. 

AN'TE. a Latin preposition, the Greek avn, much used 
in the composition of English words, especially in words 
from the Latin and Greek languages. It signifies before 
in place, in front ; hence, opposite, contrary ; and, figura- 
tively, before in time. The Latin ante is generally "used 
in the sense of before, and the Greek avn in that of oppo- 
site, or in the place of. 

AN'TE, or AN'TA, n. A pilaster.— In heraldry, ante de- 
notes that the pieces are let into one another, in the man- 
ner there expressed. 

AN'TE-A€T, n. [L. aiite, and act.] A preceding act. 

Ser Synopsis. A, E, I, O, t^, Y, long.-^FAR, FALL, WHAT ;— PREY ;— HN, MARINE, BiRD ;— f Obsolets 




AJV-TE-CE-Da'NE-OUS, a. Antecedent ; preceding in 
time. Owen. 

AN-TE-CeDE',u. t. To go before in time ; to p-ecede. Hale. 

AJV-TE-CE'DEiVCE, n. Tbe act or state of g'jing before in 
time ; precedence. 

AN-TE-CE'DEiVT, a. Going before in time ; prior ; ante- 
rior ; preceding. 

AJ^-TE-Ce'DENT, n. That which goes before in time ; 
hence, in icritings, that which precedes in place. — In 
gravimar, the noun to whicii a relative or other substitute 
refers. — In logic, the first of two propositions in an enthy- 
meme. — In mathematics, the first of two terms of a ratio. 

AN-TE-Ce'DENT-LY, ado. Previously ; at a time pre- 

AJV-TE-CES'SOE, n. [L.] 1. One who goes before ; a 
leader ; a principal. 2. One that possessed land before 
the present possessor. 

AN'TE-CHaM-BER, n. A chamber or apartment before the 
chief apartment to which it leads, and in which persons 
wait for audience. 

AN'TE-CHAP-EL, n. The part of the chapel through 
which is the passage to the choir or body of it. 

AN-Te'CIAN, n. [L. antmci.'] In geography, the antecians 
are those inhabitants of the earth, under the same merid- 
ian, and at the same distance from the equator, but on 
opposite sides, one party north, the other south. 

AN-TE-€UKS'0R, n. [L. aiite and cursor.] One who runs 
before ; a forerunner. 

AN'TE-DATE, n. Prior date ; a date antecedent to another. 

AN'TE-DATE, v. t. [L. ante and datum.] 1. To date be- 
fore the true time. 2. To anticipate ; to take before the 
true time. 

AN-TE-DI-Lu'VI-AL, ) a. [L. ante and diluvium.] Before 

AN-TE-DI-LU'VI-AN, ) the flood, or deluge, in Noah's 
time ; existing, happening, or relating to what happened, 
before the deluge. 

AN-TE-DI-Lu'VI-AN, n. One who lived before the deluge. 

t AN'TE-FA€T, n. That which represents the fact before 
it occurs. 

AN'TE LOPE, n. In zoology, the gaze! •, a genus of rumi- 
nant quadrupeds, intermediate between the deer and goat. 

AN-TE-LU'€AN, a. [L. antelucanus.] Being before light. 

AN-TE-ME-RID'I-AN, a. [L. ante, and m.eridian.] Being 
; before noon ; pertaining to the forenoon. 

AN-TE-MET'ie, a. [Gr. avri, and emetic] Restraining or 
allaying vomiting. 

AN-TE-MET'I€, n. A medicine which checks vomiting. 

AN-TE-MUND'ANE, a. [L. ante and mundus.] Being be- 
fore the creation of the world. 

AN-TE-Nl'CENE, a. [L. ante, and Mcene.] Anterior to the 
first council of Nice. 

AN-TEN'NjE, 71. plu. [L.] In zoology, the horns or feelers 
of insects, projecting from the head. 

AN-TE-NUM'BER, n. A number that precedes another. 

AN-TE-NUP'TIAL, a. Being before marriage. 

AN-TE-PAS€H'AL, a. Pertaining to the time before Eas- 
ter. J^'elson. 

AN TE-PAST, n. [L. ante and pastum.] A foretaste ; some- 
thing taken before the proper time. 

AN-TE-PE-NULT', n. [L. ante, peiie, and ultimus.] The 
la^t syllable of a word except two. 

AN-TE-PE-NULT'I-MATE, a. Pertaining to the last syl- 
lable but two. 

AN-TE-PI-LEP'TI€, a. [Gr. avri and £7riA?77rrt/cof.J Resist- 
ing or curing epilepsy, 

AN-TE-PI-LEP'TI€, n. A remedy for the epilepsy. 

AN'TE-PONE, V. t. [L. antepono.] To set one thing before 
- another. 

AN-TE-PO-Si"TION, n. In grammar, the placing of a 
word before another. 

AN-TE-PRE-DI€'A-MENT, n. A preliminary question in 
logic_; a question which is to be first known. 

AN-TE'RI-OR, a. [L.] 1. Before in time or place ; prior ; 
antecedent ; preceding in time. 2. Before or in front in 

AN-TE-RI-OR'I-TY, n. The state of being anterior, pre- 
ceding, or in front. 

AN'TE-RooM, 71. A room before, or in front of another. 

AN'TES, n. plu. [L.] Pillars of large dimensions that sup- 
port the front of a building. 

AN-TE-STAT'URE, n. In fortification, a small intrench- 
ment, or work formed of palisades. 

-r AN-TE-ST6M'A€H, n. A cavity which leads into the 
stomach, as the crop in birds. Ray. 

f AN'TE-TEM-PLE, ti. What we now call the nave in a 

f-AN-TE-VERT',7;. t. VL. antevcrto.] To prevent. 

AN-TE-VIR-6IL'I-AN, a. A term given to Tull's new 
husbandry, or method of horse-hoeing. 

AN-THEL-MIN TI€, a. [Gr. avri and eX/ztvj.] Good 
agamst worms. 

AN-THEL-MIN'TI€, n. A remedy for worms. 

AN'THEM. n. [Gr. avri and ujuvoj.] A hymn sung in alter- 

nate parts ; but, in modern usage, a sacred tune, or piece 
of music set to words. 

AN'THEM- WISE, adv. In the manner of an anthem ; al- 
ternately. Bacon. 

AN'THE-MIS, 71. Camomile. Tate. 

AN'THER, n. [L. anthera.] In botany, the summit or top 
of the stamen, connected with the flower. 

AN'THE-RAL, a. Pertaining to anthers. 

AN-THE-RIF ER-OUS, a. [anther, and L.fero.] Producing 
anthers. Barton. 

AN-THES-Te Rl-ON, n. The sixth month of the Athenian 

AN-TH0-L06'I-€AL, a. Pertaining to anthology. 

AN-TH0L'0-6Y, 71. [Gr. avdos and \oyos.] 1. A discourse 
on flowers. 2. A collection of beautiful passages from 
authors ; a collection of poems or epigrams. 

AN'THO-NY'S FIRE. A popular name of the erysipelas 

AN-THOPH'YL-LITE, n. [Gr. avBos and cpv'SXov.] A min- 

AN'THO-RISM, n. [Gr. avri and opiaixog.] In rhetoric, a 
description, or definition, contrary to that which is given 
by the adverse party. 

AN'THRA-CITE, n. [Gr. avOpa^.] Slaty glance-coal, or 
columnar glance-coal ; that species of coal which has a 
shining lustre, approaching to metallic, and which burns 
without smoke, and with intense heat. 

AN'THRA-eO-LITE. See Anthracite. 

AN'THRAX, 7(. A carbuncle ; a malignant ulcer, with in- 
tense burning. 

AN-THROP'O-GLOT, n. [Gr. avBocoms and yXwrra.] An 
animal which has a tongue resembling that of man, of 
which kind are parrots. 

AN-THRO-POG'RA-PHY, n. [Gr. avdpwTtos and ypacpn-] A 
description of man, or the human race, or of the parts o< 
the human body. 

AN-THROP'0-LlTE, n. [Gr. avSpwyros and \idos.] A petri- 
faction of the human body, or skeleton. 

AN-THR0P-0-L0G'I-€AL, a. Pertaining to anthropology •, 
according to human mannei- of speaking. 

AN-THR0-P0L'0-6IST, n. One who describes, or is versed 
in the physical history of the human body. 

AN-THRO-POL'0-GY, n. [Gr. avdpiOTOs and Xoyo?.J 1. A 
discourse upon human nature. 2. The doctrine of the 
structure of the human body ; the natural history or physi- 
ology of the human species. 3. The word denotes that 
manner of expression by which the inspired writers at- 
tribute human parts and passions to God. 

AN-THRO-POM'AN-CY, n. [Gr. avOpoyn-os and /iavraa.J 
Divination by inspecting the entrails of a human being. 

AN-THRO-PO-MORPH'ISM, n. The heresy of the anthro- 

AN-THRO-PO-jMORPH'iTE, 71. [Gr. avBpwiros and [xopcpr].] 
One who believes a human form in the Supreme Being 
A sect of ancient heretics are called anthropomorphites . 

AN-THRO-PO-MORPH'OUS, a. Belonging to that which has 
the form of man ; having the figure of resemblance to a man 

AN-THRO-POP'A-THY, 71. [Gr. avep^^Tro? and XaBos.] The 
affections of man, or the application of human passions to 
the Supreme Being. 

AN-THRO-POPH'A-GI, n. plu. [Gr. avdpwTrog and 0aya».] 
Man-eaters ; cannibals ; men that eat human flesh. 

AN-THRO-POPH'A-GOUS, a. Feeding on human flesh 

AN-THRO-POPH'A-6Y, 71. The eating of human flesh, or 
the practice of eating it. 

AN-THRO-POS'€0-PY, n. [Gr. avdpwitog and o-<co7r£w.] 
The art of discovering or judging of a man's character, 
passions, and inclinations, from the lineaments of his body. 

AN-THRO-POS<0-PHY, n. [Gr. ai/OpwTroj and cocpia-l 
Knowledge of the nature of man ; acquaintance with 
man's structure and functions. 

AN-THYP-NOT'ie, a. [corrupt orthography.] See Anti- 


AN-THY-PO-€HOND'RI-A€. See Antihypochondriac 
AN-THY-POPH'O-RA. See Antihypophora. 
AN-THYS-TER'1€. See Antihysteric. 
AN'Tl. [Gr. See Ante.] A preposition, signifying 

against, opposite, contrary, ov in place of ; used in many 

English words. 
AN-TI-AC'ID, a. Opposing or removing acidity. Often 

written antacid. 
AN-TI-AC'ID, 71. An alkali ; a medicine proper to correct 

sourness, or acidity ; an absorbent, or an obtundent, or an 

AN-TI-A-MER'I-€AN, a. Opposed to America, or to the 

United States ; opposed to the revolution in America. 

AN-TI-A-P0S'TLE,7i. [Gr. avn, and apostle.] An adversa- 
ry to the apostles. 
AN-TI-AR-MIN'I-AN, n. He wbo opposes the Arminians*, 

or Arminianism. Bp. Barlow. 
AN-T[-AR-THRIT'I€, a. Good against the gout. 
AN-TI-AR-THRIT'I€, n. A remedy for the gout. 

* See Synapsis. MOVE, BOOK, D6VE ;— BULL, UNITE.— € as K ; <S as J ; S as Z ; CH as SH ; TH as in this, f Obsolete 



AN-T1-ASTH-MAT'1€, a. Good against asthma. 
AN-T1-ASTH-MAT'I€, n. A remedy for the asthma. 
AN-TI-BA€'€HI-US, n. [Gr. avri and /Sa/c^etof .] In foetry, 
a foot of three syllables, the first two long, and the last 
short, as ambire. 
AN-TI-BA-SIL'I-€AN, a. [Gr. avTi and ^aaikiKTj.] Oppos- 
ed to royal state and magnificence. 
AN'Tie, a. [Fr. antique.] Odd ; fanciful. 
AN'TI€, n. 1. A buffoon, or merry Andrew ; one that prac- 
tices odd gesticulations. 2. Odd appearance ; fanciful 
figures. — 3. In architecture, sculpture, mvA •painting, snch 
pieces as were made by the ancients ; usually written 
AN'TI€, V. t. To make antic. Shak. 
AN-TI-€A-€HE€'TI€, a. [Gr.avn and KaxEurm-] Curing, 

or tending to cure, an ill habit of the constitution. 
AN-TI-€A-€HE€'TI€, n. A medicine that tends to cor- 
rect an ill habit of body. 
AN-TI-€A-TaR'RHAL, a. [Gr. avri and Karappoos.] Good 

against catarrh. 
AN-TI-€A-TAR'RHAL, n. A remedy for catarrh. 
AN-TI-€AU-SOT'I€, a. [Gr. avri and Kavaos.] Good 

against a burning fever. 
AN-TI-€AU-SOTa€, n. A remedy for a burning fever. 
AN'TI-CHaM-BER, n. Dr. Johnson prefers ante-chamber, 

which see. 
AN'TI-€HRlST, n. [Gr. avri, and Christ.] A great adver- 
sary of Christ ; the man of sin. 
AN-TI-€HRIS'TIAN, a. Pertaining to Anti-christ ; opposite 

to, or opposing the Christian religion. 
AN-TI-CHRIS'TIAN, n. A follower of Anti-christ ; one op- 
posed to the Christian religion. 
AN-TI-CHRIS'TIAN-ISM, n. Opposition or contrariety to 

the Christian religion. 
AN-TI-€HRIS-TIAN'I-TY, n. Opposition or contrariety to 

AN-Tl€H'RO-NlSM, n. [Gr. avri and p^povoj.] Deviation 

from the true order of time. 
AN-TIC'I-PATE, «.«. [Ij. anticipo.] 1. To take, or act, 
before another, so as to prevent him •, to take first pos- 
session. 2. To take before the proper time. 3. To fore- 
taste or foresee ; to have a previous view or unpression of 
something future. 
AN-TIC'I-PA-TED, pp. Taken before ; foretasted ; fore- 
seen ', precluded ; prevented. 
T AN-TIC'I-PATE-LY, adv. By anticipation. 
AN-TIC'I-PA-TING, ppr. Taking before; foretasting; 

precluding ; preventing. 
AN-TIC-I^Pa'TION, n. 1. The act of taking up, placing, or 
considering something before the proper time, in natural 
order ; prevention. 2. Foretaste ; previous view or im- 
pression of what is to happen afterward. 3. Previous 
notion ; preconceived opinion, produced in the mind, be- 
fore the truth is known ; slight previous impression. 4. 
The attack of a fever before the usual time. 
AN-TIC'I-PA-TOR, 7i. One who anticipates. 
AN-TIC'I-PA-TO-RY, a. Taking before the time. 
AN-TI-€LI'MAX, n. [Gr. avri and /cAj/ua|.] A sentence 
In which the ideas fall or become less important and 
striking at the close ; opposed to climax. 
AN'TI€-LY, adv. In an antic manner ; with odd postures 

and gesticulations ; with fanciful appearance. 
AN'TIC-MASK, or AN'TI-MASK, n. A mask of antics. 
AN-TI-€ON-STI-Tu'TION-AL, a. Opposed to or against 

the constitution. Bolingbroke. 
AN-TI-€0N-STI-Tu'Ti6N-AL-IST, n. One opposed to 

the constitution. 
AN-TI-€ON-Ta'GION-IST, n. One who opposes the doc- 
trine of contagion. 
AN-TI-€ON-Ta'GIOUS, a. Opposing or destroying conta- 
AN-TI-€ON-VUL'SiVE, a. Good against convulsions. 
AN'T1-€0R, n. Among famers, an inflammation in a 

horse's throat. 
AN-TI-€0S-MET'I€, a. Destructive or injurious to beauty. 
AN-TI-COS-MET'ie, n. Any preparation which injures 

t AN'TI-COURT, a. In opposition to the court. 
AN-TI-€oURT'IER, n. One who opposes the court, or the 

measures of administration. 
AJ^f-TI-CRE-A'TOR, n. One that opposes the creator. 
AN-TI-DEM-0-CRAT'I€, ) a. Opposing democracy. 
AN-TI-DEM-0-€RAT'I-€AL, \ Mitford. 
AN'TI-DO-TAL, a. That has the quality of preventing the 

ill effects of poison, or of any thing noxious. 
AN-TI-DO'TA-RY, a. Serving for a counter poison. 
AN'TI-DOTE, n. [Gr. avn^oTOs.] 1. A medicine to coun- 
teract the effects of poison, or of any thing noxious taken 
into the stomach. 2. Whatever tends to prevent mis- 
chievous effects, or to counteract the evil which some- 
thing else might produce. 
AN-TI-Do'TI-€AL, a. Serving as an antidote. 
AN-TI-Do'TI-€AL-LY, adv. By way of antidote. 


AN-TI-DYS-EN-TER'I€, a. Good against the dysentery, of 

bloody flux. 
AN-TI-DYS-EN-TER'I€, n. A remedy for dysentery. 
AN-TI-E-MET'I€, a [Gr. avri and cfxeTiKos. \ Having the 

quality of allaying vomiting. 
AN-TI-E-MET'lC, n. A remedy to check vomiting. 
AN-TI-EN-NE-A-He'DRAL, a. [Gr. avTi,£vvEa,aud eSpa.l 

In crystalography, having nine faces on two opposite parts 

of the crystal. 
aN'TIENT. See Ancient. 

AN-TI-EN-THU-SI-AS'TI€, a. Opposing enthusiasm. 
aN'TIENT-RY, n. [more coixectly, ancientry.] Cast of 

antiquity ; that which is ancient. 
AN-TI-E-PISC'O-PAL, a. Adverse to episcopacy. 
AN-TI-E-VAN-6EL'I-€AL, a. Contrary to orthodoxy, or 

the genuine sense of the gospel. 
AN'TI-FACE, n. Opposite face. Jonson. 
AN-TI-FA-NAT'I€, n. An opposer of fanaticism. 

* AN-TI-Fe'BRILE, a. That has the quality of abating fever. 

* AN-TI-Fe'BRILE, n. A medicine that cures, abates, or 
tends to allay fever. 

AN-TI-FLAT'TER-ING, a. Opposite to flattering. Delany. 

AN-TI-GUG'LER, n. A crooked tube of metal. 

AN-TI-HE€'TI€, a. [Gr. avri and ektikoj.] That has the 
quality of opposing or curing hectical disorders. 

AN-TI-IIE€'Tie, n. A medicine that is good in the cure 
of hectic disorders. 

AN-TI-HYP-N0T'I€, a. [Gr. avri and vvvog.] Counteract- 
ing sleep ; tending to prevent sleep or lethargy. 

AN-TI-HYP-NOT'IC, n. A medicine that prevents ortenda 
to prevent sleep. Coxe. 

AN-TI-HYP-0-€HOND'RI-A€, a. [Gr. avri and viroxov- 
SpiaKos.] That counteracts, or tends to cure, hypochondri- 
ac affections. 

AN-TI-HYP-0-€HOND'RI-A€, n. A remedy for hypo- 
chondriac affections and low spirits. 

AN-TI-HY-POPH'O-RA, n. [Gr. avri and virotpopa.] In 
rhetoric, a figure, which consists in refuting an objection 
by the opposition of a contrary sentence. 

AN-TI-HYS-TER'I€, a. [Gr. avri and varspa.] Counter- 
acting hysterics. 

AN-TI-HYS-TER'1€, to. A medicine that cures or counter- 
acts hysterical affections. 

AN-TI-LOG'A-RITHM, n. The complement of the loga- 
rithm of any sine, tangent, or secant, to 90 degrees. 

AN-TIL'0-GY, 71. [Gr. avri and \oyos.] A contradiction 
between any words or passages in an author. 

t AN-TIL'O-aUIST, n. A contradictor. Diet. 

t AN-TIL'0-aUY, n. An old word, denoting preface, 
proem, or peroration. 

t AN-TI-MA-6lS'TRI-€AIi, a. Opposed to the ofP.ce of 
magistrates South. 

AN-TI-MA'NI-A€, ) a. Counteracting or curing mad- 

AN-TI-MA-NI'A-€AL, \ ness or frenzy. 

AN'TI-MASK, n. A lesser mask. Bacon. 

AN-TI-ME-TAB'0-LE, (an-te-me-tab'o-ly) n, [Gr. avri 
and [xera^oM-] In rhetoric, a setting of two things in op- 
position to each other. 

AN-TI-ME-TATH'E-SIS, n. [Gr. avri. and ixeraeecis.'] 
In rhetoric, an inversion of the parts or members of au 

AN-TIM'E-TER, n. [Gr. avri and ixerpov.] An optical in- 
strument for measuring angles. 

AN-TI-MET'RI-€AL, a. Contrary to the rules of metre or 

AN-TI-'mIN-IS-Te'RI-AL, a. Opposed to the ministry, or 
administration of government. 

AN-TI-MIN-IS-Te'RI-AL-IST, 71. One that opposes the 

AN-TI-MO-NAR€H'I-€AL, a. Opposed to monarchy ; that 
opposes a kingly government. 

AN-TI-MO-NaRCH'I-CAL-NESS, n. The quality of being 
opposed to monarchv. 

AN-TI-M0N'AR-€HIST, n. An enemy to ^juonarchy. 

AN-TI-Mo'NI-AL, a. Pertaining to antimony ; relating to 
antimony, or partaking of its qualities. 

AN-TI-Mo'NI-AL, TO. A preparation of antimony ; a medi- 
cine in which antimony is a principal ingredient. 

AN-TI-Mo'NI-ATE, n. A compound or salt composed ot 
antimonic acid and a base. 

AN-TI-Mo'Nl-A-TED, a. Partakmg of antimony ; mixed 
or prepared with antimony. 

AN-TI-MON'l€, a. Pertaming to antimony. 

AN-TI-Mo'NI-OUS, a. Pertaining to antimony. 

AN'TI-MO-NlTE, w. A compound of antimoniousacidai'd 
a base. 

AN'TI-MO-NY, n. [Fr. antimoinc] Primarily, a metallic 
ore, consisting of sulphur combined with a metal. The 
sulphuret of antimony, the stibium of the Romans, is a 
blackish mineral, which stains the hands, hard, brittle, 
full of long, shining, needle-like strice, and used in med- 
icine and the arts. 

* See Synopsis. A, E, T, o, U, ■?, Zoto^-.— FAR, FALL, WHAT ;— PREY ;- ^iN, MARiNE, BiRD ;— f Obsolete 




AN-Tl-MOR'AL-IST, n. An opposer of morality. 

AN-TI-Mu'Sl-CAL, a. Opposed to music ; having no ear 
for m'lsic. Jlmer. Review. 

AN-TI-NE-PHRIT'ie, a. Counteracting diseases of tlie 

AN-TI-NE-PHRIT I€, n. A medicine tliat tends to remove 
diseases of tlie kidneys. 

AN-TI-No'MI-AN, a. [Gr. avTi, and vo{xog.] Against law ; 
pertaining to tlie Antiiiomians. 

AN-Tr-No MI-AN, n. One of a sect who maintain, that, 
under the gospel dispensation, the law is of no use or ob- 
ligation ; or who hold doctrines which supersede the ne- 
cessity of good works and a virtuous life. 

AN-TI-No'MI-AN-iSM, n. The tenets of Antinomians. 

* AN'TI-NO-MIST, n. One who pays no regard to the law, 
or to good works. 

* AN'Tl-NO-MY, ji. A contradiction between two laws, or 
between two parts of the same law. 

AN-TI-0'€HI-AN, a. Pertaining to Antiochus, the founder 
of a sect of philosophers. 

AN-TI-Pa'PAL, a. Opposing popery. 

AN-T1-PA-P1S'TI€, I a. Opposed to popery or papacy. 

AN-TI-PA-PIS'TI-€AL, \ Jortin. 

AN-TI-PAR'AL-LEL, a. Rimning in a contrary direction. 

AN-TI-PAR-A-LYT'1€, a. Good against the palsy. 

AN-TI-PAR-A-LYT'1€, n. A remedy for the palsy. 

AN-TI-PA-THET'i€, \ a. Having a natural contrarie- 

AN-TI-PA-THET'I-OAL, \ ty, or constitutional aversion 
to a thing. 

AN-TI-PA-THET'I-eAL-NESS, n. The quality or state of 
having an aversion or contrariety to a thing. 

AN-TIP'A-THOUS, a. Adverse. Beaumont. 

AN-TIP'A-THY, n. [Gr. avri and irndog.] 1. Natural aver- 
sion ; instinctive contrariety or opposition in feeling ; an 
aversion felt at the presence, real or ideal, of a particular 
object. — 2. In ethics, antipathy is hatred, aversion or 
repugnancy ; hatred to persons ; aversion to persons or 
things ; repugnancy to actions. — 3. In physics, a contra- 
riety iri the properties or affections of matter, as of oil and 

AN-T1-PAT-RI-0T'[€, a. Not patriotic ; opposing the in- 
terests of one's country. 

AN-Tl-PE-DO-BAP'TIST, n. [Gr. avrt, ttuis, i^aiSog, and 
l^aiTTi^o).] One who is opposed to the baptism of infants. 

AN-TI-PER-IS-TAL'TI€, a. Opposed to peristaltic , retro- 

AN-TI-PE-RIS'TA-SIS, n. [Gr. avri and nepLarams.] The 
opposition of a contrary quality, by which the quality op- 
posed acquires strength. 

AN-T[-PER-IS-TAT'I€, a. Pertaining to antiperistasis. 

AN-TI-PES-TI-LEN'TIAL, a. Counteracting contagion or 

AN-TI-PHLO-eiS'TIAN, 7i. An opposer of the theory of 

AN-Tt-PHLO-6IS'TI€, a. Counteracting heat or inflamma- 
tion ; tending to reduce arterial action ; opposed to the 
doctrine of phlogiston. 

AN-TI-PHLO-GIS'TIC, n. Any medicine or diet which 
tends to reduce inflammation, or the activity of ihe 
vital power. 

AN'TI-PHON, n. The chant or alternate singing in choirs 
of cathedrals. 

€AL, a. Pertaining to antiphony or alternate singing. 

AN-TIPH'0-NA-RY, n. [Gr. avri and (p(j}vrj.] A service 
book in the Catholic church. 

AN-TIPIi'0-NER, 71. A book of anthems or antiphons. 

AN-TIPH 0-NY, n. [Gr. uvtl and (pm'r].] 1. The answer 
of one choir to another, when an anthem or psalm is sung 
by two choirs ; alternate singing. 2. A species of psalmo- 
dy, when a congregation is divided into two parts, and 
each sings the verses alternately, 3. The words given out 
at the beginning of a psalm, to which both the choirs are 
to accomuiodate their singing. 4. A musical composition 
of severa' verses, extracted from different psalms. 

AN-TIPF RA-SIS, n. [Gr. avTL and (ppamg.] The use of 
words In a sense opposite to their proper meaning. 

AN-TI-PHRAS'TI€, ) a. Pertaining to antiphrasis. 


AN-TI-PHRAS'TI-€AL-LY, adv. In the manner of an an- 

AN-TIP'O-DAL, a. Pertaining to the antipodes 5 having the 
feet directly opposite. 

*AN'TI-PODE, phi. Antipodes, n. [Gr. avrt, and novs, 
7ro(5oj.] One who lives on the opposite side of the globe, 
and, of course, "Nvhose feet are directly opposite to ours. 

AN-TI-POI'SON, (an-te-poy'zn) n. An antidote for poi- 

AN'TI-POPE, n. One who usurps the papal power, in oppo- 
sition to the pope. 

AN'TI-PORT, n. An outward gate or door. 

AN-TI-PRE^LAT'T-€AL, a. Adverse to prelacy 

AN'TI-PRIeST, n. An opposer or enemy of priests. 

AN-TI-PRIeST'€RAFT, n. ^/pposition to priestcraft 

AN-TI-PRIN'CI-PLE, 71. An opposite principle. 

AJS[-TI-PROPH'ET, n. An enemy or opposer of proph 

* AN-TIP'TO-SIS, n. [Gr. avri and Trrwtnj.j In grammar ^ 
the putting of one case for another. 

AN-Tl-PU'RI-TAN, n. An opposer of Puritans. 

AN-'JT-UUa'RI-AN, a. Pertaining to antiquaries, or to 
antiquity. As a noun, this is used for antiquary. 

AN-TI-aUA'RI-AN-ISM, n. Love of antiquities. 

AN'TI-Q,[JA-RY, n. [L. antiquanus .'] One who studies into 
the history of ancient things, as statutes, coins, medals, 
paintings, inscriptions, books and manuscripts, or search- 
es for them, and explains their origin and purport ; one 
versed in antiquity. 

AN'TI QUATE, v. t. [L. antique ] To make old, or obso- 
lete ; to make old in such a degi-ee as to pui out of use. 
Hence, when applied to laws or customs, it amounts to 
make void, or abrogate. 

AN'TI-QUA-TED, jjp. Grown old ; obsolete ; out of use ; 
having lost its binding force by non-observance. 

AN'TI-QUA-TED-NESS, n. The state of being old, or ob- 

ANTI-aUATE-NESS, n. The state of being obsolete. 

AN-TI-aUA'TION, n. The state of being antiquated. 

AN-TiaUE', (an-teekO a. [Fr.] 1. Old ; anr-^nt ; of genuine 
antiquity. 2. Old, as it respects the piesent age, or a 
modern period cf time ; of old fashion. 3. Odd ; wild ; 
fanciful ; more generally written antic. 

AN-TiQ,UE', (an-teek') n. In general, any thing very old ; 
but, in a more limited sense, the remains of ancient artists, 
as busts, statues, paintings aid vases, the works of Gre 
cian and Roman antiquity. 

AN-TiaUE'NESS, (an-teek'nes) n. The quality of being an- 
cient j an appearance of ancient origin and workman- 

AN-T1Q,'UI-TY, n. [L. antiquitas.] 1. Ancient times ; for- 
mer ages 5 times long since past. 2. The ancients : the 
people of ancient times ; as, the fact is admitted by all aii- 
tiquity. 3. Ancientness ; great age ; the quality of being 
ancient. 4. Old age. Skak. 5. The remains of ancient 
times. In this sense it is usually or always plural. 

AN-TI-REV-0-LU'TION-A-RY, a. Opposed lo a revolu- 
tion ; opposed to an entire change in the form of govern- 
ment. Burke. 

AN-TI-REV-0-LU'TION-IST, n. One who is opposed to a 
revolution in government. 

AN-TI-SAB-BA-Ta'RI-AN, n. One of a sect who oppose 
the observance of the Christian Sabbath. 

AN-TI-Sa'BI-AN, a. Opposed or contrary to Sabianism, or 
the worship of the celestial orbs. 

AN-TI-SA-CER-Do'TAL, a. Adverse to priests. 

AN-T1S"CIAN, ) n. [L. antiscii.'] In geography, the inhab 

AN-TIS"CIANS, \ itants of the earth, living on different 
sides of the equator, whose shadows at noon are 
contrary directions. 

AN-TI-S€OR-Bu TI€, or AN-TI-S€OR-Bu'TI-€AL, a 
Counteracting the scurvy. 

AN-TI-S€OR-Bu'TI€, n. A remedy for the scurvy. 

AN TI-SCRIP'TU-RISM, n. Opposition to the Holy Scrip- 
tures. Boyle. 

AN-TI-S€RtP'TU-RIST, n. One that denies revelation 

jAN'TI-SCRIPT, n. Opposition in writing to some other 

AN-TI-SEP'TI€, a. [Gr. avri and cr]iTTos.'\ Opposing or 
counteracting putrefaction. 

AN-Tl-SEP'Tie, n. A medicine vi'hich resists or corrects 

AN-TI-So'CIAL, a. Averse to society ; that tends to inter- 
rupt or destroy social intercourse. 

AN-TISTA-SIS, n. [Gr. avri and cnraw.] A revulsion of 
fluids from one part of the body to another. 

AN-TI-SPAS-MOD'I€, a. [Gr. avri and o-Tracr/^o?.] Oppos- 
ing spasm ; resisting convulsions ; as anodynes. 

AN-TI-SPAS-M0D'1€, n. A remedy for spasm or convul- 

AN~TI-SPAS'Tie, a. Causing a revulsion of fluids or hu- 
mors. Johnson. 

AN-TI-SPLEN'-E-TIC, a. Good as a remedy in diseases of 
the spleen. Johnson. 

AN-TIS'TA-SIS, n. [Gr. avri and orao-ff.] In oratory, the, 
defense of an action from the consideration that, if it had 
been omitted, something worse would have happened. 

AN-TIS'TES, n. [L.] The chief priest or prelate. 

AN-TIS'TRO~PHE, \n. [Gr. avri and arpocpri.] 1. Ingram- 

AN-TIS'TRO-PHY, \ mar, the changing of things mutual- 
ly depending on each other ; reciprocal conversion. 
2. Among the ancients, that part of a song or dance, befoie 
the altar, which was performed by turning from west to 
east, in opposition to tlie strophe. 

* See Synopsis. M5VE, BOOK, DoVE •,— BIJLL, UNITE.— € aa K ; 6 as J ; S as Z ; CH as SH ; TH as in this. 

f Obsolete 




A figure which repeats a word 


often. Milton. 

A.N-T!-S7'RU-MAT'm, ffl. [L. anti and struma.'] Good 
against scropuulous (f?§orders. 

AN-Tl'J'H'EiSlS, n. [Gr.^^syuflecri?.] ]. In rAetoric, an oppo- 
sition of words or sentini^fe j contrast ; as, " The prod- 
igal robs his heir, tlie miser robs himself." 2. Opposition 
of opinions; controversy, 

Ai\-Tl-THET'1€, / a. Pertaining to antithesis ; con- 

AN-1'1-THET'1-€AL, J taining or abounding with antith- 

AN-TITH'E-TON, n. [Gr. avTiOerov.] An opposite. 

AN-Tl-TRlN-l-TA'RI-AN, n. One wlio denies the trinity, 
or tlie existence of three pei-sons in the Godhead. 

AN-T[-TR1N-1-Ta'RI-AN, a. Opposing tlie trinity. 

AN-TI-TRIN-I-Ta'RI-AJS1-1SM, n. A denial of the trin- 

AN'TI-TyPE,m. [Gr. avTirvnov.] A figure corresponding to 
another figure ; that of which the type is the pattern or 
representation Thus the paschal lamb, in Scripture, is 
tlie type, of which Christ is the antitype. 

\N-Tl-'i'YP'I-€AL, a. Pertaining to an antitype ; explain- 
ing the type. Johnson. 

AN-TI-Va'K1-0-L0US, a. Opposing the smallpox, jyied. 

AN-Ti-VE-Ne'RE-AL, a. Resisting venereal poison. 

ANTLER, 71. A start or branch of a horn, especially of the 
horns of the cervine animals, as of the stag or moose. 

ANT'LERED, a. FurnisJied with antlers. 

AN TCE'Cr, n. [Gr. avn and oikeu}.] Those inhabitants of the 
eartli, who live under the same meridian, and at the same 
distance from the equator ; the one toward the north, and 
the other toward the south. 

AN-TO'NI-AN, a. Noting certain medicinal waters in Ger- 
many, at or near Tonstein. 

AN-TO-NO-Ma'SIA, ) 71. [Gr. avTi and ovo[xa.] The use 

AN-TO-NOM'A-SY, ) of the name of some office, dig- 
nity, profession, science or trade, instead of the true 
name of the person ; as when his majesty is used for a 

ANT-O-SI-AN'DRI-AN, n. One of a sect of rigid Luther- 
ans, so denominated from their opposing the doctrines of 

fAN'TRE, 71. [Ij. antrum.] A cavern. Skak. 

AN'VIL, n. [Sax. anfilt, tenflt.] An iron block with a 
smooth face, on which smiths hammer and shape their 
work. Figuradvel/'^ any thing on which blows are laid. 
Shak. To be on the anvil, is to be in a state of discussion, 
forniation or preparation. 

ANX-l'E-TUDE, 91. Anxiety, solicitude. [Little used.] 

ANX-l'E-TY, (ang-zi'e-ty) n. [L. auzietas.] 1. Concern or 
solicitude respecting some event, future, or uncertain, 
which disturbs the mind, and keeps it in a state of painful 
uneasiness. — 2. In medical language, uneasiness ; un- 
ceasing restlessness in sickness. 

ANX'IO'US, (ank'shus) a. 1. Greatly concerned or solicitous 
respecting something future or unknown ; being in pain- 
ful suspense. 2. Full of solicitude ; unquiet. 3. Very 
careful ; solicitous. 

ANX'IOUS-LY, adv. In an anxious manner 5 solicitously ; 
carefully ; unquietly. 

ANX'IOUS-NESS, (ank'shus-nes) n. The quality of being 
anxious ; great solicitude. Johnson. 

AN'Y, (en'ny) a. [Sax. anig, arnig ; D. eenig ; Ger. einig.] 
1. One, indefinitely. 2. Some ; an indefinite number, plu- 
rally. 3. Some ; an indefinite quantity ; a small portion. 
4. ft is often used as a substitute, the person or thing be- 
ing ifriderstood. It is used in opposition to none 

tAN'Y-WHITH-ER, ad». Anywhere, Barrow. 

AN'Y-WISE (en'ny-wTze) is sometimes used adverbially, 
but the two words may be separated, and used with a 
preposition, in any wise. 

A-o'NI-AN, a. Pertaining to the muses, or to Aonia, in 

A O-RIST, n. [Gr. aopidTos.] The name of certain tenses in 
th(; grammar of the Greek language, which express time 

A-0-RrST'I€, a. Indefinite 5 pertaining to an aorist, or in- 
definite tense. 

A-ORT'A, n. [Gr. loprr;.] The great arteiy, or trunk of the 
arterial system, proceeding from the left ventricle of the 
heart, and giving oiigin to all the arteries, except the 
pulmonary arteries. 

A-ORT'AL, a. Pertaining to the aorta, or great artery. 

A-Ol''TA, n. The paper-mulberry tree in Otaheite. 

APaCE', adv. With a quick pace ; quick ; fast 5 speedily ; 
with haste ; hastily. 

AP'A-GO-6E, or AP'A-GO-GY, n. [Gr. from anayw.] In 
logic, abduction ; a kind of argument, wherein the greater 
extreme is evidently contained in the medium, but the 
medium not so evidently in the lesser extreme as not to 
require furtner proof. Encyc. 

AP-A-G0G'I-€AL, a. An apagogical demonstration is an 

indirect way of proof, by showing the absurdity or im 
possibility of the contrary. 

AP-A-LACH'I-AN, a. Pertaining to the Apalaches, a tribe 
of Indians, in the western part of Georgia ; and to the 
southern extremity of the Alleghanean ridges, 

A-PAN'THRO-PY, n. [Gr. alio and avdpwiros.] An aversion 
to the company cf men ; a love of solitude. 

AP-A-RITH'ME-SIS, 71. [Gr.J In rhetoric, enumeration. 

A-PaRT', adv. [Fr, aparte.] ]. Separately ; at a distance : 
in a state of separation, as to place. 2. In a state of dis- 
tinction, as to purpose, use or character. 3. Distinctly , 
separately. 4. Aside ; in exclusion of. 

A-PART'MENT, 71. [Fr. apartement.] A room in a building ; 
a division in a house, separated from others by partitions ; 
a place separated by inclosure. 

AP-A-THET'ie, a. Void of feeling ; free from p-assion ; in- 
sens-ible. Harris. 

AP'A-THY, n. [Gr. a and naOos.] Want of feelmg ; an 
utter privation of passion, or insensibility to pain. 

AP A-TITE, 71. A variety of phosphate of lime. 

APE, n. [D. aap ; Dan. abe ; Sax., Sw. and Ir. apa ; Ice 
ape.] 1. A genus of quadrupeds, found in the torrid zone 
of botli continents, of a great variety of species. In com- 
vion use, the word extends to all the tribe of monkeys and 
baboons. 2. One who imitates servilely, in allusion to the 
manners of the ape ; a silly fellow. 

APE, V. t. To imitate servilely ; to mimick. 

A-PeAK', adv. 1. On the point ; m a posture to pierce. — 2 
In seamcn^s language, perpendicular. 

AP'EN-NINE, G.' [L. Apenninus.] Pertaining to or desig- 
nating a chain of mountains, which extend through Italy 

AP'EN-NINES I ^' A chain of mountains in Italy. 

A-PEP'SY,7i. [Gr. a and TrtTrrw,] Defective digestion ; indi- 

_ gestion. Coxe. [Little used.] 

a'PER, n. One who apes. — In zoology, the wild boar. 

A-Pe'RI-ENT, a. [L. aperiens.] Opening •, deobstruent ; 

A-Pe'RI-ENT, n. A medicine which promotes the circula- 
tion of the fluids, by removing obstructions ; a laxative ; 
a deobstruent, 

A-PER'I-TIVE, a. Opening ; deobstruent •, aperient. 

t A-PERT', a. [L. apertus.] Open ; evident ; undisguised. 

A-PER'TION, n. The act of opening ; the state of being 
opened ; an opening ; a gap. [Little used.] 

A-PEST'LY, adv. Openly. Bale. [Little used.] 

A-PERT'NESS, n. Openness. [Rarely used.] 

A-PERT'OR, n. A muscle that raises the upper eye-lid. 

AP'ER-TuRE, ?i. 1. The act of opening ; an opening ; a 
gap, cleft or chasm ; a passage perforated. 2. An opening 
of meaning ; explanation. [jYot used.] Taylor. 

A-PET'A-LOUS, a. In botany, having no petals, or flower- 
leaves ; having no corol. 

A-PET'A-LOUS-NESS, n. A state of being without petals. 

a'PEX, 71. ; plu. Apexes. [L. apex ; plu. apices.] The tip, 
point orsummit of any thing, 

APH'A-NiTE, 71, In mineralogy, compact amphihole in a 
particular state, 

A-PHeL'ION, 7!. [Gr, ano and vXiog.] That point of a plan- 
et's orbit which is most distant from the sun ; opposed to 

APH-E-Re'SIS, n. [Gr. mro and aipew.] 1. The taking of a 
letter or syllable from the beginning of a word. — 2. In the 
healing art, the removal of any thing noxious. — In surge- 
ry, amputation. 

f A-PHe'TA, n. The name of a plant, which is the giver 
of life in a nativity. Diet. 

j A-PHET'I-GAL, a. Relating to the apheta. 

APH-I-DIV'O-ROUS, a. Eating, devouring, or subsistmg 
on the aphis, or plant-louse. 

APH-I-LAN'THRO-PY, Tt. [Gr. a and (pi'\avepu)ma.] Want 
of love to mankind. — In medicine, the first stage of melan- 
choly, when solitude is preferred to society. 

a'PHIS, n. In zoology, the puceron, vine-fretter, or plant- 
louse ; a genus of insects, belonging to the order of he- 

APH-L0-GIS'TI€, a. [Gr. a and (pXayiaros.] Flameless ; as, 
an aphlogistic lamp. 

APH'O-NY, n. [Gr. a and (pwvrj.] A loss of voice ; a palsy 
of the tongue ; dumbness ; catalepsy. 

APH'0-RiSM, n. [Gr. a(popiaiJOs.] A maxim ; a precept, or 
principle expressed in few words ; a detached sentence 
containing some important truth. 

APH'O-RiSM-ER, n. A dealer in aphorisms. 

j- APTI'O-RIST, 71. A writer of aphorisms. JsTelson. 

APH-0-RrS'TI€, \ a. In the form of an aphorism ; in 

APH-0-R[S'TI-€AL, \ the form of short, unconnected sen- 

APH-O-RIS'TI-CAL-LY, adv. In the form or manner of 

APH'RITE, n. [Gr, a(ppoi.] A subvariety of carbonate of 


* See Synovsis. A, E, T, 6, V, Y, long.— FKTl, FALL, WHAT ;— PREY ;— PiN, MARtNE, BIRD •,— f Obsolete. 




APH Rl-ZlTE, n. A variety of black tourmalin 

APH-RO-DfS'l-A€, or AFH-RO-DI-SI'A-OAL, a. [Gr. 
a(:/)j)0(5tcnof.] Exciting venereal desire ; increasing the 
api»etite for sexual connection. 

APH-RO-DlS'I-A€, n. A provocative to venery. 

APH'RO-DITE, n. [Gr. A(PpoSiTr].] A follower of Venus. 

APH'RO-DITE, or APH-RO-DI'TA, n. 1. In zoology, a ge- 
nus of the order of molluscas, called also sea-mouse. 2. 
A name of Venus. 

APH'THOiS'G, 71. [Gr. airo and ^doyyog.] A letter or com- 
bination of letters, which, in the customary pronuncia- 
tion of a word, have no sound. 

APH'THOUS, a. [Gr. acpOai.] Pertaining to thrush ; of the 
nature of thrush, or ulcerous affectioi^s of the mouth. 

APH'YL-LOUS, a. [Gr. a and (pvWov, folium.'] In botany, 

_ destitute of leaves. 

A'PI-A-RY, 71. [L. apiariwn.] The place where bees are 

_ kept ; a stand or shed for bees. 

A'P[-AS-T£R, 71. The bird called a bee-eater, a species of 
m crops. 

A'PI-CES, A'PEX-rS. See Apex. 

A-PIeCE', adv. To each ; noting the share of each. 

A-PlK'CES, adv. In pieces. Beaumont. 

A'PIS, 71. In mythology, an ox, worshiped in ancient 
Egypt, or a divinity or idol in the figure of an ox. 

A'PIS, 71. [li.] In zoology, the bee, a genus of insects. 

aTISH, a. Having the qualities of an ape ; inclined to im- 
itate in a servile manner ; hence, foolish, foppish, affect- 
ed, trifling. 

A'PISH-LY, adv. In an apish manner 5 with servile imi- 
tation ; foppishly. 

A'PISH-NESS, n. The quality of being apish ; mimicry ; 

A-PiT'PAT, adv. V^^ith quick beating or palpitation ; a 
word formed from the sound, pit and paf_ or from beat. 

AP-LA-NAT'I€, a. [Gr. a and n'Xavau).] An aplanatic tel- 
escope is one which entirely corrects the aberration of 
the rays of light. 

AP-Lo'ME, n. A mineral closely allied to garnet. 

AP-LUS'TER, ) n. [L.] An ensign, or ornament carried by 

AP-LUS'TRE, \ ancient ships. 

A-POG'A-LYPSE, n. [Gr. aTro/caXv-rrw.] Revelation ; dis- 
covery ; disclosure. The name of a book of the New 

A-PO€-A-LYP'TI€, \ a. Containing or pertaining to 

A-PO€-A-LYP'TI-€AL, S revelation ; disclosing. 

A-PO€-A-LYP'TI-eAL-LY, adv. By revelation ; in the 
manner of disclosure. 

A-PO€'0-PATE, v.t. To cut off, or drop, the last letter or 
svllable of a word. 

A-POeO-PA-TED, pp. Shortened by the omission of the 
last letter or syllable 

A-POC'O-PA-TING, ppr Cutting off or omitting the last 
letter or syllable. 

A-POC'O-PE, ) n. [Gr. aTro/coTr??.] The cutting off, or omis- 

A-POC'O-PY, \ sion of the last letter or syllable of a word. 

A-POCRI-BA-RY, n. [Gr. airoKpicnq.'] Anciently , tx \es\deni 
in an imperial city, in the name of a foreign church or 
bishop, answering to the modern nuncio. 

AP-O-CRUST'lC, a. [Gr. a-aoK^ovaTiKa.'] Astringent ; re- 

AP-0-€RUST'I€, n. A medicine which constringes and 
repels the humors ; a repellent. 

A-POCRY-PHA, V. [Gr. aizoKpvnrm, KpvnTOJ, to conceal.] 
Literally, such things as are not published ; but in an ap- 
propriate sense, books whose authors are not known, and 
whose authenticity, as inspired writings, is not admitted. 

A-PO€'RY-PHAL, a. Pertaining to the apocrypha ; not 
canonical ; of uncertain authority or credit ; false ; ficti- 

A-PO€'RY-PHAL-LY, atZu. Uncertainly •, not indisputably. 

A-POC'RY-PHAL-NESS, n. Uncertainty as to authentici- 
ty ; doubtfulness of credit, or genuineness. 

AP'O-DAL, a. Without feet.— In zoology, destitute of ven- 
tral fins. 

AP'ODE, n. [Gr. a andnovi, TToSog.] An animal that has 
no feet. — In zoology, an order of fishes. 

A.P-0-DI€'TI€, la. [Gr. anoSei^ig.] Demonstrative; 

AP-0-DI€'TI-€AL, ) evidentbeyond contradiction; clear- 
ly proving. [Little used.] 

AP-0-DI€'TI-€AL-LY, adv. So as to be evident beyond 

t AP-0-DIX'IS, n. Demonstration. Sir O. Buck. 

A-POD'0-SIS, 71. [Gr.] The application or latter part of a 
similitude. Mede. 

A-POD-Y-Te'RI-UM, n. [Gr. airoSvTepiov.] A dressing 

APO-GEE, n. [L. apogcon, apogeum.] That point in the 
orbit of a planet, which is at the greatest distance from 
the ear' h. 

A-P06-I-A-Tu'RA, 77. [It.] A cadence in music. 

AP'O-GON, n A fish of the Mediterranean, the summit 0. 
whose head is elevated. 

AP'0-GRAPH, 7i. [Gr. anoypa^ov.] An exemplar ; a copy 
or transcript. 

A-PUL-LI-NA'Rr-AN, a. [from Apollo.] The Apollinarian 
games were celebrated in honor of Apollo. 

A-POL-LI-JVA'Rl-Ai\S. In church history, a sect deriving 
their name from Apollinaris of Laodicea. 

A-POL'LO-BEL'VM)ERE. An ancient statue of the first 
class in excellence. 

A-POLL'YON, 71. [Gr. ano\\vu)v.] The destroyer ; a name 
used Rev. ix. 11, for the angel of the bottomless pit. 

A-POL-0-GET'IC, I a. [Gr. aTro\uyeuiiai.] Defending 

A-P0L-0-6ET'I-€AL, ) by words or arguments ; excu- 
sing ; said or written in defense, or by way of apology. 

A-POL-O-GETT-CAL-LY, adv. By way of apology. 

A-POL'0-GIST, n. One who makes an apology ; one who 
speaks or writes in defense of another. 

A-POL'0-GlZE, V. i. To make an apology ; to write or 
speak in favor of, or to make excuse for. 

A-POL'0-Gl-ZER, n. Defender. Hanmer. 

AP'0-LOGUE, 7?. [Gr. an-oXoyof.] A moral fable; a story 
or relation of fictitious events, intended to convey useful 

t AP'0-LOGU-ER, 71. Fabler. Burton. 

A-POL'0-GY, n. [Gr. airo'Xoyia.] An excuse ; something 
said or written in defense or extenuation of what appears 
to others wrong or unjustifiable. 

t AP-0-ME-€OM'-E-TRY, 71. The art of measuring things 
at a distance. 

AP-0-NEU-Ro'STS, \ n. [Gr. ano and vtvpov.] An expan- 

AP-0-NEtJ'RO-SY, \ sion of a tendon in the manner of a 
membrane ; the tendon or tail of a muscle. 

AP-0-PEMP'TI€, a. [Gr. airo and neimui.] Denoting a song 
or hymn among the ancients, sung or addressed to a stran- 
ger. It may be used as a noun for the hymn. 

A-POPH'A-SIS, n. [Gr. a.'o and ^acrtj.] In rhetoric, a wa- 
ving or omission of what one, speaking ironically, would 
plainly insinuate. 

* AP-0-PHLEG-MAT'I€, [See Phlegmatic] a. [Gr. otto 
and (pXeyixa.] Masticatory ; having the quality of exciting 
discharges of phlegm. 

*AP-0-PHLEG-MAT'I€, 7?. A masticatory; a medicine 
which excites discharges of phlegm from the mouth or 
nostrils. Coze. 

AP-O-PHLEG'MA-TISM, n. An apophlegmatic. 

AP-0-PHLEG-MAT'I-ZANT, n. An apophlegmatic. 

AP'-OPH-THEGM, or AP'0-THEM, n. [Gr. avro and <pBzy- 
//.a.] A remarkable saying ; a short, sententious, instruct- 
ive remark. 

A-POPH'Y-GE, ) n. [Gr. arro and (pvyrj.] 1. In architecture, 

A-P0PH'Y-6Y, \ the part of a column where it springs 
out of its base ; the spring of a column. 2. A concave part 
or ring of a column, lying above or beloAv the flat member. 

A-POPH'YL-LITE, n. [Gr. airo and cpvWov.] A mineral. 

A-POPH'Y-SIS, ) n. [Gr. utto and ((>vgis.] The projecting 

A-POPH'Y-SY, ) soft end or protuberance of a bone a 
process of a bone. 

AP-0-PLE€'TI€, or AP-0-PLE€'TI-€AL, a. Pertaining 
to or consisting in a-poplexv, or predisposed to apoplexy. 

AP-0-PL,E€'TI€, 71. A person affected by apoplexy. 

AP'0-PL'EXED, a. Affected with apoplexy. Shak. 

AP'0-PLEX-Y, 71. [Gr. arroir'Xri^ia.] A sudden deprivation •> 
all sense and voluntary motion, occasioned by repletion, or 
whatever interrupts the action of the nerves upon the 
muscles. Dryden uses apoplex for apoplexy. 

AP'O-RON, or APO-RIME, n. A problem difficult to be 

t AP-OR-RHQS'A, 71. Effluvium. Glanville. 

AP'O-RY, or A-Po'RI-A, n. [Gr. a-rropia.] 1. In rhetoric, 
a doubting or being at a loss where to begin, or what to 
say, on account of the variety of matter.— 2. In the 77?e^- 
ical art, febrile anxiety ; uneasiness. Coze. 

A-POS-I-O-PE'SIS, ) 71. [Gr. aTroaiwTrrjOLg.] Reticency or 

A-POS-I-OP'E-SY, ) suppression ; as when a speaker, 
for some cause, as fear, sorrow, or anger, suddenly 
breaks off his discourse, before it is ended. 

A-POS'TA-SY, n. [Gr. a-oaraatg.] 1. An abandonment 
of what one has professed ; a total desertion or departure 
from one's faith or religion. 2. The desertion from a 
party to which one has adhered. — 3. Among physicians, 
the throwing off of exfoliated or fractured bone, or the 
various solution of disease. 4. An abscess. 

A-POS'TATE, 71. One who has forsaken the church, «ect, 
profession, or party, to which he before adhered. 

A-POS'TATE, a. False ; traitorous. Spenser. 

AP-OS-TAT'I-€AL, a. After the manner of an apostate. 

A-POS'TA-TiZE, V. i. To abandon one's profession 01 
church ; to forsake the principles or faith which one has 
professed, or the party to which one has been attached. 

* See Syllepsis. M(^VE, BOOK, D6VE ;— BIJLL, UNITE.— € as K ; G as J ; S as Z ; CH as SH ; TH as in this. + Obsolete 




A-POS'TA-TIZ-ING, ppr. Abandoning a church, profes- 
To form into an abscess ; to swell 

siou, sect, or party. 

and fill witli pus, 

A-FOri-TE-MA'TlON, n. The formation of an aposteme ; 
tlie process of gathering into an abscess ; written, corrupt- 
ly, impostkumation. 

AP-OS-TEiM'A-TOUS, a. Pertaining to an abscess ; par- 
taking of the nature of an aposteme Journ. of Science. 

AP OS-TEME, 7J. [Gr. a7ro(77?;j/a.] An abscess ; a swelling 
tilled with purulent matter ; written also, corruptly, im- 

A.-POS-TE-RI-0E.I, [\j. posterior. '[ Axgwments a posteriori 
are drawn from effects, consequences, or facts ; in oppo- 
sition to reasoning a priori^ or from causes previous to 
known results. 

A-POS'TLE, (a-pos'-sl) n. [L. apostolus ; Gr. aTrooroXoff.] 
A person deputed to execute some important business ; 
but, appropriately, a disciple of Christ, commissioned to 
preach the gospel. 

The oiiice or dignity of an apostle. 
A mission ; the dignity or office of 


an apostle. 
-^P-OS-TOL'ie, i 

1. Pertaining or relating to the 
apostles. 2. According to the doc- 
trines of the apostle's ; delivered or taught by tlie apostles. 

AP-OS-TOL'I-€AL-LY, adv. In the manner of the apostles. 

AP-OS-TOL'I-€ALr-NES£, n. The quality of being apos- 
tolical, or according to the doctrines of the apostles. 

AP-OS-TOL'I€S, 71. Certain sects so called from their pre- 
tending to imitate the practice of the apostles. 

A-POS TRO-PHE, I n. [Gr. airo and arpocpri.'] 1. In rhet- 

A-POS'^f^RO-PHY, \ oric, a diversion of speech ; a digres- 
sive address ; a changing the coui-se of a speech, and ad- 
dressing a person, who is dead or absent, as if present. — 
2. In grammar, the contraction of a word by the omission 
of a letter or letters, which omission is marked by a com- 
ma ; as, caWd for called. The comma used for this pur- 
pose may also be called an apostrophe. 

A-POS'TRO-PKI€, a. Pertaining to an apostrophe ; noting 
the contraction of a word. Murray. 

A-POS TRO-PHiZE, v. i. or t. 1. To make an apostrophe, 
or short, detached address in speaking. 2. v. t. To con- 
tract a word Ly omitting a letter or letters. 3. To mark 
with a comma, indicating the omission of a letter. 

A-POS TRO-PHIZED, pp. Addressed by way of digres- 
sion •, contracted by the omission of a letter or letters 5 
marked by an apostrophe. 

A-POS'TRO-PHI-ZING, ppr. Addressing in a digression ; 
contracting or marking by aj ostrophe. 

APOS-TUME, n. An aposteme, which see. 

AP-0-TA€'TITE, 71. \Gx. a-rroTaKTOi.] One of a sect of an- 
cient Christians, who, in imitation of the first believers, 
renounced all their effects and possessions. 

AP-0-THE'€A, 71. [L.] An apothecary's shop. 

A-POTIi'E-€A-Ry, 71. [L. apotheca.] 1. One who prac- 
tices pharmacy ; one who prepares drugs for medicinal 
uses, and keeps them for sale. 2. In the middle ages, an 
apothecary was the keeper of any shop or warehouse. 

APO-THEGM, m APO-TIIEM, 7i. [See Apophthegm.] 
A remarkable saying ; a short, instructive remark. 

AP-0-THEG-?»IAT 1€, ) a. In the manner of an apo- 

AP-0-THEG-MAT'I-€AL, \ them. 

AP-0-THEGMA-TIST, n. A collector or maker of apo- 
thems. Pope. 

AP-0-THEG'MA-TlZE, v. i. To utter apothems, or short, 
instnictive sentences. 

AP'0-THEME, n. In Russia, an apothecary's shop. 

AP-O-THe'O-SIS, 7i. [Gr. anodeujais.] Deification ; conse- 
cration ; the act of placing a prince, or other distinguish- 
ed person, among the heathen deities. 

A -POTH'E-SIS, 71. [Gr.] 1. The reduction of a dislocated 
bone. 2. A place on'the south side of the chancel, in 
the primitive churches, furnished with shelves, for books, 
■vestments, &c. Wheler. 

'V.-POT'O-ME, ) n. [Gr. aTrorr/ivw.] 1. In mathematics, the 

A-POT 0-MY, \ difference between two mcommensura- 
bl^ quantities. — 2, In music, that portion of a tone major 
which remains after deducting from it an interval, less, 
by a ftmma, than a semitone major. 

AP-0 -TREP SIS, n. [Gr. aTro and rpsTrw.] The resolution 
of a suppurating tumor. Coze. 

AP'O-TRO-PY. r.. [Gr. a-izo and rpETrw.] In ancient poetry, 
a verse or hymn composed for averting the wrath of m- 
censed deities. 

AP'O-ZEM, 77. [Gr. aTroand ^£0).] A decoction, in which 
the medicinal substances of plants are extracted by boil- 

A.P-0-ZEI\I'I-€AL, a. Like ^ decoction. Whitaker. 

\ AP-PAIR', V. t. To impair. 

. AP-PAlR', V. i. To degenerate. 

AP-PALL', V. t. [Ft. palir ; L. palleo.] 1. To depress or 
discourage with fear •, to impress with fear, in such a 

manner that the mind shrinks, or loses its firmness 2 
To reduce, allay, or destroy. [Unusual.] Thomson. 

AP-PALL', V. i. To grow faint ; to be dismayed. 

AP-P*A.LL'ED, pp. Depressed or disheartened with fear 

AP-PALL'ING,p;7r. Depressing with fear ; reducing. 

AP-PALL'MENT, 71. Depression occasioned by fear ; dis- 

AP'PA-iVAGE, n. [Fr. apanage.] 1. Lands appropriated 
by a prince to the maintenance of his younger sons. 2. 
Sustenance ; means of nourishing. Swift. 

AP-PA-Ra'TUS, 71. ; plu. Apparatuses. [L.] 1. Things 
provided as means to some end 5 the fumitu/e of a 
house ; instruments of war ; a complete set of instruments 
or utensils, for performing any operation. — 2. In surgery, 
the operation of cutting for the stone. 

AP-PAR'EL, 71. [Fr. appareil.'] 1. Clothing ; vesture ; 
garments ; dress, 2. External habiliments or decora- 
tions ; appearance. 3. The furniture of a ship, as sails, 
rigging, anchors, &c. 

AP-PAR'EL, V. t. 1. To dress or clothe. 2. To adorn 
with dress. 3. To dress with external ornaments ; to 
cover, as with garments. 4. To furnish with external 

AP-PAR'ELED, pp. Dressed ; clothed ; covered as with 
dress -, furnished. 

AP-PAR'EL-ING, ppr. Dressing ; clothing ; covering as 
with dress ; furnishing. 

t AP-PA'REx\CE, (ap-pair'ens) / 71. Appearance. Chau- 

\ AP PA'REN-CY, (ap-pair'en-sy) J cer. Oower. 

AP-PA'RENT, (ap-pair'ent) a. 1. That may be seen ; visi- 
ble to the eye ; within sight or view. 2. Obvious ; plain ; 
evident ; indubitable. 3. Visible -, in opposition to hid or 
secret. 4. Visible ; appearing to the eye 5 seeming, in 
distinction from true or real. — Heirs apparent are those 
whose right to an estate is indefeasible, if they survive 
the ancestor 5 in distinction from presumptive heirs, who, 
if the ancestor should die immediately, would inherit, 
but whose right is liable to be defeated by the birth of 
other children. Blackstone. 

AP-PA'RENT-LY, (ap-pair'ent-ly) adv. 1. Openly ; evi 
dently. 2. Seemingly ; in appearance. 

AP-PA'RENT-NESS, (ap-paur'ent-ness) n. That which ia 

AP-PA-Rl 'TION, 77. 1. In a general sense, an appear- 
ance 5 visibility. [Little used.] Milton. 2. The thing 
appearing •, a visible object ; a form. Milton. 3. A 
ghost ; a spectre •, a visible spirit. [ This is now the usual 
sense of the v-ord.] 4. Mere appearance, opposed to re- 
ality. Dcnham. 

AP-PAR'I-TOR, 77. [L. apparo.] Among the Romans, any 
officer who attended magistrates and judges to execute 
their orders. — In England, a messenger or officer who 
serves the process of a spiritual comt, or a beadle in the 
university who carries the mace. 

t AP-PAY'," V. t. [Sp. apagar.] To satisfy. 

t AP-PeACH', v. t. To accuse ; to censure. 

t AP-PeACHER, n. An accuser. 

t AP-PeACII'MENT, 71. Accusation ; charge exhibited. 

AP-PeAL', v. i. [Fr. appeler ; L. appello.] 1. To refer to 
a superior judge or court, for the decision of a cause de- 
pending, or the revision of a cause decided in a lower 
court. 2. To refer to another for the decision of a question 
contioverted, or the counteraction of testimony or facts. 

AP-PeAL', v. t. To call or remove a cause from an inferior 
to a_superior judge or comt. 

AP-PeAL', v. t. In criminal law, to charge with a crime ; 
to accuse ; to institu-te a criminal prosecution. 

AP-PeAL', 77. 1. The removal of a cause or suit from an 
inferior to a superior tribunal ; -also, the right of appeal. 
2. An accusation ; a process instituted by a private per- 
son against a man for some crime by which he has been 
injured. 3. A summons to answer to a charge. 4. A 
call upon a person ; a reference to Einother for proof or 
decision. 5. Resort ; recourse. 

AP-PeAL'A-BLE, a. 1. That may be appealed ; that may 
be removed to a higher tribunal for decision. 2. That 
mav be accused or called to answer by appeal. 

t AP-PeAL'ANT, 77. One who appeals. Shah 

AP-Pi^AL'ED, (ap-peeld') pp. Removed to a higher court, 
as a cause ; prosecuted for a crime by a private person, 
as a criminal. 

AP-PeAL'ER, 77. One who appeals ; an appellor. 

AP-PeALTNG, ppr. Removing a cause to a higher tribu- 
nal ; prosecuting as a private person for an oflense ; re- 
ferring to another for a decision. 

A?-PeAR', v. i. [L. appareo.] 1. To come or be in sight ; 
to be in view ; to be visible. 2. To become visible to 
the eye, as a spirit, or to the apprehension of the mind ; 
a sense frequent in Scripf.ure. 3. To stand in presence of, 
as parties or advocates before a court, or as persons to be 
tried. 4. To be obvious ; to be known, as a subject of 
observation or comprehension. 5. To be clear or made 
clear by evidence. 6. To seem, in opposition to reality 
7. To be discovered, or laid open. 

* See Synopsis A, E, T, o, V^, Y, long.—YkVi, FALL, WHAT •,— PREY ;— PiN, MARINE, BtRD ;— f Obsolete 




\ AP-PeAR', n. Appearance 

AP-Pk.AJR AXCE, n. 1. The act of coming into sight ; the 
act of becoming visible to the eye. 2. The thing seen ; a 
phenomenon. 3. Semblance ; apparent likeness. 4. Ex- 
ternal show ; semblance assumed, in opposition to reality 
or substance. 5. Personal presence ; exhibition of the 
person. 6. Exhibition of the character ; introduction of 
a person to the public in a particular character. 7. Prob- 
ability ; likelihood. Bacon. 8. Presence ; mien ; figure, 
as presented by the person, dress, or manners. 9. A be- 
ing present in court ; a defendant's filing common or 
special bail to a process. 10. An apparition. Addison. 

AP-Pe.IR'ER, n. The person that appears. 

AP-PeAR'ING, ppr. Coming in sight ; becoming evident ; 
making an external show ; seeming 5 having the sem- 

AP-PeAR E\G, n. The act of becoming visible ; appearance. 

AP-PeAS'A-BLE, a. That may be appeased, quieted, 
calmed, or pacified. 

AP-PeAS'A-BLE-NESS, n. The quality of being appeasa- 

AP-PeASE', v. t. [Ft. apaiser.] To make quiet ; to calm ; 
to reduce to a state of peace 5 to still ; to pacify. 

AP-PeAS'ED, (ap-peezd') pp. Quieted ; calmed ; pacified. 

AP-PeASEMENT, n. The act of appeasing ; the state of 
being in peace. 

AP-PeAS'ER, 71. One who appeases, or pacifies. 

AP-PeAS'IVE, (ap-pe'-siv) a. Having the power to ap- 
pease ; mitigating ; quieting. 

t AP-PEL LAN-CY, 7!.. An appeal. 

AP-PEL'LANT, n, 1. One who appeals, or removes a 
cause from a lower to a higher tribunal. 2. One who 
prosecutes another for a crime. 3. One who challenges 
or summons another to single combat. — 1. In church his- 
tory, one who appeals from the Constitution Unigenitus 
to a general council. Milton. 

f AlP-PEL'LATE, n. A person appealed, or prosecuted for 
a crime. See Appellee. Ayliffe. 

AP-PEL'LATE, a. Pertaining to appeals ; having cogni- 
ZEmce of appeals 5 as, " appellate jurisdiction." Const, of 
U.S. Burke. 

AP-PEL-La TION, 7!. [L. appellatio.] Name ; the word by 
which a thing is called and known. Spenser uses it for 

AP-PEL'LA-TiVE, a. Pertaining to a common name ; no- 
ting the common name of a species. 

AP-PEL'LA-TiVE, n. A common .name, in distinction 
from a proper name. A common name, or appellative, 
stands for a whole class, genus or species of beings, or 
for universal ideas. 

AP-PEL'LA-TTYE-LY, adv. According to the manner of 
nouns appellative ; in a manner to express whole classes 
or species. 

AP-PEL'LA-TO-RY, a. Containing an appeal. 

AP-PEL-LEE', n. 1. The defendant in an appeal. 2. The 
person who is appealed, or prosecuted by a private man 
for a crime. 

AP-PEL-LOR', n. The person who institutes an appeal, or 
prosecutes another for a crime. Blackstone. 

AP-PEND', V. t. [L. appendo.] 1. To hang or attach to, as 
by a string, so that the thing is suspended. 2. To add, as 
ail accessory to the principal thing. Johnson. 

AP-PEXD'A6E, n. Something added to a principal or 
greater thing. 

fAP-PEXD'ANCE, or f AP-PEXD'ENCE, n. Something 
annexed. Bp. Hall. 

AP-PEXD'AXT, a. Hanging to; annexed; belonging to 
something ; attached. 

AP-PEND AXT, ?i. That which belongs to another thing, 
as incidental or subordinate to it. 

AP-PEXD ED, pp. Annexed ; attached. 

t AP-PEXD'I-€ATE, v. t. To append ; to add to. Hale. 

t AP-PEX-DI-€a'TION, n. An appendage or adjunct. 

AP-PEXD I-€LE, 71. A small appendage. 

AP-PEXT)'IXG, 7!. That which is bv right annexed. 

AP-PEXD IX, n. ; phi. Appe>-dixes. [L. The Latin plural 
is appendices.] I. Something appended or added. 2. An 
adjunct, concomitant, or appendage. 3. More generally, 
a supplement or short treatise added to a book. 

fAP-PER-CElYE', r. f. \Ft. apercevoir.] To comprehend. 

t AP-PER-Ci?IY'IXG, 7!. Perception. Chaucer. 

AP-PER-CEP'TIOX, n. Perception that reflects upon itself; 
consciousness. Reid. 

\ AP-PER'IL, n. Peru ; danger. Shal: 

AP-PER-TaIX'', v. i. [Fr. appartenir ; L. ad and pertineo.] 
To belong, whether bv right, naUire or appointment. 

AP-PER-TaIX'IXG, vp. Belonging. 

AP-PER-TaIX'MEXT, 71. That which belongs. 

t AP-PER TE-XAXCE, v. t. To have as right belonging. 

AP-PER'TE-XEXCE, n. See Appurte>-ance. 

AP-PER TT-X'^EX^T, a. Belonging; now written appurte- 
nant. Shak. 

t AP-PER TI-NENT, 77. That which belongs to something 
else. S^ a A:. See ApptrRTzxANCE. 

AP'FE-TENCE, ) n. [L. appetentia.] 1. Desire ; especial 

AP'PE-TEN-CY, ] ly carnal desire ; sensual appetite. 
2. The disposition of organized bodies to select and im- 
bibe such portions of matter as serve Zo support and nour- 
ish them. 3. An inclination 01 propensity in animals to 
perform certain actions, as in the young to suck-, in 
aquatic fowls to enter into water and "to swim. 

AP'PE-TEXT, a. Desiring ; very desirous. Buck. 

AP-PE-TI-BIL'1-TY, 71. The quality of being desirable foi 

AP'PE-TI-BLE, a. [Low L. appetiMlis.] Desirable ; that 
may bethe object of sensual desire. 

APPE-TlTE, 7!. [L. appetittis.'] I. The natural desire of 
pleasure or good ; the desire of gratification, either of tlie 
body or of the mind. 2. A desire of food or drink ; a pain- 
ful sensation occasioned by liunger or thirst. 3. Strong 
desire ; eagerness or longing. 4. The thing desired 

t AP'PE-TlTE, V. t. To desire. Sir T. Elyot. 

AP-PE-Tl"TIOX% n. [L. appetitio.] Desire. [Rarely used.] 

t AP-PE-Tl'iTIOUS, a. Palatable ; desirable. 

AP'PE-Tl-TiYE, a. That desires ; tliat has the quality of 
desiring gratification. 

AP'PI-AN, a. Designating something that belongs to Appius, 
particularly a way from Rome through Capua to Brundu- 
sium, nowBrindisi, constructed by Appius Claudius. 

AP-PLAUD', V. t. [L. cpplaudo.] 1. To i)raise by clapping 
the hands, acclamation, or other significant sign. 2. To 
praise by words, actions, or other means ; to express ap- 
probation of; to commend. 

AP-PLAUD ED, pp. Praised by acclamation, or other 
mean's ; commended. 

AP-PLAUD'EK, n. One who pi-aises or commends. 

AP-PLAUD'J.NG, ppr. Praising by acclamation ; commend- 
ing. ■" 

AP-PLAUSE', 72. [L. applausus.] A shout of approbation ; 
approi3ation and praise, expressed by clapping the hands, 
acclamation or huzzas ; approbation expresse"d. 

AP-PLAL'SIYE, a. Applauding ; containing applause. 

AP'PLE, 7!. [Sax. appl, appil ; D. appel ; Ger. apfel ; Dan. 
ccble : Sw. aple.] 1. Tlie fruit of the apple-tree, [pyrus 
vialus,] from w'hich cider is made. 2. The apple of the 
eye is th« pupil. — Apple of love, or love apple, the tomato, 
a species of solamun. 

AP'PLE, -c. t. To form like an apple. Marshal. 

AP'PLE-GRAFT, n. A scion of he apple-tree ingrafted. 

APPLE-HAR-YEST,7i. The githering of apples, or the 
time of gathering. 

AP'PLE-JOHX". See John-Apple. 

AP'PLE-PIE, 77. A pie made of apples stewed or baked, 
inclosed in paste. 

AP PLE-8AUCE, 77. A sauce made of stewed apples. 

AP'PLE-TART, 77. A tart made of apples baked on paste. 

AP'PLE-TREE, n. A tree arranged by Linne under the 
genus pyrus. Tlie fruit of this tree is indefinitely various. 
The crab apple is supposed to be the original kind, from 
which all others have sprung. 

AP PLE-WoM-AX , 7i. A woman who sells apples and 
other fruit. 

AP'PLE- Yard, 71. An orchard ; an inclosure for apples. 

fAP-PLl'A-BLE, a. [Sec Apply.] That may be applied. 
This word is superseded bv applicable. 

t AP-PLI'AXCE, n. The act" of applying, or thing applied. 

^YP-PLI-CA-BIL'I-TY, n. The quality of being applicable, 
or fit to be applied. 

AP'PLI-€A-BLE, a. That may be applied ; fit to be appli- 
ed, as related to a thing ; that may have relation to some- 
thing else. 

AP'PLI-CA-BLE-XESS, n. Fitness to be applied ; the qual- 
ity of being applicable. 

AP'PLI-€A-BLY, adv. In such a manner that it may be ap- 

AP'PLI-CAX'^T, 77. One who applies ; one who makes re- 
quest ; a petitioner. 

APPLI-CATE, w. A right line drawn across a curve, so as 
to be bisected by the diameter ; an ordinate. 

t APPLI-CATE, V. I. To applv. Pearson. 

AP PLI-€ATE-OR'DI-xXATE." A right line at right angles 
applied to the axis of any conic section, and bounded by 
the cun-e. Bailey. 

AP-PLI-€a'TIOX, 7i. [L. applicatio.] 1. The act of laying 
on. 2. The thing applied. 3. The act of making request, 
or soliciting. 4. The act of applying as means ; the em- 
ployment of means. 5. The act of fixing the mind ; in- 
ten'seness of thought ; close study ; attention. 6. Tne 
act of directing or referring something to a particular 
case, to discover or illustrate the agreement or disagree- 
ment. — 7. In sermons, that part of the discourse in which 
the principles before laid down and illustrated are appli- 
ed to practical uses. 

AP'PLI-€A-TiYE, a. That applies. Bramhall. 

AP'PLI-€A-TC- RI-LY", adv. In a manner which applies. 

AP'PLI-€A-TO-RY, a. That includes the act of applying 

AP'PLI-CA-TO-RY, 72. That which applies. Taylor. 

See Synopsis. MOVE, BOOK, D6VE ;— BIJLL, UNITE - € as K ; 0^ as J ; S as Z ; CH as SH ; TH as in this, f Obsolete. 



Al* TLT'ED, (ap-pllde') pp. Put on ; put to ; directed ; em- 

f AP-PLI'ED-LY, adv. In a manner which may be applied. 

AP-PLl'ER, n. One that applies. 

f AT-PLl'MKNT, n. A^jplication. Marstun. 

AP-PLY'j V. t. [L. applicu.] 1. To lay on ; to put one thing 
to another. 2. To use or employ for a particular purpose, 
or in a particular case. 3. To put, refer or use, as suita- 
ble or relative to something. 4. To fix the mind ; to be- 
take ■, to engage and employ with attention. 5. To ad- 
dress or direct. Pope. 6. To make application ; to have 
recourse by request. 7. To busy ; to keep at vi^ork 5 to 
ply. lObs.] Sidney. 

AP-PLY', v. i. 1. To suit ; to agree ; to have some connec- 
tion, agreement or analogy. 2. To make request ; to so- 
licit ; to have recourse, with a view to gain something. 

AV-PIjV:'1NG, ppr. Laying on ; making application. 

AP-POINT', V. t. [Fr. appointer.] 1. To fix ; to settle ; to 
establish ; to make fast. 2. To constitute, ordain, or fix 
by decree, order or decision. 3, To allot, assign or desig- 
nate. 4. To purpose or resolve ; to fix the intention. 5. 
To ordain, command or order. 6. To settle ; to fix, name 
or determine by agreement. 

AP-POINT' A-BLE, a. That may be appointed or constitut- 
ed. Madison. 

AP-POINT'ED, pp 1 Fixed ; set ; established ; decreed ; 
ordained ; constituted ; allotted 2. Fui-nished ; equipped 
with things necessary 

AP POIJNT-TEE', n. 1. A person appointed. Wkzaton's Re- 
ports. 2. A foot soldier in the French anny, who, for 
long service and bravery, receives mo'-e pay than other 
privates. Bailey. 

AP-POINT'ER, n One who appoints. 

AP-POINT'ING, ppr. Setting ; fixing ; crdammg ; consti- 
tuting ; assigning. 

AP-POINT'MENT, n. 1. The act of appointing ; designation 
to otfice. 2. Stipulation ; assignation ; the act of fixing 
by mutual agreement. 3. Decree ; established order or 
constitution. 4. Direction ; order ; command. 5. Equip- 
:i ent, furniture, as for a ship, or an army ; whatever is 
appointed for use and management. 6. An allowance to a 
person ; a salary or pension, as to a public officer. 7. A 
devise or grant to a charitable use. 

t AP-PoRT'ER, 71. [Fr. apporter.] A bringer in ; one that 
brings into the country 

AP-PoR'TION, V. t. [L. id and portio.] To divide and as- 
sign in just proportion •, to distribute, among two or more, 
a just part or share to each. 

r AP-PoR'TION-ATE-NESS, n. Just proportion. 

AP-PoR'TIONED, pp. Divided ; set out or assigned in suit- 
able parts or shares. 

AP-PoR'TION-ER, n. One that apportions. 

AP-PoR'TION-ING, ppr. Setting out in just proportions or 

AP-PoR'TION-lVIENT, n. The act of apportioning ; a di- 
vidijig into just proportions or shares. 

AP-PoS£', V t. [Fr. apposer.] 1. To put questions ; to ex- 
amine. Bacon. 2. To apply. Harvey. 

AP-P6S'ER. n. An examine^ j one whose business is to put 

AP'PO-SiTE, a. [L. appositus.'] Suitable ; fit ; very applica- 
ble ; well adapted. 

AP'PO-f?iTE-LY, adv. Suitably ; fitly ; properly. 

APPO-STTE-NESS, ?i. Fitness; propriety; suitableness. 

AP-PO ?i"TION, n. 1. The act of adding to ; addition ; a 
setting to. — 2. In grammar, the placing of two nouns in 
the same case, without a connecting word between them. 

f AP-POS'I-TlVE, a. Applicable. KnatchbuU. 

AP-PRaISE , (ap-praze') v. t. [Fr. apprecier.] To set a 
value ; to estimate the worth, particularly by persons ap- 
pointed for the purpose. See Apprize. 

AP-PRaISE'MENT, ??. The act of setting the value ; a val- 
uation. See Affrizememt. 

AP-PRaIS ER, n. One who values. See Apprizer 

tAP-PRE-€A'TION, n. [L. app^-ecor.] Earnest prayer. 

AP PRE-€A-TO-RY, a. Praying or wishing any good. 

AP-PRe'CIA-BLE, (ap-pre'sha-bl) a. 1. That may be ap- 
preciated ; valuable. 2. That may be estimated ; capable 
of being dulv estimated. 

AP-PRe OIATE, (ap-pre'shate) v. t. [Fr. apprecier.] 1. To 
value ; to set a price or value on ; to estimate. 2. To 
raise the value of. Ravisay. 

AP-PRe CI ate, v. i. To rise in value ; to become of more 

AP-PRe'CTA-TED, pp. Valued; prized ; estimated; ad- 
vanced in value. 

AP-PRe'CIA-TING, ppr. Setting a value on ; estimating ; 
rising in value. 

AP-PRE-CI-A'TIOxV, n. 1. A setting a value on ; a just val- 
uation or estimate of merit, weight, or any moral consid- 
eration. 2. A rising in value ; increase of worth or value. 
■Marshal. ^ 

AP-PRE-HEND', v. t. [L. apprehendo.] 1. To take or 

seize ; to take hold of. 2. To take with the understand- 
ing, that is, to conceive in the mind ; to understand, 
without passing a judgment, or makmg an inference. 3. 
To think ; to believe or be of opinion, but without posi- 
tive certainty. 4. To fear : to entertain suspicion or fear 
of future evil. 

AP-PRE-HEND'ED, pp Taken ; seized ; arrested ; con- 
ceived ; understood , feured. 

AP-PRE-HEND'ER, n. One who takes ; one who conceives 
in his mind ; one who fears. 

AP-PRE-HEND'ING, ppr. Seizing ; taking ; conceiving ; 
understanding ; fearing. 

AP-PRE-HEN'Sl-BLE, a. That may be apprehended or 

AP-PRE-HEN'SION, n. 1. The act of taking or arresting. 

2. The mere contemplation of things, without affirming, 
denying, or passing any judgment ; simple intellection. 

3. An inadequate or imperfect idea. 4. Opinion ; con- 
ception. 5. The faculty by which new ideas are conceiv- 
ed. 6. Fear ; suspicion ; the prospect of future evil, ac- 
companied with uneasiness of mind. 

AP-PRE-HEN'SIVE, a. 1. Quick to understand. 2. Fear 
ful ; in expectation of evil. 3. Suspicious; inclined to 
believe. 4. Sensible ; feeling ; perceptive. Milton. 

AP-PRE-HEN'SIVE-LY, adv. In an apprehensive manner 

AP-PRE-HEN'SIVE-NESS, ?). The quality of being appre- 
hensive ; readiness to understand ; fearfulness. 

AP-PREN'TICE, n. [Fr, apprenti.'] 1. One who is bound 
by covenant to serve a mechanic, or other person, for a 
certain time, with a view to learn his art, mystery, or oc- 
cupation, in which his master is bound to instruct him. — 
2. In old law books, a barrister ; a learner of law. 

AP-PREN'TICE, V. t. To bind to, or put under the care of 
a master, for the purpose of instruction in the knowledge 
of a trade or business. 

t AP-PREN'TICE-HOOD, K Apprenticeship. Shak. 

AP-PREN'TICE-SHIP, n. I. The term for which an ap- 
prentice is bound to serve his master. 2. The service, 
state or condition of an apprentice ; a state in which a 
person is gaining instruction under a master. 

fAP-PREN'TIS-AGE, n. Apprenticeship. Bacon. 

AP-PREST', a. In botany, pressed close ; lying near the 
stem j or applying its upper surface to the stem. 

AP-PRlSE', V. t. [Fr. appris.] To inform ; to give notice, 
verbal or written. 

AP-PRiS'ED, (ap-prizd') pp. Informed ; having notice or 
knowledge communicated. 

AP-PRlS'ING, ppr. Informing ; communicating notice to. 

AP-PRiZE', V. t. [ad, ?^nd price, prize ; D. prys ; Ger. vreis ; 
W. pris ,• Fr. priser, to prize.] To value ;' to set a value 
in pursuance of authority 

AP-PRlZ'ED, (ap-prizd') pp. Valued ; having the worth 
fixed by authorized persons. 

AP-PRlZE'31ENT, n. 1. The act of setting a value under 
some authority or appointment ; a valuation. Blackstone. 
2. The rate at which a thing is valued ; the value fixed, 
or valuation 

AP-PRiZ'ER, n. A person appointed to rate, or set a value 
on articles. 

APPRIZING, ppr. Rating ; setting a value under au- 

AP-PRfZ'ING, 71. The act of valuing under authority. 

AP-PRoACH', V. i. [Fr. approcher.'] 1. To come or go 
near, in place ; to draw near ; to advance nearer. 2. To 
draw near in time. 3. To draw near, in a figurative 
sense ; to advance near to a point aimed at, in science, 
literature, government, morals, &c. ; to approximate. 4. 
To draw near in dutv, as in prayer or worship. 

AP-PRoACH', V. t. 1. "To come near to. 2. To have access 
carnally. Lev. xviii. — 3. In gardening, to ingraft a sprig 
or shoot of one tree into another, without cutting it from 
the parent stock. Evcyc. 

AP-PRoACH', n. 1. The act of drawing near ; a coming or 
advancing near. 2. Access. — 3. In fortifcation, not only 
the advances of an arm«y are called approaches, but the 
works thrown up by the besiegers, to protect them in 
their advances towards a fortress. 

AP-PRoACH'A-BLE, a. That may be approached ; acces- 
sible. _ 

AP-PRoACH'F^R, 7?. One who approaches or draws near. 

AP-PRoACH'MENT, n. The act of coming near. 

AP'PRO-BATE, a. [L. approbatus.] Approved. 

AP'PRO-BATE, V. t. [L. approbo. .Approbate is a modem 
word, but in common use in America. It difl^ers from ap- 
prove, denoting not only the act of the mind, but an ex- 
pression of the act.] To express approbation of; to man- 
ifest a liking, or degree of satisfaction ; to express appro- 
bation officially, as of one's fitness for a public trust 
J. Eliot. 

AP PRO-BA-1'ED, pp. Approved; commended. 

AP PRO-BA-TING, ppr. Expressing approbation of. 

AP-PRO-Ba'TION, n. [1,. approbatio.] I. The act of ap 
proving ; a liking ; that state or disposition of the mind 
in which we assent to the propriety of a thing, with some 

* See Synopsis. A, E, T, o, U, Y, lonff.—FAR, FALL, WHAT ;— PREY ;— PIN, MARINE, BIRD •,— f Obsolete. 

APP 47 

degree of pleasure or satisfaction 2. Attestation ; sup- 
port 5 that is, active approbation, or action, in favor of 
what is approved. 3. The commendation of a book li- 
censed or permitted to be published by authority, as was 
formerly the case in England. 

AP PRO-BA-TlVE, a. Approving ; implying approbation. 

AP'PRO-BA-TO-RY, a. Containing approbation j express- 
ing approbation. Scott. 

\ AP-PROMPT', for Prompt. Bacon. 

f AP-PROOF',?i. Approval. S/ta/i:. 

f AP-PROP'ER-ATE, v. t. [L. appropero.] To hasten. 

fAP-PRO-PIJN'aUATE, u.t. [L. appropinquo.] To draw 

t AP-PRO-PIN-aCJA'TION, 71. A drawing nigh. Hall. 

T AP-PRO-PmaUE', V. i. To approach. Hiidibras. 

AP-PR6'PRI-A-BLE, a. That may be appropriated ; that 
may be set apart, or assigned exclusively to a particular 

AP-PRO'PRI-ATE, t).f. [Yx. approprier.'] 1, To set apart 
for, or assign to a particular use, in exclusion of all other 
uses. 2. To take to one's self in exclusion of others ; to 
claim or use, as by an exclusive riglit. 3. To make pe- 
culiar. 4. To sever an ecclesiastical benefice, and annex 
it to a spiritual corporation, sole or aggregate, being the 
patron of the living. 

AP-PRO'PRI-ATE, a. 3. Belonging peculiarly ; peculiar j 
set apart for a particular use or person. 2. Most suitable, 
fit, or proper. 

t AP-PRO'PRI-ATE, 71. Peculiarity. Bacon. 

AP-PRO'PRJ-A-TED, pp. Assigned to a particular use ; 
claimed or used exclusively ; annexed to an ecclesiastical 

AP-PRO'PRI-ATE-LY, adv. Fitly. 

AP-PRO'PRI-ATE-NESS, 71. Peculiar fitness j the quality 
of being appropriate, or peculiarly suitable. 

AP-PRo'PRI-A-TING, ppr. Assignihg to a particular per- 
son or use ; claiming or using exclusively. 

AP-PRO-PRI-A'TION, 7!. 1. The act of sequestering, or 
assigning to a particular use or person, in exclusion of all 
others •, application to a special use or purpose. — 2. In 
laiD, the severing or sequestering of a benefice to the per- 
petual use of a spiritual corporation, sole or aggregate, 
being the patron of the living. 

AP-PRO'PRI-A-TOR, n. 1. One who appropriates. 2. 
One who is possessed of an appropriated benefice. 

AP-PRO'PRI-E-TA-RY, n. A lay possessor of the profits of 
a benefice. 

AP-PR5V'A-BLE, a. That may be approved ; that merits 

AP-PRoV'AL, 77. Approbation. 

AP-PRoV'ANCE, 77. Approbation Thomson. 

AP-PROVE'. V. t. [Fr. approuver ; L. approto.'] 1. To like ; 
to be pleased with ; to admit the propriety of. 2. To 
prove ; to show to be true ; to justify. 3. To experience ; 
to prove by trial. \J^otused.'] Shak. 4. To make or show 
to be worthy of approbation ; to commend. 5. To like 
and sustain as right ; to commend. 6. To improve. 

AP-PROVED, (ap-proovd') pp. Liked ; commended ; 
shown or proved to be worthy of approbation j having the 
approbation and support of. 

AP-PROVE'MENT, n. 1. Approbation ; liking.— 2. In 
law, when a person indicted for felony or treason, and 
arraigned, confesses the fact before plea pleaded, and ap- 
peals or accuses his accomplices of the same crime, to ob- 
tain his pardon, this confession and accusation are called 
approvement, and the person an approver. Blackstone. 3. 
Improvement of common lands, by inclosing and convert- 
ing them to the uses of husbandry. Blackstone. 
AP-PRoV'ER, n. 1. One who approves. Formerly, one 
who proves or makes trial. — 2. In laio, one who confesses 
a crime, and accuses another. 
AP-PRoV'ING, ppr. Liking ; commending ; giving or ex- 
pressing approbation. 
AP-PRoV'ING, a. Yielding approbation. 
I- AP-PROX'I-MANT, a. Approaching. Dcring. 
r AP-PROX'I-MATE, a. [L. ad and prozimus.] Nearest to ; 

next ; near to. [This icord is superseded by proximate.] 
AP-PROX'I-MATE, v. t. To carry or advance near ; to 

cause to approach. Burke. 
AP-PROX'I-MATE, v. i. To come near- ; to approach. 

AP-PROX-I-MA'TION, n. 1. Approach ; a drawing, mov- 
ing, or advancing near. Hale. — 2. In arithmetic and alge- 
bra, a continual approach or coming nearer and nearer to 
a root or other quantity, without being able, perhaps, ever 
to arrive at it. — 3. In medicine, communication of disease 
by contact. 4. A mode of cure, by transplanting a dis- 
ease into an animal or vegetable by immediate contact. 
AP-PROX'I-MA-TlVE, a. Approaching ; that approaches. 

Bd. Kncifc. 
-^P-PULPE', (ap-puls') n. [L. appulsus.'] 1. The act of 
striking against. — 2. In astronomy, the approach of any 


planet to a conjunction with the sun, or a star. 3. Ar- 
rival ; landing. 

AP-PUL'SION, 71. The act of striking against by a moving 

AP-PUL'SIVE, a. Striking against ; driving towards. 

AP-PUR'TE-NANCE, 7i. [sc written for apperte:ience.] 
[Fr. appartenance, ] That which belongs to something 
else ; an adjunct •, an appendage. .Appropriately, such 
buildings, rights, and improvements, as belong to land, 
are called the appurtenances. 

AP-PUR'TE-NANT, a. 1. Belonging to ; pertaining to of 
right. — 2. In law, common appurtenant is that which is 
annexed to land, and can be claimed only by prescription 
or inmiemorial usage, on a legal presumption of a special 
grant. Blackstone. 

A'PRl-OATE, V. i. [L. apricor.'] To bask in the sun. Ray 
[Little used.'] 

A-PRIC'I-TY, n. Sunshine. [Little used.] 

A PRI-€OT, 77. [old orthography, apricock.] [Fr. abricot.] 
A fruit belonging to the genus prunus, of the plum kind, 
of an oval figure, and delicious taste. 

aTRIL, 71. [L. Aprllis ; Fr Avril.] The fourth month of 
the year 

A'PRIL-FOOL, 7i; He who is imposed upon by others, on 
the first day of April, or April-fool-day, 

A-PRT-O'RI reasoning-, i. e. from causes to effects. 

* a'PRON, 71. [Ir. aprun.] 1. A cloth, or piece of leather, 
worn on the forepart of the body, to keep the clothes 
clean, or defend them from injury. 2. The fat skin cov- 
ering the belly of a goose. — 3. In gunnery, a flat piece ot 
lead, that covers the vent of a cannon. 4. In ships, a 
piece of curved timber, just above the foremost end of the 
keel. 5. A platform, or flooring of plank, at the entrance 
of a dock, on which the dock gates are shut. 6. A piece 
of leather to be drawn before a person in a gig. 

* A'PRONED, a. Wearing an apron. Pope. 

* A'PRON-MAN, n. A man who wears an apron ; a labor- 
ing man ; a mechanic. 

AP'RO-POS, (ap'ro-po) adv. [Fr.] I. Opportunely ; season- 
ably. 2. By the way •, to the purpose : a word used to 
introduce an incidental observation, suited to the occa- 
sion, though not strictly belonging to the narration. 

AP'SIS, 71. ; pZit. Apsides. [Gr. aipis.] In astronomy, the 
apsides are the two points of a planet's orbit, which are at 
the greatest and least distance from the sun or earth ; the 
most distant point is the aphelion, or apogee ; the least 
distant, the perihelion, or perigee. The Ime connecting 
these is called the line of the apsides. 

APT, a. [L. aptus.] 1. Fit ; suitable. 2. Having a ten 
dency ; liable. 3. Inclined ; disposed customarily. 4 
Ready ; quick. 5. Qualified ; fit. 

t APT, V. t. To fit ; to suit or adapt. 

t APT'A-BLE, a. That may be adapted. 

I AP'TATE, V. t. To make fit. Bailey. 

AP'TER, I n. [Gr. a and -nTtpov.] An insect without 

AP'TE-RA, \ wings. 

AP'TE-RAL, a. Destitute of wings. 

APT'I-TUDE, n. 1. A natural or acquired disposition for 
a particular purpose, or tendency to a particular action or 
effect. 2. Fitness; suitableness. 3. Aptness ; readiness 
in learning ; docility. 

APT'LY, adv. In an apt or suitable manner ; with just 
correspondence of parts ; fitly ; properly ; justly ; per- 

APT NES-'S, n, 1. Fitness ; suitableness. 2. Disposition 
of the mind ; propensity. 3. Quickness of apprehension ; 
readiness in learning ; docility. 4. Tendency, in things. 

AP'TOTE, 71. [Gr. a and Trrwo-tj.] In grammar, a noun 
which has no variation of termination ; an indeclinable 

AP' Y-REX-Y, n. [Gr. a and Ttvptcaut.] The absence or in- 
termission of fever. 

AP'Y-ROUS, a. [Gr. airvpoi.] Incombustible, or that sus- 
tains a strong heat without alteration of form or proper- 

a'QUA, 71. [L. aqua ; Sp. agua.] Water ; a word much 
used in pharmacy, and the old cheinistry 

A-QUA FOR'TIS, in the old chemistry, is now called nitric 

A-QUA MA-RI'NA. A name which jewelers give to the 
beryl, on account of its color. 

A-QUA MI-RAB'I-LIS, A medical water. 

A-QUA Re'GI-A, in the old chemistry, is now called nitro 
muriatic acid. 

A-QUA VI'TiE. Brandy, or spirit of wine. 

A-QUa'RI-AN, n. One of a sect of Christians, in the primi 
tive church, who consecrated water in the eucliarist, in 
stead of wine. 

A-QUa'RI-US, 77. [L.] The water bearer ,• a sign in the 
zodiac, which the sun enters about the 21st of January. 

A-QUAT'IC, a. [Y,. aquatic as.] Pertaining to water ; ap-' 
plied to animals which live in water, as fislies. Aquatical 
is rarely used. 

* See Synopsis. MOVE, BOOK, DOVE j— Bl^LL, UNITE ;— € as K ; G as J ; S as Z ; CH as SH ; TH as in this, f Obsolete 




A-CIUAT'I€. 71. A plant which grows in water, as the flag. 

Aa'UA-TILE, a. Thai iuliabits the water. Brown. [Rarely 

Aa-UA-TINT'A, n. [L. aqua, and It. tinta.] A method of 
etcliing on copper, by which a beautiful effect is produced, 
resembling a fine drawing in water colors or Indian 

AQ,'UE-DU€T, n. [L. aqua and ductus.] A structure made 
for cc nveying water from one place to another, over un- 
even ground, either above or under the suiface 

t A-Q.Uk'1-TY, 71. VValeriness. Jonsun. 

A'Q,UE-('US, a. Watery; partakingof the nature of v/ater, 

_ or abounding with il. 

a'Q,UE-OUS-NESS, n. The quality of being watery ; wa- 
terishness ; vvateriness. 

AQ,'UI-LA, 71. [L.] In ornithology, the eagle. Also, a 
northern crnstellation. 

AGllJl-LiNE, a. [L. aquilinus.] 1. Belonging to the eagle. 
2. Curving 5 hooked ; prominent, like tlie beak of an 

Aa'UI-LON, 71. [L. aquilo.] The north wind. 

Aa-UI-TA'NI-AN, a. Pertaining to Aquitania, one of the 
great divisions of Gaul. 

tA-QUoy£', a. [li.aqua.] Watery. Diet. 

t A-aUOS'1-TY, n. Wateriness. Diet. 

A. R. stand for aimo regni^xhe year of the king's reign ; as, 
A. R. G. R. 20, in the 20th year of the reign of King 

AR'A-BESaUE, )a. 1. In the manner of the Arabians ; 

A-R-A-BESK'Y, \ applied to ornaments consisting of 
imaginary foliage, stalks, plants, &c., in which there are 
no figures of animals. 2. The Arabic language. [JVot in 

A-Ra'BI-AN, a. Pertaining to Arabia. 

A-Ra'BI-AN, n. A native of Arabia •, an Arab. 

AR'A-BI€, a. Belonging to Arabia, or the language of its 

AR'A-El€, 71. The language of the Arabians. 

A-RAB'I-€AL-LY, adv. In the Arabian manner. 

AR'A-BISM, n. An Arabic idiom or peculiarity of language. 

AR'A-BIST, n. One well versed in Arabic literature. 

AR'A-BLE, a. [L. are.'] Fit for plowing or tillage 5 hence, 
often applied to land which has been plowe-.l. 

AR'A-PY, 71. Arabia. Milton. 

A-RAtJH'NOID, a. [Gr. apao^i'T? and £(5oj.] In anatomy, 
the arachnoid tunic, or arachnoid, is a semitransparent, 
thin membrane, which is spread over the brain and pia 

A-RA€H'NOrD, n. A species of madrepore, found fossil. 

AR-A-eH<^^>SIAN, a. Designating a chain of mountains 
which divide Persia from India. 

AR-AI-GNEB,or AR-RAlGi\', (ar-rane')7?.. [Fr.] In for- 
tification, the branch, return, or gallery of a mine. 

t A-Ra1*E', i5.t. To raise. Shak. 

AR-A-Mk'AiV, a. Pertaining to Aram, a son of Shem, or to 
the Chaldeans. 

AR'A-JMISM, n. An idiom of the Aramean, or Chaldee lan- 
guage •, a Chaldaism. 

A-Ra'NE-OUS, a. [L. aranea.] Resembling a cobweb. 

t A-Ra'TION, 71. [L. aratio.] Plowing. 

* ARA-TO-RY, a. That contributes to tillage. 

AR-AU-Ca'NI-AN, a. Pertaining to the Araucanians. Mo- 

aR'BA-LIST, n. [L. arcus and balista.] A cross-bow. 

AR'BA-LItfT-ER, n. A cross-bowman. 

AR BI-TER, 7!. [L.] 1. A person appointed, or chosen by 
parties in controversy, to decide their differences. 2. A 
person who has the power of judging and determining, 
without control. 3. One that commands the destiny, or 
hol(J_s the empire, of a nation or state. 

t AR'B1-TER,7J. t. To judge. Iluloet. 

AR'BI-TRA-BLE, a. Arbitrary ; depending on the will. 

AR-BIT'RA-MENT, 71. 1. Will ; determination. 2. The 
award of arbitrators. Cowel. 

AR'BI-TRA-RI-LY, atfu. By will only ; despotically ; ab- 
solutely. « 

AR BI-TRA-RI-NESS, n. The quaL^y of being arbitrary ; 
despoticalness ; tyranny. 

tAR-BI-TRA'RI-OUS, a. Arbitrarv ; despotic. 

r AR-BI-TRa'RI-OUS-LY, adv. Arbitrarily. 

AR'BT-TRA-RY, a. [L. arbitrarins.] 1. Depending on will 
or discretion ; not governed by any fixed rules. 2. Des- 
potic ; absolute in power ; having no external control. 

AR'BI-TRATE, v. i. [L. arbitror.] To hear and decide as 

ARBITRATE, v. t. To decide ; to determine ; to judge of. 
Milton . 

AR-BI-TRa'TION, 71. 1. The hearing and determination 
of a cause between parties in controversy, by a pei^son or 
persons ohrsen by the parties. 2. A hearing before arbi- 
trators, though they make no award. [This is a common 
use of the word in the United States.] 

AR'BI-TRA-TOR, n. 1. A person chosen by a party, or bv 
the parties who have a controversy, to determine their 
differences. 2. An arbiter, governor, or president. 3 
An arbiter ; one who has the power of deciding or pre 
scribing without control. Addison. 

AR-BI-TRA'TRIX, 71. A female judge. Sherwood 

AR-BIT'RE-MENT, n. Decision ; compromise. 

AR'BI-TRESS, n. A female arbiter. 

ARBOR, 71. 1. A frame of lattice-work, covered with 
vines, branches of trees, or other plants, for shade ; a 
bower. — 2. In botany, a tree, as distinguished from a 
shrub. — 3. In mechanics, the principal part of a machine, 
sustaining the rest. 

AR'BO-RA-RY, a. Belonging to a tree. Diet. 

AR'BO-RA-TOR, 71. One who plants or who prunes trees. 

AR-Bo'RE-OUS, a [L. arboreus.] Belonging to a tree ; re- 
sembling a tree ; constituting a tree ; growing on trees. 

AR-BO-RES CENCE, n. [L. arboresco.] The figure of a 
tree ; the resemblance of a tree in minerals, or crystaliza- 
tions, or groups of crystals in that form. 

AR-BO-RES€Ei\'T, a. 1. Resembling a tree ; having the 
figure of a tree ; dendritical. 2. From herbaceous becom- 
ing woody. 

AR-BO-RES CENT STAR-FISPI. A species of asterias, 
called also caput Medusa. 

AR'BO-RET, 77. [It. arboreto.] A small tree or shrub ; a 
place planted or overgrown with trees. 

t AR-BOR'I-€AL, a. Relating to trees. Hoicel. 

AR'BO-RIST, n. One who makes trees his study, or who is 
versed in the knowledge of trees. 

AR-BOR-I-Za'TION, n. The appearance or figure of a tree 
or plant in minerals or fossils. 

AR'BOR-iZE, V. t. To form the appearance of a tree or 
plant in minerals. 

AR'BOR-VINE, n. A species of bind-weed. 

AR'BUS-CLE, 77. [L. arbusculus.] A dwarf tree, in size 
between a shrub and a tree. 

AR-BUS'€ll-EAR, a. Resembling a shrub ; having the fig- 
ure of small trees. 

AR-BUST'IVE, a. Containing copses of trees or shrubs; 
covered v/ith shrubs. Bartram. 

AR-BUST'UM, 71. A copse of shrubs or trees ; an orchard. 

AR'BUTE, 77. [L. arbutus.] The strawberry-tree. 

AR-Bu'TE-AN, a. Pertaining to the strawberry-tree. 

AR€, 71. [L. arcus.] In geometry, any part of the circum- 
ference of a circle, or ciu-ved line, lying fiom one point to 
another ; a segment, or pait of a circle, not more than a 

AR-€aDE', n. [Fr.] A long or continued arch ; a walk 
arched above. Johnson. 

AR-€a'DI-AN, ) a. Pertaining to Arcadia, a district in Pel 

AR-€a'DI€, \ oponnesus. 

AR-€a'DICS, 77. The title of a book in Pausanias, which 
treats of Arcadia. 

AR-Ca'DY, 71. The country of Arcadia. Milton. 

AR-CaNE', a. [L. arcanus.] Hidden ; secret. [L. u.] 

AR-CaWUM, 71. [L.] A secret ; generally used in the plu- 
ral, arcana, secret things, mysteries. 

AR€-BOU'TANT, n. [Fr.] In building, an arched but- 

ARCH, 77. [See Arc] 1. A segment, or part of a circle. 
A concave or hollow structure of stone or brick, supported 
by its own curve. 2. The space between two piers of a 
bridge, when arched ; or any place covered with an arch. 
3. Any curvature, in form of an arch. 4. The vault of 
heaven, or sky. — Triumphal arches are magnificent stmc- 
tures at the entrance of cities, erected to adorn a triumph, 
and perpetuate the memory of the event. 

ARCH, V. t. To cover with an arch ; to form with a curve. 

ARCH, V. i. To make an arch or arches. Pope. 

ARCH, a. [It. arcare.] Cunning ; sly ; shrewd ; waggish ; 
mischievous for sport ; mirthful. 

ARCH, a. [used also in composition.] [Gr ap;^off.] Chief, 
of the first class; principal. Shakspeare uses this word 
as a noun ; " My worthy arch and patrons ;" but the use 
is not authorized. 

AR'€HA-ISM, 77. [Gr. a^^x^aioq.] An ancient or obsolete 
phrase or expression. 

t AR-€Ha'I€, a. Old fashioned ; ancient. 

ARCH-aN'GEL, n. 1. An angel of the highest order ; an 
angel occupying the eighth rank in the celestial hierarchy 
2. The name of several plants, as the dead-nettle, or la 

AR€H-AN-6EL'I€, a. Belonging to archangels. 

ARCH-A-POS'TATE, 71. A chief apostate. 

ARCH-A-POS'TLE, 71. The chief apostle. 

ARCH-AR€H'I-TE€T, n. The Supreme Architect. 

ARCH-BeA'CON, 77. The chief beacon, place of prospect, 
or signal. 

ARCH-BISH'OP, n. A chief bishop ; a church dignitary of 
the first class ; a metropolitan bishop, who superintends 
the conduct of the suffragan bishops, in his province, and 
also exercises episcopal authority in his own diocese. 

* See Synopsis. A, E, I, O, tJ, Y, long.— FKR, FALL, WHAT •,— PRgY ;— PIN, MARINE, BiRD ;— t Obsolete 




\.RCH-BISH'OP-RT€, n. The jurisdiction, place, or prov- 
ince of an archbishop. 

ARGH-BOTCH'ER, n. The chief botcher, or mender, ircni- 
cally. Corbet. 

ARCH-BUILD ER, ) „ p,. , ^. u„:iriov Ur,^^.^ 

ARCH-BILD'ER, i "" ^^^^^ ''"^^^^^- Harrrmr. 
4.RCH-BUT'LER, n. A cliief butler ; an officer of the Ger- 
man empire, who presented the cup to the emperor, on 
solemn occasions. 

ARCH-CHAM'BER-LAIN, n. A chief chamberlain; an 
officer of the German empire. 

ARCH-CHAN CEL-LOR, n. A chief chancellor ; an officer 
in the German empire. 

ARCH-CHANT'ER, n. The chief chanter, or president of 
*he chanters of a church. 

ARCH-€HEM'ie, a. Of supreme chemical powers. 

ARCH-€ON-SPIIl'A-TOR, n. Principal conspirator. 

ARCH-€OUNT', n. A cliief count ; a title formerly given 
to the earl of Flanders. 

ARCH-€R1T'[€, w. A chief critic. 

ARCH-DAP'1-FER, n. An officer in the German em- 

ARCH-DeA'€ON, (arch-de'kn) n. [See Deacon.] In Eng- 
land, an ecclesiastical dignitary, next in rank below a 
bishop, who has jurisdiction either over a part or over the 
whole diocese. 

ARCH-DeA'CON-RY, n. The office, jurisdiction, or resi- 
dence of an archdeacon. 

ARCH-DeA'_€ON-SHIP, n. The office of an archdeacon. 

ARCH-DI-ViNE', n. A principal theologian, 

ARCH-DRu'ID, n. A chief druid, or pontiff of the ancient 
AmiAs. Henry. 

ARCH-DU'€AL, a. Pertaining to an archduke. 

ARCH-DUCH'ESS, n. A title given to the females of the 
house of Austria. 

ARCH-DUCH'Y, n. The territory of an archduke or arch- 
duchess. Ash. 

ARCH-DuKE', n. A title given to princes of the house of 

ARCH-DuKE'DOM, 71. The territory or jurisdiction of an 
archduke or archduchess. 

ARCH'ED, pp. Made with an arch or curve ; covered with 
an arch. 

ARCH-EN'E-MY, 71. A principal enemy. Milton. 

AR-€HE-0-L0G'I-€AL, a. Pertaining to a treatise on an- 
tiquity, or to the knowledge of ancient things. 

AR-€HE-0L'0-GY, n. [Gr. a^X'^'-°^ ^^^ Xoyo?.] A dis- 
course on anti>iuity ; learning or knowledge which re- 
spects ancient times. Panopiist. 

ARCH'ER, n. [Sp. archero ; It. arcidro ; Fr. archer.] A 
bowman ; one who uses a bow in battle ; one who is 
skilled in the use of the bow and arrow. 

ARCH'E-RB^S, n. A female archer. Markham. 

ARCH'E-RY, n. The use of the bow and arrow ; the prac- 
tice, art, or skill of archers ; the act of shooting with a 
bow and arrow. 

ARCH'ES-€oURT, in England, so called from the church 
of St. Mary le bow, (de arcubus,) whose top is raised of 
stone pillars built archwise, where it was anciently held, 
is a court of appeal, in the ecclesiastical polity, belonging 
to the archbishop of Canterbury. 

AR'€HE-Ty-PAL, a. Original ; constituting a model or 

AR'CHE-TyPE, n. [Gr. apx^rvnov.] 1. The original pat- 
tern or model of a work ; or the model from which a 
thing is made. — 2. Among minters, the standard weight, 
by which others are adjusted. — 3. Among Platonidts, the 
archetypal world is the world as it existed in the idea of 
God before the creation. 

AR-€He'US, 71. [Gr. ap;^?/, beginning, or ap^oi, a chief; 
W. erchi.] A term used by the ancient chemists, to de- 
note the internal efficient cause of all things. 

ARCH-FEL'ON, 71. A chief felon. Milton. 

ARCH-FIeND', (arch-feend') n. A chief fiend or foe. 

ARCH-FLAM EN, n. A chief flamen or priest. 

ARCH-FLAT TER-ER, n. A chief ilatterer. 

ARCH-FoE', n. A grand or chief enemy. 

ARCH-FOUND'ER, 71. A chief founder. Milton. 

ARCH-GoV'ERN-OR, 71. The chief governor. 

ARCH-HER'E-SY, n. The greatest heresy. Butler. 

ARCH-HER'E-TI€, 71. A chief heretic. Shak. 

ARCH-Hi'E-REY, 71. [Gr. ap;^oj and tspoj.] A chief priest 

in Russia. Tooke. 
ARCH-HYP'0-€RITE, 71. A great or chief hypocrite. 
AR€H'I-A-TER, n. [Gr. apxos and larpos.] Chief physi- 
cian ; a word used in Russia. Tooke. 
AR€H'I-€AL, a. Chief: primary. Hallywell. 
AR-€HI-DI-A€'0-NAL,' a. [See Deacon.] Pertaining to 

an archdeacon. 
AR-CHI-E-PIS'€0-PAL, a. Belonging to an archbishop. 
ARCH'lL, n. A lichen which grows on rocks. 
AR-€HI-Lo'€HI-AN, a. Pertaining to Archilochus, the 
poet, who invented a verse of seven feet. 

AR€H'I-MA-Grs, re. The high priest of the Persian ma<ri, 
or worshippers of fire. ° 

AR-€HI-MAND'RITE, re. In church history, a chief of the 
mandi-ites or monks, answering to abbot in Europe. 

ARCHING, ppr. Forming an arch ; covering with an arch 

ARCH ir,'G, a. Cui'ving like an arch. 

ARt H-I-PEL'A-GO, re. [Authors are not agreed as to the 
origin of this word. Some suppose it to be composed of 
apxos, cliief, and ireXayos, sea; others, of Aiyaios and 
neXayos, the Egean sea.] In a general sense, a sea inter- 
spersed with many isles ; but particularly, the sea v/hich 
separates Europe from Asia, otherwise called the Egean 

AR'€HI-TEeT, n. [Gr. apx,oi and reKTwv.] 1. A person 
skilled in the art of building ; one who understands ar- 
chitecture, or makes it his occupation to form plans and 
designs of buildings, and superintend the artificers em 
ployed. 2. A contriver ; a former or maker. 

AR-eni-TECT'IVE, a. Used in building; proper foi 

AR-€HI-TE€T-ON'ie, a. That has power or skill to build 

t AR-€HI-TE€T-ON'I-€AL, a. Having skill in architect 

AR-€HI-TE€T-ON'I€S, n. The science of architecture 

AR-€HI-TE€T'RESS, n. A female architect. 

AR-€HI-TE€T'U-RAL, a. Pertaining to the art of build- 
ing ; that is according to the rules of architecture. 

AR'€HI-TE€T-URE, n. [L. architectura.] 1. The art of 
building ; but in a more limited and appropriate sense, the 
art of constructing houses, bridges, and other buildings, 
for the purposes of civil life. 2. Frame or structure. — 
Military architecture is the art of fortification. — JYaval 
architecture is the art of building ships. 

AR'€HI-TRAVE, n. [Gr. apxos, and It. trave.] In archi- 
tecture, the lower division o'f an entablatmre, or that part 
which rests immediately on the column. In chimneys, 
the architrave is called the mantle-piece ; and over doors 
and windows, the hyperthyrion. 

AR'CIII-VAL, a. Pertaining to archives or records ; con- 
tained in records. Tooke. 

AR'€HI- VAULT, n. In building, the inner contour of an 
arch, or a band adorned with moldings, running over 
the faces of the arch-stones, and bearing upon the im- 

AR'€HlVES, n.plu. [Gr. apx^i-ov; Low L. archivum; Fr. 
archives.] The apartment in which records are kept ; al- 
so, the records and papers which are preserved, as evl- 

AR'€HI-VIST, 71. [Fr. and It.] The keeper of archives or 

ARCH'LIKE, a. Built like an arch. Young. 
ARCH'LUTE, or ARCH'I-LUTE, n. [It. arcileuto.] A 

large lute, a theorbo, the base strings of which are 

doubled with an octave, and the higher strings with a 

ARCH'LY, adv. Shrewdly ; wittily ; jestingly. 
ARCH-MAGI"CIAN, n. The chief magician. 
ARCH-MAR'S.HAL, n. The grand marshal of the German 

ARCH-MOCK', n. Principal mockery or jest. Shak. 
ARCH'NESS, n. Cunning ; shrewdness ; waggishness. 
AR'€HON, n. [Gr. ft/t^-wv.] The archons in Greece were 

chief magistrates, chosen to superintend civil ard reli- 
gious concerns. Thev were nine in number. Encyc. 
AR'€HON-SHlP, n. The office of an archon ; or the term 

of his office. Mitford. 
AR-€HON'TI€S, n. In church history, a branch of the 

Valentinians, who held that the world was not created 

by God, but by angels, archontes. 
ARCH-PAS'TOR, n. Chief pastor, the Shepherd and Bishop 

of our souls. Barrow. 
ARCH-PHI-LOS'0-PHER, n. A chief philosopher. 
ARCH-PIL'LAR, n. The main pillar. Harmar. 
ARCH-Po'ET, 71. The principal poet. 
ARCH-POL-I-Tl"CIAN, n. An eminent or distinguished 

politician. Bacon. 
ARCH-PONTIFF, n. A supreme pontiflfor priest. Burke. 
* ARCH-PRe'LATF-, 71. [SeePnELATE.] The chief prelate. 
ARCH-PRES'BY-TER, 7(. A chief presbyter or priest. 
ARCH-PRES'BY-TER-Y, n. The absolute dominion ol 

presbytery, or the chief presbytery. 
ARCH-PR IeST', 71. A chief priest. Encyc 
ARCH-PRi'MATE, 7i. The chief primate ; an archbishop. 
ARCH-PROPH'ET, n. Chief prophet. Warto7i. 
ARCH-PROT'ES-TANT, n. A principal or distinguished 

ARCH-PUB'LI-€AN, n. The distinguished publican. 
ARCH-REB'EL, w. The chief rebel. Milton. 
ARCH-TRaI'TOR, n. A principal traitor. 
ARCH-TREAS'UR-ER, (arch-trszh'-ur-er) n. The great 

treasurer of the German empire. 
ARCH-TREAS'UR-ER-SHIP, n. The office of archtreasur- 

er. Collins^ Peerage. 

* See Synopsis. 



-BULL, UNITE— € as K • ft as J $ as Z CH as SH • TH as in tfiis. f ObsoUU 




ARCH-T"?'RANT, n. A principal or great tyrant. Hall. 

ARCH-VIL'LAIN, n. A chief or great villain. 

ARCH-VIL'LA-NY, ?i. Great villany. 

t ARCH-VVntFE', n. A wife in the higher rank of society. 

ARCH' WISE, adv. In the form of an arch. 

t ARCH'Y, a. In the form of an arch. Partheneia Sacra. 

t AR-CIT'£-NENT, a. [L. arcitenens.] Bow-bearing. Diet. 

AR€-Ta'TION, or AR€'TI-TUDE, n. [L. arctus.] Preter- 
natural straightness ; constipation from inflammation. 

AR€'TI€, a. [Gr. apKrog.] Northern ; pertaining to the 
northern constellation called the Bear ; as, the arctic pole. 
— The arctic circle is a lesser circle, parallel to the equa- 
tor, as'* 28' from the north pole. This and the antarctic 
circle are called the polar circles, and v /itliin these lie the 
frigid zones. 

A.R€-TU'RUS, n. [Gr. apKrog and ovpa.] A fixed star of 
the first magnitude, in the constellation of Bootes. 

AR'€U-ATE, a. [L. arcuatus.] Bent or. curved in the form 
of a bow. 

t AR'€U-A-TILE, a. Bent. Diet. 

AR-€U-A'TION, 71. 1. The act of bending ; incurvation ; 
the state of being bent ; curvity ; ci ookedness 5 gi-eat 
convexity of the thorax, 2. A method of raising trees by 
layers ; that is, by bending branches ti > the ground, and 
covet. ng the small shoots with earth. 

AR'€U-BA-LIST, n. [L. arcus and balista.] A cross- 

AR-€CT-BA-LIS'TER, n. A cross-bowman 5 one who used 
the arbalist. 

ARD, Jhe termination of many English words, is the Ger. 
art, species, kind ; Sw. and Dan. art, mode, nature, 
genius, form. We observe it in Ooddard, a divine tem- 
per ; Giffard, a disposition to gine, liberality ; Bernard, 
filial affection ; standard, drunkard, dotard, <fec. 

AR'DEN-CY, n. [L. ardens.] Warmth of passion or affec- 
tion ; ardor ; eagerness. 

AR'DENT, a. 1. Hot ; burning ; that causes a sensation 
of burning. 2. Having the appearance or quality of fire ; 
fierce. 3. Warm, applied to the passions and affections ; 
passionate ; affectionate ; much engaged ; zealous. 

AR'DENT- LY, adv. With warmth : affectionately ; pas- 

AR DENT-NESS, n. Ardency. 

AR'DERS, n. Fallowings or plowings of grounds. Grose. 

AR'DOR, n. [L.] 1, Heat, in a literal sense. 2. Warmth, 
or heat, applied to the passions and affections ; eager- 

t AR-DU'I-TY, n. Height, difficulty. Diet. 

AR'DU-OUS, a. [L. arduus.] 1. High, lofty, in a literal 
sense 2. Difficult ; attended with great labor, like the 
ascending of acclivities ; as, an arduous employment, 
task, or enterprise. 

AR'DU-OUS-LY, adv. In an arduous manner ; with labo- 

AR'DU-OUS-NESS, w. Height; difficulty of execution. 

ARE. (3r) The plural of the substantive verb to be. 

ARE, n [L. area.] In French measure, the new square 
perch, containing a hundred square metres. 

A-RE, (Jr AL-A-MIRE'. The lowest note, except one, in 
Guido's scale of music. 

A RE-A, n. [L.] 1. Any plain surface, as the floor of a 
room, of a church or other building, or of the ground. 2. 
The space or site on which a building stands ; or of any 
inclosure. — 3. In o-eo77iefr!/, the superficial contents of any 
figure ^ the surface included within any given lines ; as, 
the area of a square or a triangle. — 4. Among physicians, 
baldness •, an empty space 5 a bald space produced by 
alopecy ; also a name of the disease. — 5. In mining, a 
compass of ore allotted to diggers. 

t A-ReAD', or t A-REED', v. t. [Sax. aredan.] To coun- 
sel ; to advise. Spenser. 

A'RE-AL, a. Pertaining to an area. Barton. 

A-REEK , adv. Ir, a reeking condition. Swift. 

AR-E-FA€'TION n. 'lu.arefacio.] The act of drying ; the 
state of growing dry' Bacon. 

AR'E-FY, v. t. To dry or make dry Bacon. 

A-RE'NA, n. [L. sand.] 1. An open space of ground, 
strewed with sand, on which the gladiators, in ancient 
Rome, exhibited shows of fighting for the amusement of 
spectators. Hence, a place for public exhibjlion.— 2. 
Among physicians, sand or gravel in the kidneys. 

AR-E-Na'CEOUS, a. I. Sandy j having the properties of 
sand. _2. Brittle. 

AR-E-Na'TION, n. Among physicians, a sand bath ; a 
sprinkling f'l hot sand upon a diseased person. 

A-REN'DA-LITE, n. In mineralogy, another name of epi- 
dote, or pistacite. 

AR-EN-Da tor, n. [Russ. arenda.] In Livonia, and other 
provinces of Russia, a farmer of the farms or rents. 

A-REN-I-LIT'I€, a. [L. arena, and Gr. Xidog.] Pertaining 
to sand-stone ; consisting of sand-stone. 

ARiE-NOui' H' Sa^'^yj full of sand. Johnson. 

t A-REN'U-LOUS, a. Full of small sand. 

AR'E-OLE, or AR-E-o'LA, n. [L.] The colored circla 
round the nipple, or round a pustule. 

AR-E-OM'E-TER, n. [Gr. apaiog and nerpeo).] An instru- 
ment for measuring the specific gravity of liquids. 

AR-E-0-MET'RI-€AL, a. Pertaining to an areometer. 

AR-E-OM'E-TRY, n. The measuring or act of measuring 
the specific gravity of fluids. 

AR-E-OP-A-61T'I€, a. Pertaining to the Areopagus. Mit- 

AR-E-0P'A-6ITE, (ar-e-op'-a-jite, Walker.) n. A mem- 
ber of the Areopagus. 

AR-E-OP'A-GUS, n. [Gr. AprjS and nayog.'] A sovereign 
tribunal at Athens, famous for the justice and impartiality 
of its decisions. 

AR-E-OT'I€, a [Gr. apaiog.] Attenuating ; making thin, 
as in liquids ; rarefying. 

yVR-E-OT'I€, 71. A medicine which attenuates the humors, 
dissolves viscidity, opens the pores, and increases perspi- 
ration ; an attenuant. Coze. 

AR-E-TOL'0-GY, n. [Gr. aperr] and \oyos.] That part of 
moral philosophy which treats of virtue. [Little used.] 

AR'GAL, n. Unrefined or crude tartar, a substance adher- 
ing to the sides of wine casks. 

AR-Ge'AN, a. Pertaining to Argo or the Ark. 

AR'GENT, 71. [L. argentum.] I. The white color in coats 
of arms, intended to represent silver, or purity, inno- 
cence, beauty, or gentleness. — 2. a. Silvery ; of a pale 
white, like silver. Johnson. 3. a. Bright. Pope. 

AR-<jENT'AL, a. Pertaining to silver ; consisting of sil- 
ver ; containing silver. Cleaveland. 

AR'GEN-TATE, 71. A combination of the argentic acid 
with another substance. 

AR-GEN-Ta'TION, n. An overlaying with silver. 

AR'GENT-HORNED, a. Silver-horned. 

AR-GENT'I€, a. Pertaining to silver. 

AR-GEN-TIF ER-OUS, a. [L. argentum.] Producing sil- 
ver. Kir wan. 

AR-GEN-Ti'NA, ) n. In ichthyology, a genus of fishes of 

AR'GEN-TINE, \ the order of abdominals.— j3ro-fi7i«ma is 
also a name of the wild tansy, silver-weed. Coxe. 

AR'GEN-TlNE, a. Like silver ; pertaining to silver, or 
sounding like it. Johnson. 

AR'GEN-TiNE, n. In mineralogy, a sub-species of carbon- 
ate of lime, nearly pure. 

t AR'6ENT-RY, 71. Materials of s'>lver. Howel. 

AE'GIL, n. A species of the ardea, or genus of cranes. 

AR'GIL, n. [L. argilla.] In a general serise, clay, or pot- 
ter's earth ; but in a technical sense, pure clay, or alu- 

AR-gIL-La'CEOUS, a. [L. argillaceus.] Partaking of the 
nature of clay ; clayey ; consisting of argil. 

AR-GIL-LIF'ER-OUS, a. [L. argilla and fero.] Producing 

AR'GIL-LITE, 71. Argillaceous shist or slate ; clay-slate 

AR-GIL-LIT'I€, a. Pertaining to argillite. 

AR-GIL-LO-eAL'ClTE, n. [L. argilla and calx.] A spe- 
cies of calcarious earth, with a large proportion of clay. 

AR-GIL-LO-MU'RITE, n. [L. argilla.] A species of earth, 
consisting of magnesia, mixed with silex, alumine, and 
lime ; a variety of magnesite. 

AR-GIL'LOUS, a. Consisting of clay ; clayey ; partaking 
of clay ; belonging to clay Brown. 

AR'GIVE, a. Designating what belongs to Argos, the 
capital of Argolis in Greece, whose inhabitants were 
called Argivi. 

AR'GO, 71. The name of the ship which carried Jason and 
his fifty-four companions to Colchis. 

AR'GO-Na'VIS, the ship Jirgo, is a constellation in the 
southern hemisphere. 

AR-Go'AN, a. Pertaining to the ship Argo. Faber. 

AE-GOL'I€, a. Belonging to Argolis. 

AR-G0L'I€S, 7i. The title of a chapter in Pausanias, which 
treats of Argolis. 

AR'GO-NAUT, n. [Gr. Apyw and vavrr)^.] One of the per- 
sons who sailed to Colchis with Jason, in the Argo, in 
quest of the golden fleece. 

AR-GO-NAUT'A, n. A genus of shell-fish, of the order of 
vermes testacea. 

AR-GO-NATJT'I€, a. Pertaining to the Argonauts. 

AR-GO-NAUT'I€S, n. A poem on the subject of the expe- 
dition of the Argonauts. 

ARGO-SY, 71. [Sp. Argos, Jason's ship.] A large mer- 
chantman; a carrac. Shak.' 

AR'GUE, V. i. [L. arguo.] 1. To reason ; to invent and 
offer reasons to support or overthrow a proposition, opin- 
ion or measure. 2. To dispute ; to reason with ; follow- 
ed by with. 

AR'GUE, V. t. 1. To debate or discuss ; to treat by reason- 
ing. 2. To prove or evince ; to manifest by inference or 

* See Synopsis, a, K, T, O, V, ■? lo'.g.—FAR, FALL, WH^IlT ,— PREY ;— PIN, MARINE, BIRD ;— f Obsolete. 


deduction, or to show reasons for. 3. To persuade by 
reasons. 4. Formerly, to accuse, or charge with ; a Latin 
sense, now obsolete. Dryden. 
APJGUED,pp. Debated; discussed; evinced; accused. 
AR'GU-EB,, 71. One who argues ; a reasoner ; a disputer ; 

a controvertist. 
'AR'GU-ING, ppr. Inventing and offering reasons; disput- 
ing ; discussing ; evincing ; accusing. 

AR'UU-ING, n. Reasoning ; argumentation. 

AE'GQ-MENT, n. [L. argumentum.] 1. A reason offered 
for or against a proposition, opinion, or measure ; a reason 
offered in proof, to induce belief, or convince the mind. 
-2. In logic, an inference drawn from premises, wliich 
are indisputable, or at least of probable truth. 3. The 
subject of a discourse or writing. Milton. 4, An abstract 
or summary of a book, or the heads of the subjects. 5. A 
debate or discussion ; a series of reasoning. — 6. In astron- 
omy, an arch by which we seek another unknown arch, 
proportional to the first. 

t aR'GU-jMENT, v. i. To reason ; to discourse. Oower. 

AR-GLT-MENT'A-BLE, a. That may be argued. Dr. Chal- 

AR-GU-MENT'AL, a. Belonging to argument ; consisting 
in argument. Pope. 

AR-GU-MENT-A'TION, n. Reasoning ; the act of reason- 
ing ; the act of inventing or forming reasons, making in- 
ductions, drawing conclusions, and applying them to the 
case in discussion. 

AR-GU-MENT'A-TlVE, a. 1. Consisting of argument ; 
containing a process of reasoning. 2. Showing reasons 

AR-GU-MENT'A-TiVE-LY, adv. In an argumentative 
manner. Taylor. 

tAR'GLT-MENT-lZE, ^.i. To debate. 

t AR'GU-ME.NT-I-ZER, n. One who debates or reasons. 

AR'GUS, n. A fabulous being of antiquity, said to have had 
a hundred eyes, placed by Juno to guard lo. 

AR'GUS-SHELL, n. A species of porcelain-shell, beautiful- 
ly variegated with spots. 

t AR-GCJ-Ta'TION, H. [L. argutatio.] Debate ; cavil; dis- 

AR-GuTE', a. [1,. argutv^.] Sharp; shrill; witty. [Little 

AR-GuTE'NESS, n. Acuteness ; wittiness. [Little used.] 

a'R[-A, n. [It.] An air, song, or tune. 

A'RI-AN, a. Pertaining to Arius, or his doctrines. 

A'Rl-AN, 71. One who adheres to the doctrines of Arius. 

a'RI-AN-ISM, n. The doctrines of the Arians. 

A'RI-AN-IZE, V. i. To admit the tenets of the Arians. 

AR'ID, a. [L,. aridiis.] Dry; exhausted of moisture ; parch- 
ed with heat. 

AR'I-DAS, n. A kind of taffety, from the East Indies. 

A-RID I-TY, } n. 1. Dryness ; a state of behig without 

AR ID-NESS, ] moisture. 2. A dry state of the body ; 

A'RI-ES, n. [L.] The Ram, a constellation of fixed stars ; 
the first of the twelve signs in the zodiac. 

*t AR'I-E-TATE, v. i. [L. arieto.] To butt, as a ram. 

AR-I-E-Ta'TION, n. 1. The act of butting, as a ram. The 
act of battering with the aries or battering ram. 2. The 
act of striking or conflicting. [Rarely used.] 

AR-I-ET'TA, n. [It.] A short song ; an air, or little 

A RIGHT', adv. [Sax. gericht.] Rightly ; in aright form ; 
without mistake or crime. 

AR'IL, or A-RIL'LUS, n. The exterior coat or covering 
of a seed, fixed to it at the base only. 

AR'IL-LA-TED, ) a. Having an exterior covering, or aril, 

AR'TLLED, ) as coffee. Encyc. Eaton. 

AR'I-MAN, AR'I-MA, or AH'RI-MAN, n. [Per. ahriman.] 
The evil genius or demon of the Persians. 

AR-I-O-La'TION, or HAR-I-O-La'TION, n. [L. ariolus, 
or hariolus.] A soothsaying ; a foretelling. Brown. 

AR-I-o'SO, a. [It.] Light ; airy. But, according to Rous- 
seau, applied to music, it denotes a kind of melody bor- 
dering on the majestic style of a capital air. 

A-RlSE', V. i. pret. arose ; pp. arisen .- (a-rize', a-roze', 
a-rizn') [Sax. arisan.] 1. To ascend, mount up, or move 
to a higher place. 2. To emerge from below the horizon. 
3. To get out of bed ; to leave the place or state of rest ; 
or to leave a sitting or lying posture. 4. To begin ; to 
spring up ; to originate. 5. To revive from death ; to 
leave the grave, 6. To begin to act ; to exert power ; to 
move from a state of inaction. 7. To appear, or become 
known ; to become visible, sensible or operative. 8. To 
be put in motion ; to swell or be agitated. 9. To invade, 
assault or begin hostility ; followed by against. 

A-RlS'ING, ppr. Ascending ; moving upward ; originating 
or proceeding ; getting up ; springing up ; appearing. 

A-R!ST'A, n. [L.] In botany, awn, the long, pointed beard, 
which issues from the hiisk, or scaly flower-cup of the 
called the glume. Milne. 

51 ARM 

AR-IS-TaR'€HY, n. [Gr. apiaros and apyrj.] A body of 
good men in power, or government by excellent men 

AR-lS-TO€'Rx\-CY, n. [Gr. apicros and Kpareu).] A form 
of government, in which the whole supreme power ig 
vested in the principal persons of a state. 2. A few 
men distinguished by their rank and opulence. 

AR'-IS-T0-CRAT,^^. One who favors an aristocracy in prin- 
ciple or practice. Burke. 

A-RlS-TO-€RAT'I€, ) a. 1. Pertaining to aristocracy. 

A-R[S-TO-€RAT'I-€AL,J 2. Partaking of aristocracy. 

A-RIS-TO-eRAT'I-CAL-LY, adv. In an aristocratical man- 

A-RIS-TO-eRAT'I-€AL-NESS, n. The quality of being 

AR-IS-TOG'RA-TY, n. The same as aristocracy. Burtcn 

AR-IS-TO-Te'LI-AN, a. Pertaining to Aristotle. 

AR-IS-TO-Te'LI-AN, n. A follower of Aristotle, who 
founded the_sect of Peripatetics. 

AR-IS-TO-Te'LI-AN-ISM, n. The philosophy or doctrines 
of Aristotle. 

AR-IS-T0-TEL'I€, a. Pertaining to Aristotle or to his phi- 

*AR'ITH-MAN-CY, n. [Gr. apiBnos and ixavreia.] Divina- 
tion or the foretelling of future events by the use or obser- 
vation of numbers. 

A-RITH'ME-TI€,7f. [Gr. apid^rjTiKr}.] The science of num- 
bers, or the art of computation. 

AR-ITH-MET'I€, ; a. Pertaining to arithmetic ; ac- 

AR-1TH-MET'I-€AL, \ cording to the rules or method of 

AR-ITH-MET'I-€AL-LY, adv. According to the rules, 
principles or method of arithmetic. 

A-RITH-ME-Ti"CIAN, n. One skilled in arithmetic, or 
versed in the science of numbers. 

ARK, n. [Fr. arche ; L. area.] 1. A small, close vessel, 
chest or coffer, such as that which was the repository of 
the tables of the covenant among the Jews. The vessel 
in which Moses was set afloat upon the Nile was an ark 
of bulrushes. 2. The large, floating vessel, in which 
Noah and his family were preserved during the deluge. 
3. A depository. 4. A large boat used on American riv- 
ers,_to transport produce to market. 

ARK ITE, n. A term used by Bryant to denote one of the 
persons who were preserved in "the ark ; or who, accord- 
ing to pagan fables, belonged to the ark. 

ARK'lTE, a. Belonging to the ark. Bryant. 

ARK'TI-ZlTE, or AR€'TI-ZlTE, n. Amineral, now called 

ARM, 72. [Sax. arm, earm ; D. G. Sw. Dan. arm; L. ar- 
7nv^.] 1. The limb of the human body, which extends from 
the shoulder to the hand. 2. The branch of a tree, or the 
slender part of a machine, projecting from a trunk or axis. 
3. A narrow inlet of water from the sea. 4. Figurative- 
ly, power, might, strength ; as the secular arm. 

ARM, V. t. [L. armo ; Fr. armer ; Sp. armar ; It. armare.] 
1. To furnish or equip with weapons of offense or de- 
fense. 2. To cover with a plate, or with whatever will 
add strength, force, or security. 3. To furnish with 
means of defense ; to prepare for resistance ; to fortify. 

ARM, V. i. To provide with arms, weapons, or means of at- 
tacker resistance ; to take arms. 

AR-Ma'DA, n. [Sp.] A fleet of armed ships ; a squadron 
The term is usually applied to the Spanish fleet, called 
the Invincible .Armada, consisting of 130 ships, intended 
to act against England in the reign of Elizabeth. 

AR-MA-DIL'LO, n. [Sp.] A quadruped peculiar to Ameri- 
ca, called also tatoo, and in zoology, the dasypus. 

AR'MA-MENT, n. [L. armamenta.] A body of forces equip 
ped for war ; used of a land or naval force. • 

AR-MA-MENT'A-RY, n. An armory ; a magazine or 
arsenal. [Rarely used.] 

AR'MA-TURE, 7!. [L. armatura.] 1. Armor; Uiat which de 
fends the body. — 2. In ancient military art, an exercise per 
formed with missive weapons, as d?>rts, spears and arrows 

AR'MAN, n. A confection for restoring appetite in horses 

ARMED, ;?p. 1. Furnished with weapons of offense or de- 
fense ; furnished with the means of security ; fortified, in 
a moral sense. — 2. In heraldry, armed is when the beaks, 
talons, horns, or teeth of beasts and birds of prey are of a 
different color from the rest of the body. 3. Capped and 
cased, as the load stone ; that is, set in" iron. 

ARMEJp-CIIAIR, n. An elbow-chair 

AR-Me'NI-AN, a. Pertaining to Armenia. 

AR-Me'NI-AN, n. A native of Armenia, or the language of 
the country. 

Arvieman bole is a species of clay from Armenia, and found 
in other countries. 

Armenian stone, a soft blue stone, consisting of calcarious 
earth or gvpsum, with the oxyd of copper. 

t AR-MENT'AL, ) a. [L. armentalis.] Belonging to a drove 

t AR-MENT'INE, or herd of cattle. Diet. 

See Synov^ MOVE, BQQK, D6VE ;— BIJLL, UNITE.— € as K ; G as J ; S as Z ; CH as SH ; TH as in this, t Obsolete 




t AR-MEN-TOSE', a. Abounding with cattle. Diet. 

ARME-PU-ISSANT, a. Powerful in arms. JVeever. 

ARM'FUL, 71 As much as the arms can hold. 

t aRM'GaUNT, c. Slender, as the arm. Shak. 

ARM'HoLE, n 1. The cavity under the shoulder, or the 
armpit. 2. A hole for the arm in a garment. 

AR-M16 ER-OL' S, a. [L.armiger.] Liter ally, hearing arms. 
But in present usage, armiger is a title of dignity next in 
degree to a knight. Armiger is still retained with us as a 
title of respect, being the Latin word equivalent to esquire, 
which see. 

&R'MIL-LA-RY, a. [1,. armilla.] Resemblmg a bracelet, 
or ring : consisting of rings or circles. 

r AR'MIL-LA-TED, a. Having bracelets. 

ARM'ING,ppr. Equipping with arms ; providing with the 
means of defense or attack. 

XRM'INGS, n. The same as waist-clothes, hung about a 
ship's upper works. Chambers. 

AR-MIN'IAN, a. Pertaining to Arminius, or designating his 

AR-MIN'IAN, n. One of a sect or party of Christians, so 
called from Arminius, or Harmansen. 

AR-MIN'IAN-ISM, n. The peculiar doctrines or tenets of 
the Arminians. 

AR-MIP'0-TENCE, n. [L. arma and potentia.] Power In 
arms. Johnson. 

AR-MIP'O-TENT, a. Powerful in anns. 

AR-MIS'0-NOUS, a. Sounding or rustling in arms. 

AR'MlS-TlCE, n. [L. arma and sisto ; Fr. armistice.] A 
cessation of arms, for a short time, by convention ; a 
tnice ; a temporary suspension of hostilities by agreement 
of the parties. 

ARM'LESS, a. Without an arm ; destitute of weapons. 

ARM'LET, n. A little arm ; a piece of armor for the arm ; 
a bracelet. Drijden. 

AR-MO'NI-A€, n. A sort of volatile salt. See Ammoniac. 

&R'MOR, n. 1. Defensive arms ; any habit worn to protect 
the body in battle ; formerly called harness. Coat-armor 
is the escutcheon of a person or family. 

XR'MOR-BEaR-ER, n. One who carries the armor of 

AR'MOR-ER, n. A maker of armor or arms ; a manufactur- 
er ofjnstruments of war. 

AR-Mo'RI-AL, a. Belonging to armor, or to the arms or 
escutcheon of a family. 

AR-MOR'I€, or AR-MOR'I-€AN, a. Designating the north- 
western part of France, formerly called Armorica. 

AR-MOR'I€, n. The language of the Armoricans ; one of 
the Celtic dialects. 

AR-MOR'I-€AN, n. A native of Armorica. 

AR MOR-TST, n. One skilled in heraldry. 

AR'MO-RY, 71. 1. A place where arms and instruments of 
war are deposited. 2. Armor ; defensive arms. 3, En- 
signs armorial. 4. The knowledge of coat-armor ; skill in 

S.RM'PIT, 71. The hollow place under the shoulder. 

ARMS, n. plu. [L, arma ; Fr. aryne ; Sp. It. arma.] 
1. Weapons of otiense, or aiTnor for defense and protection 
of the body. 2. War ; hostility, 3. The ensigns armorial 
of a family. Fire arms are such as may be charged with 
powder, as cannon, muskets, mortars, &c. A stand of 
arms consists of a musket, bayonet, cartridge-box and 
belt, with a sword. — In falconry, arms are the legs of a 
hawk from the thigh to tiie foot. 

ARMS-END, 71. At the end of the arms ; at a good distance. 

ARMS'REACH, 71. Within the stretch of the arm. 

AR'MY, n. [Fr. armie.] 1. A collection or body of men 
armed for war. 2. A great number ; a vast multitude. 

AR'NOLD-IST, n. A disciple of Arnold of Brescia. 

AR'NOT, n. A name of the bunium, pignut or earthnut. 

AR-NOT'TO, n. The a7iotta, which see. Also, a tree so 

AR'NUTS, n. Tall oat grass. 


A-Ro'MA, ) 71. [Gr. apu)[ia.] The quality of plants which 

AR O-MA, ) constitutes their fragrance. 

AR-0-MAT'IC, or AR-O-MAT I-CAL, a. Fragrant ; spicy ; 
strong-scented ; odoriferous ; having an agreeable odor. 

AR-0-j\IAT'I€, n. A plant which yields a spicy, fragrant 
smell, or awarm, pungent taste. 

AR'0-MA-TiTE, n. A bituminous stone. Coze. 

AR-O-MAT-I-Za TION, n. The act of impregnating or 
scenting with aroma, or rendering aromatic. 

* AR'O-MA-TlZE, v. t. To impregnate with aroma ; to in- 
fuse an aromatic odor ; to give a spicy scent or taste ; to 

* AR'O-MA-TlZEJ), pp. Impregnated with aroma ; rendered 


* AR'O-MA-TI-ZER, n. That which communicates an aro- 
matic quality. Evelyn. 

* AR'O-MA-TI-ZING, ppr. Rendering spicy ; impregnating 
with aroma. 

A-RoMA-TOUS, a. Containing aroma, or the principle ot 

AR'OPH, 71. 1. A name by which saffron is sometimes 
called. 2. A chemical preparation of Paracelsus, formed 
by sublimation from equal quantities of hematite and sal 

A-RcSE'. The past or preterit tense of the verb to 

A-ROUND', prep. 1. About ; on all sides 5 encircling ; en- 
compassing. 2. In a looser sense, from place to place ; at 

A-ROUND', adv. 1. In a circle ; on every side. 2. In a 
looser sense, at random ; without any fixed direction. 

A-Rc5U RA, n. [Gr.] A Grecian measme of fifty feet. 

A-ROUSE', (a-rbuz') v. t. To excite into action that which 
is at rest ; to stir, or put in motion or exertion, that which 
is languid. 

A-ROUS'ED, (a-rouzd') pp. Excited into action ; put in mo- 

A-ROUS'ING, ppr. Putting in motion ; stirring ; exciting 
into action or exertion. 

A-RoW", adv. In a row ; successively. 

t A-ROYNT', adv. Be gone : away Shak. 

AR-PEG'6IO, n. [It.] The distinct sound of the notes of an 
instrumental chord, accompanying the voice. Walker. 

AR'PENT, 7t. [Fr. arpe7it.] A portion of land in France, 
ordinarily containing one "hundred square rods or perches, 
each of 18 feet. Rut the arpent is different in different 
parts of France. 

AR-aUE-BU-SADE', n. 1. A distilled liquor applied to a 
bruise. 2. The shot of an arquebuse. 

AR'aUE-BUSE, or HAR'QUE-BUSE, n. A hand gun ; a 
species of fire arms, anciently used, which was cocked 
with a wheel. _ 

AR-Q,UE-BU-SIeR', n. A soldier armed with an arque- 

f ARR, 71. A mark made by a flesh wound, a cicatrice. 

t AR'RA, 71. [L. arrha, or arra.] A pledge. Anderson. 

AR'RACH, 71. A plant. See Orrach, 

AR-RACK', 71. Contracted into rack. A spirituous liquor 
imported from the East Indies, which usually bears this 
name, is toddy, a liquor distilled from the juice of the co- 
coa-nut tree^ procured by incision. 

AR'RA-GO-NlTE, n. In mineralogy, a species of carbonate 
of lime, but not pure. 

AR-RaIGN', (ai rane') v. t. [Norm, arraner.] 1. To call or set 
a prisoner at the bar of a court, to answer to the matter 
charged against him in an indictment or information. 

2. According to law writers, to set in order 5 to fit for 
trial. 3. To accuse ; to charge with faults 5 to call before 
the bar of reason or taste. 

AR-RaIGN', (ar-rane') 71. Arraignment ; as, clerk of the 

arraigns. Blackstone. 
AR-RaIGN'ED, (ar-rand') pp. Called before a tribunal to 

answer, and elect triers ; accused ; called in question. 
AR-RaIGN'ING, ppr. Calling before a court or tribunal ; 

AR-RaIGN'MENT, (ar-rane'ment) 7i. [Norm, arresnemcnt, 

arraij7iement.] 1. The act of arraignmg, 2. Accusation 

3. A calling in question for faults. 

I AR-RaI'MENT, n. Clothes ; garments. We now use rai- 

f AR'R AND, 71. The old word for erra7id ; message. How- 
ell. _ 

AR-RaN6E', v. t. [Fr. a7^ffl7?^er.] 1. To put in proper 
order ; to dispose the parts of a whole in the manner in- 
tended, or best suited for the piu-pose. 2. To adjust ; to 
settle ; to put in order •, to prepare. 

AR-RaN6'ED, (ar-ranjd') pp. Put in order ; disposed in the 
proper order ; adjusted. 

AR-RaNGE'MENT, n. 1. The act of putting in proper or- 
der ; the state of being put in order ; disposition in suita- 
ble form. 2. That which is disposed in order ; system of 
parts disposed in due order. 3. Preparatory measure ; 
previous disposition. 4. Final settlement ; adjustment 
by agieement. 5. Classification of facts relating to a sub- 
ject, in a regular, systematic order. 

AR-RaN6'ER, 71. One that puts in order. 

AR-RaNG'ING, ppr. Putting in due order or form ; ad ■ 

AR'RANT, a Notorious, in an ill sense ; infamous ; mere ; 

AR RANT-LY, adv. Notoriously, in an ill sense ; infa- 
mously ; impudently ; shamefully. 

AR'RAS, n. [from Arras, in Artois, where this article 
is manufactured.] Tapestry ; hangings wove with fig 

t AR-RAUGHT', a. Seized by violence. Spenser. 

AR-RaY', n. [Norm, araie.] 1. Order ; disposition in regu 
lar lines ; as an army in battle array. Hence, a posture 
of defense. 2. Dress ; garments disposed in order upon 
the person. Dryden.—3. In law, the act of impanneling a 
jury ; or a jury impanneled. 

* See Synopsis. A, fi, T, O, V, Y, long —FAR, FALL, WHAT ;— PRgY ;— PIN, MARINE, BtRD •,— j Obsolete 


AR-RaY', v. t 1. To place or dispose in order, as troops for 
battle. 2. To deck or dress ; to adorn with dress, 3. To 
set a jury in order for the trial of a cause ; that is, to call 
them man by man. Blackntone, 4. To envelop. 

AR-RaY'ED, (ar-rade') pp. Set in order, or in lines ; ar- 
ranged in order for attack or defense ; dressed : adorned 
by dress ; tmpanneled. 

AR-RaY'£R, 11. One who arrays.— In English history, an 
officer who had a commission of array, to put the soldiers 
of a county in a condition for military service. 

AR-RaY'ING, ppr. Setting in order; putting on splendid 
raiment ; impanneling. 

t AR-ReAR', adv. [Fr. arriere.l Behind ; at the hinder 
part^ Spenser. 

AR-Re.AR', n. That which is behind in payment, or which 
remains unpaid, though due. — In arrear, behind in pay- 

AR-ReAR'A6E, n. Arrears ; any sum of money remaining 
unpaid, after previous payment of a part. 

f AR-ReAR'AKCE, n. The same with arrear. Diet. 

AR-RE€T , or AR-RE€T'ED, a. [L. arrectus.] Erect ; at- 
tentive ; as a person listening. 

t AR-RE€T', V. t. To raise or lift up. Skelton. 

AR-REN-Ta'-TION, n. [Sp. arrendar.] In the forest laws 
of England, a licensing the owner of land in a forest to 
inclose it with a small ditch and low hedge, in considera- 
tion of a yearly rent. Cowel. 

AR-REP-Ti"TIOUS, a. [L. arreptus.] 1. Snatched away. 
2. [ad and repo.'] Crept in privily. Johnson. 

AR-REST', v. t. [Fr. arriter.] 1. To obstruct ; to stop ; to 
check or hinder motion. 2. To take, seize or apprehend 
by virtue of a warrant from authority. 3. To seize and 
fix. 4. To hinder, or restrain. 

AR-REST', n. 1. The taking or apprehending of a person by 
vutue of a warrant from authority. 2. Any seizure, or 
taking by power, physical or moral. 3. A stop.hinderance 
or restraint. — 4. In law, an arrest of judgment is the stay- 
ing or stopping of a judgment after verdict, for causes 
assigned. 5. A mangy humor between the ham and pas- 
tern of the hind legs of a horse. 

AR-REST-aTION, n. The act of arresting ; an aiTest or 
seizure . 

AR-REST'ED, pp. Seized ; apprehended ; stopped ; hin- 
dered ; restrained. 

AR-REST'ER, or AR-REST'OR, n. One who anests. 

AR-REST'ING, ppr. Seizing ; staying ; restraining. 

AR-REST'MEj\'T, n. In Scots law, an arrest, or detention 
of a criminal, till he finds caution or surety, to stand 

AR-RET', n. The decision of a court or council ; a decree 
published ; the edict of a sovereign prince. 

t AR-RET', V. t. To assign ; to allot. Spenser. 

+ AR-RET'TED, a. Convened before a judge, charged with 
a crime. 

t AR-RiDE', V. t. [L. arrideo.l To laugh at ; to please well. 
Ben Jonson. 

AR-RIeRE', (ar-reer') n. The last body of an army ; now 
called rear, which see. — Arriere-ban, or ban and arriere- 
ban, a general proclamation of the French kings, by 
which not only their immediate feudatories, \)\A their vas- 
sals, were summoned to take the field for war. — Jlrriere- 
fee ox fief. A fee or fief dependent on a superior fee, or a 
fee held of a feudatory. — Arriere vassal. The vassal of a 



AR-Rl* VAL, 71. I. The coming to, or reaching a place, from 
a distance. 2. The attainment or gaining of any ob- 

t AR-RrVANCE, n. 1. Company coming. Shak. 2. Arrival ; 
a reaching in progress. Brown. 

AR-RlVE', V. i. [Fr. arriver.] 1. Literalhj, to come to the 
shore, or bank. Hence, to come to or reach in progress 
by water, followed by at. 2. To come to or reach by 
traveling on land. 3. To reach a point by progressive 
motion ; to gain or compass by eiSbit, practice, study, en- 
quiry, reasoning or experiment. 4. To happen or occur. 

tAR-RIVE', r.t. To reach. Shak. 

AR-RlVIXG, ppr. Coming to or reaching, by water or 
land ;_ gaining by research, efibrt or study. 

t AR-RoDE', V. t. [L. arrodo.] To gnaw or nibble. Diet. 

^\R-Ro'BA, n. [Arabic] A weight, in Portugal, of thirty- 
two pounds ; in Spain, of twenty-five pounds. 

ARRO-GAXCE, n. [L. arrogantia.] The act or quality of 
taking much upon one's self •, that species of pride which 
consists in exorbitant claims of rank, dignity, estimation 
or power ; proud contempt of others ; couceitedness ; pre- 

AR'RO-GAN-CY, 7?. Arrogance. [This orthography is less 

AR'RO-GANT, a. 1. Assuming ; making, or having the 
disposition to make, exorbitant claims of rank or estima- 
tion •, gi-^'ing one's self an undue degree of importance ; 
haughty ; conceited. 2. Containing arrogance ; marked 
with arrogance ; proceeding from undue claims or seif- 

[Sax. earse.] The buttocks or hind part of an 

AR'RO-GANT-LY, adv. In an arrogant manner : with un- 
due pride or self-unportance. 

AR'RO-GANT-NESS, n. Arrogance. [Littleused.] 

AR'RO-GATE, v. t. [L. arrogo.] To assume, demand or 
challenge more than is proper ; to make undue claims, 
from vanity or false pretensions to right or merit. 

AR'RO-GA-TED, pp. Claimed by undue pretensions. 

AR'RO-GA-TING, ppr. Challenging or claiming more pow- 
er or respect than is just or reasonable. 

AR-RO-Ga'TION, 71. The act of arrogating, or making ex- 
orbitant claims ; the act of taking more than one is just'y 
entitled to. 

AR'RO-GA-TiVE, a. Assuming or making undue claims 
and pretensions. More. 

AR-ROND'iS-MENT, n. [Fr. arrondir.] A circuit : a dis- 
trict j a division or portion of territory in France. ' 

AR-Ro'SION, (ar-ro'zhun) n. [L. arrodo.] A gna-iving 

AR'RoW, 71. [Sax. areica.l A missive weapon of nSense, 
straight, slender, pointed and barbed, to be shot with a 

AR'RoW-GRaSS, n. A plant or genus of plants ; the trig- 
lochin. Mxihlenberg. 

AR'RoW-HEAD, 7!. 1. The head of an arrow. 2. Sagitta- 
ria ,• a genus of aquatic plants. 

AR'RoW-ROOT, n. 1. The maranta ; a genus of plants, 
natives of tlie Indies. 2. The starch of the maranta, or 
an-ow-root, a nutritive medicinal food. 

AR'RoW-Y, a. 1. Consisting of arrows. 2. Formed like an 

aRSE, 71. 

tXRSE'FOOT, 7?. A kind of water-fowl. Diet. 

ARSE-SMART, 7?. The vulgar name of a species of polyg- 
onum, or knot-grass. 

AR'SE-NAL, n. [Sp. Port. It. Fi'.] A repository or maga- 
zine_of arms and military stores. 

AR-SeN'I-AC, or AR-SEN'I-€AL ACID. Arsenic combined 
with a greater proportion of oxygen, than in the arsenious 

AR-Se'NI-ATE, 77. A neutral salt, formed by arsenical 
acid combined with any metallic, earthy or saline base. 

ARSE'JNflC, 7!. [Gr. apueviKov ; Fr. arsenic.] A mineral sub- 
stance which is a virulent poison ; vulgarly called ratsbane. 

AR-SENT-CAL, a. Belonging to arsenic ; consisting of or 
containing arsenic. 

AR-SEN'I-€ATE, v. t. To combine with arsenic. 

AR-SEN'I-CA-TED, a. Combined with arsenic. 

AR-Se'NI-OUS, a. Pertaining to, or containing arsenic. 

AR'SE-NITE, 71. A salt formed by the arsenious acid, with 
a base. 

ARSH'INE, n. A Russian measure of more than two feet. 

aR'SON, (ar'sn) 7!. [Norm. Fr. arsine, arseun.] In law 
the malicious burning of a house of another man, which 
by the common law, is felony. 

ART. The second person, indicative mode, present tense 
of the substantive verb am. 

ART, 7!. [L. ars, artis.] 1. The disposition or modification 
of things by human skill, to answer the purpose intended. 
In this'sense, art stands opposed to nature. 2. A system 
of rules, serving to facilitate the performance of certain 
actions ; opposed to science, or to speculative principles. 
3. Skill, dexterity, or the power of performing certain ac- 
tions, acquired by experience, study or observation. 

AR-TE-MIS'I-A, 7?. Mug-wort, southernwood, and worm- 
wood 5 a genus of plants. 

AR-Te'RI-AL, a. 1. Pertaining to an artery or the arteries. 

2. Contained in an artery. 
AR-TE-RI-OT'0-MY, n. [Gr. aprrjpia and TOfiv.l The 

opening of an artery for the purpose' of letting blood. 
AR'TE-RY, n. [Gr. apTripia.] A cylindrical vessel or tube, 

which conveys the blood from the heart to all parts of the 

body. There are two principal arteries ; the aorta and 

the pulmonary artery. 
ART'FUL, a. 1. Performed with art or skill. 2. Artificial 

3. Cunning •, practicing art, or stratagem ; crafty. 4 
Proceeding from art or craft. 

ART'FUL-LY, adv. With art, or cimning ; skilfully ; dex- 

ART FUL-NESS, n. Art ; craft ; cunning ; address 

AR-THRIT'I€, } a. Pertaining to the joints, or to the 

AR-THRIT'I-€AL, \ gout ; aflfecting the joints. 

AR-THRIT'IS, 71. [Gr. apdping.] Any painful disease of 
the joints ; but more particularly, the gout. 

AR-THRoDI-A, n. In anatomy, a species of articulation. 

AR'TIC. This word is, by mistake, used by some authors 
for arctic. 

AR'TI-CHOKE, n. [Fr. artichaut.] A plant somewhat re- 
sembling a thistle. The Jerusalem artichoke is a species 
of sun-flower. 

AR'TI-€LE, 7J. [Ij. articiilus.] 1. A single clause in a con- 
tract, account, treaty, or other writing ; a particular, sep- 
arate charge, or item, in an account j a term, condition, 
or stipulation, in a contract. 2. A point of faith. 3. A 

* See Synopsis. MoVE. BOQK. D6VE :— BIJLL. GNITE.— € as K ; 6 as J ; S as Z ; OH as SH ; TH as in tAis. t Obsolete . 




distinct part. Paley. 4. A particular commodity, or sub- 
stance. — 5. In botany, that part of a stalk or stem, which is 
between two joints. — 6. in grammar, an adjective used 
before nouns, to limit or define their application ; as, hie, 
ille, ipse, in Latin •, h, f], to, in Greek ; the, this, that, in 
English ; le. La,, in French ; il, la, lo, in Italian. 

AR'Tl-CLE, t). £. 1. To draw up in distinct particulars. 2. 
To accuse or charge by an exhibition of articles. 3. To 
bind by articles of covenant or stipulation. 

XR'Ti-€L£, V. i. To agree by articles ; to stipulate. 

AR'T1-€L£D, pp. Drawn up in particulars ; accused or 
bound by articles. 

AR-TItJ'U-LAR, a. [L. articnlaris.] Belonging to the 

AR-TI€'U-LATE, a. [L. articulatus.'] 1. Formed by joint- 
ing, or articulation of the organs of speech : applied to 
sound 2. Expressed in articles. [JVot used.'\ 3. Jointed j 
formed with joints. Botany. 

4R-TI€'U-LATE, v. t. 1. To Utter articulate sounds ; to 
utter distinct syllables or words. 2. To draw up or write 
in separate particulars. [06s.] Shak. 3. To treat, stipulate 
or make terms. [06s.] Shak. 4. To joint. Smith. 

AR-TI€'U-LA-TED, pp. 1. Uttered distinctly in syllables 
or words. 2. Jointed ; having joints, as a plant. 

AR-Ti€'U-LATE-LY, adv. 1. With distinct utterance of 
syllables or vt'ords. 2. Article by article ; in detail. Paley. 

AR-TI€'U-LATE-NESS, n. The quality of being articulate. 

AR-TI€'U-LA-TING, ppr. Uttering in distinct syllables or 

AR-TI€-U-LA'TrON, n. 1. In anatomy, the joining or 
juncture of the bones. — 2. In botany, the connection of 
the parts of a plant by joints. 3. The forming of words 
by the human voice. 4. A consonant. 

XR'TI-FICE, 71. [L. artificium.'] 1. Stratagem; an artful 
or ingenious device. In a bad sense, it corresponds with 
trick, or fraud. 2. Art ; trade ; skill acquired by science 
or practice. [Rarely iLsed.] 

AR-TIF'I-CER, n. [L. artifez.] 1. An artist ; a mechanic 
or manufacturer. 2. One who makes or contrives ; an in- 
ventor. 3. A cunning, or artful fellow. [J\rot used.\ Ben 

AR-TI-Fi''CIAL, a. 1. Made or contrived by art, or by hu- 
man skill and labor. 2. Feigned ; fictitious ; not genuine 
or natural. 3. Contrived with skill or art. 4. Cultivated ; 
not indigenous ; not being of spontaneous growth. 

t AR-TI-Fl"CIAL, r:. The production of art. Sir F/. Petty. 

AR-TI-Fi-Cl-AL'I-TY, n. The quality of being artificial ; 
apjiearance of art. Shenstone. 

AR 'i'J -Fi"CI Ali-LY, adv. By art, or human skill and con- 
trivance •, with art or ingenuity. 

AR-TI-F]"CIAL-NESS, n. The quality of being artificial. 

f AR-TI-FICIOUS, a. Artificial. 

f aR TIL-ISE, or f ARTIZE, v. t. To give the appearance 
of art to. BoLinghroke, 

AR-TIL'LE-RY, n. This word has no plural. [Fr. artillc- 
rie.] 1. Offensive weapons of v/ar. 2. Cannon ; great 
guns ; ordnance. 3. The men v/ho manage cannon and 
mortars, with the officers, engineers, and" persons v/ho 
supply the artillery with implements and materials. 

XRT'I-SAN, n. [Fr. See Art.] An artist ; one skilled in 
any art, mystery or trade ; a handicrafts-man ; a mechan- 
ic ; a tradesman. 

ART'IST, ?i. [Fr. artiste.] 1. One skilled in an art or 
trade ; one who is master or professor of a manual art ; a 
good workman in any trade. 2. A skilful man ; not a 
novice. — 3. In an academical sense, a proficient in the 
faculty of arts 5 a philosopher. 4. One skilled in the fine 
arts •, as a painter, sculptor, architect, &c. 

ART'LESS, a. 1. Unskilful •, wanting art, or skill. 2. Free 
from guile, art, craft or stratagem ; simple ; sincere ; un- 
affected ; undesigning. 3. Contrived without skill or art. 

ART'LESS-LY, adv. 1. Without art or skill ; in an artless 
manner. 2. W^ithout guile ; naturally. 

ART'LESS-NESS, n. The quality of being void of art or 
guile ; simplicity , sincerity ; unaffectedness. 

AR'TO-TY-RlTE, n. [Gr. apros and rvpos.] One of a sect 
of heretics, ir the primitive church, who celebrated the 
eucbarist wit._ bread and cheese. 

•f ARTS-M_AN, 71. A learned man. Shak. 

AR-UN-De'LI-AN, a. Pertaining to Arundel ; as, jSrunde- 
liait marbles. 

A-RUN-DI-Na'CEOUS, a. [L. antndo.] Pertaining to a 
reed ; resembling the reed or cane. 

AR-UN-DIN'E-OUS, a. Abounding with reeds. 

A-Ru'RA, 71. [Gr. apovpa.] A piece of ground ; a plowed 
field ; a Grecian measure. 

A-RUSTEX, 71. [L.] A soothsayer. Dryden. 

A-RUS'PlCE, n. Written also haruspice. [L. aruspex, or 
haruspex.] A priest, in ancient Rome, whose business it 
was to inspect the entrails of victims killed in sacrifice, 
and by them to foretell future events. 

A-RU^'PI-CY, 71. The act of prognosticating by inspection 
of t":je ent.-ails of beasts slain in sacrifice. 

fAR'VEL, n. A funeral. Grose. Craven dialect.~ Arvet 
supper. The feast made at northern funerals. — .Brvel 
bread. Cakes given at funerals. Grose. 

AS, adv. [G. and D. als.] 1. Literally, like ; even ; simi- 
lar ; in like manner ; as, do as you are commanded. 2 
It was formerly used where we now use that. Obs. 3. It 
was formerly used for as if. Obs. 4. WhUe ; during ; at 
the same time. " He trembled as he spoke." — 6.s, in a 
subsequent part of a sentence, answei-s to such ; give us 
such things as you please. 

ASj n. [L.] 1. A Roman weight of 12 ounces, answering 
to the libra or pound. 2. A Roman coin. 3. An integer ; 
a whole. 

AS'A A corruption of lasar, an ancient name of a gum 
See Ooze. 

AS'A-DUL'CIS. The same as benzoin. 

AS'A-FET'I-DA, n. [asa, and L. fmtidus.] A fetid gum- 
resin, from the East Indies. 

AS-A-RA-BA€'€A, n. [L. asarum.] A plant. 

AS-BES'TlNE, a. Pertaining to asbestus, or partaking of ita 
nature and qualities ; incombustible. 

AS-BES'TI-NlTE, n. The actinolite, or strahlstein.—Calcif- 
erous asbestinite ; a variety of steatite. 

AS-BES'TUS, or AS-BES'TOS, 71. [Gr. ac^eoTOi.-] A min- 
eral, which has frequently the appearance of a vegetable 
substance. It is always fibrous, and its fibres are some- 
times delicate, flexible, and elastic ; at other times, stiff 
and brittle, it is incombustible, and has been wrought 
into a soft, flexible cloth, which was formerly used as a 
shroud for dead bodies. 

AS-€a'RIS, n. ;plu. Ascar'ides. [Gr.] In zoology, a genus 
of intestinal worms. 

AS-CEND', V. i. [L. ascendo ^' 1. To move upwards ; to 
mount ; to go up ; to lise. 2. To rise, in a figurative 
sense ; to proceed from an inferior to a superior degree, 
from mean to noble objects, from particulars to generals, 
&c. 3. To proceed from modern to ancient times ; to re- 
cur to former ages ; to proceed in a line towards ances- 
tors. — 4. In music, to rise in vocal utterance ; to pass from 
any note to one more acute. 

AS-CEND', V. t. To go or move upwards upon ; as, to as 
cend a hill ; to climb. 

AS-CEND'A-BLE, a. That may be ascended. 

AS-CEND'ANT, n. 1. Superiority or commanding influ- 
ence. 2. An ancestor, or one who precedes in genealogy, 
or degrees of kindred ; opposed to descendant. 3. Height ; 
elevation. [Little used.] Temple. — 4. In astrology, that 
degree of the ecliptic which rises above the horizon at the 
time of one's birth. That part of the ecliptic at any par- 
ticular time above the horizon, supposed to have influence 
on a person's life and fortune. 

AS-CEND ANT, a. 1. Superior ; predominant ; surpassing. 
— 2. In astrology, above the horizon. 

AS-CEND'ED, pp. or a. Risen ; mounted up ; gone to 

AS-CEND'EN-CY, n. Power ; governing or controlling in- 

AS-CEND'ING, ppr. Rising ; moving upwards ; proceeding 
from the less to the greater ; proceeding from modern to 
ancient, from grave to more acute. — Ascending latitude is 
the latitude of a planet, when moving towards the north 
pole. — Ascending node is that point of a planet's orbit, 
wherein it passes the ecliptic to proceed northward. 

AS-CEN'SIOAT, ,!. [L. ascensio.] 1. The act of ascending ; 
a rising. It is frequently applied to the visible elevation 
of our Savior to heaven. 2. The thing ascending. [J^ot 

AS-CEN'S10N-DaY, 77. A festival held on Holy Thursday, 
in commemoration of our Savior's ascension into heaven, 
after his resurrection. — Ascensional difference is the dif- 
ference between the right and oblique ascension of the 
same point on the surface of the sphere. 

AS-CEN SIVE, a, Pv,ising 5 tending to rise, or causing to 
rise. Journ. of Science. 

ASCENT', n. [L. ascensus.] 1. The act of rising ; motion 
upwards ; rise ; a mounting upwards. 2. The way by 
which one ascends ; the means of ascending. 3. An em 
inence, hill or high place. 4. The degree of elevation ot 
an object, or the angle it makes with a horizontal line. 
5. Acclivity •, the rise of a hill. 

AS-CER-TaIN', v. t. [L. ad cerium.] 1. To make certain ; 
to define or reduce to precision, by removing obscurity or 
ambiguity. 2. To make certain, by trial, examination 
or experiment, so as to know what was before unknown. 
3. To make sure by previous measures. 4. To fix ; to 
establish with certainty •, to render invariable. 

AS-CER-TaIN'A-BLE, a. That may be made certain in 
fact, or reduced to certainty. 

AS-CER-TaIN'ED, (as-ser-tand') pp. Made certain ; de- 
fined ; established ; reduced to a certainty. 

AS-CER-TaIN'ER, 71. The person who ascertains or makes 
certain . 

AS-CER-TAlN'ING,;7pr. Making certain ; fixing ; establish 
ing ; reducing to a certainty ; obtaining certain knowledge 

Sef Synopsis. A E, I 6 V,V long.— FAR, FALIi, WHAT ;— PREY ;— PIN, MARlNE, BiRD ;— f Obsolete. 




AS-CER-TaIN M£NT, n. The act of ascertaining ; a re- 
ducing to certainty ; certainty ; fixed rule. Swift> 

^^eIIaNT ^' i ^^^ AcESCENCY, Acescent, 

AS-CET le, a. [Gr. aGKTjrog.] Retired from the world ; 
rigid •, severe ; austere ; employed in devotions and mor- 

AS-CET'I€, n. I. One who retires from the business of life, 
and devotes himself to piety and devotion ; a hermit ; a 
recluse. 2, The title of certain books, on devout exer- 

\ AS-CET'I-CISM, n. The state of an ascetic. Warhurton. 

AS'CIAN, n. [L. ascii.'] A person, who, at certain times of 
the year, has no shadow at noon. 

AS'CI-TANS, n. [Gr, ao-/cof,] A sect or branch of Monta- 
nists, who appeared in the second century, 

AS-Cl'TES, n. [Gr. aaKOiJ] A dropsy, or tense, elastic swell- 
ing of the belly, with fiuctuation, from a collection of 

AS-CIT'I€, ) a. Belonging to an ascites ; dropsical ; 

AS-CIT'I-€AL, \ hydropical. 

AS-CI-Ti"TIOUS, a, [L. asciius.'] Additional ; added ; sup- 
plemental ; not inherent or original. 

AS-€Le'PI-AD, 71. In ancient poetry, a verse of four feet. 

AS-€Rl'BA-BLE, a. That may be ascribed. 

AS-€RiBE', V. t. [L. ascribo.] 1. To attribute, impute, or 
set to, as to a cause ; to assign, as effect to a cause. 2. 
To attribute, as a quality ; to consider or alledge to be- 

AS-€RIB'ED, (as-kribdO pp. Attributed or imputed ; con- 
sidered or alledged as belonging. 

AS-€RlB'ING, ppr. Attributing ; imputing ; alledging to 

AS-CRIP'TION, n. The act of ascribing, imputing or af- 
firming to belong, 

AS-€RIP-Ti"TIOUS, a. That is ascribed, 

ASH, 71, [Sax. cesc ; Dan. ask.] 1, A well known tree, of 
which there are many species. 2. The wood of the ash- 

ASH, a. Pertaining to or iike the ash ; made of ash, 

t A-SHaME', v. t. To shame. 

A-SHaM ED, (a-shamd') a. Affected by shame ; confused 
by a consciousness of guilt or of inferiority ; by the mor- 
tification of pride ; by failure or disappointment. 

tA-SHAMED-LY, ffldy. Bashfully, 

fA-SHELF', acZi). On a shelf or rock. Massinger. 

ASH-€oL'ORED, a. Of a color between brown and gray, 

ASH'EN, a. Pertaining to ash ; made of ash. 

ASH'ES, 71. plu. without the singular number, [Sax. asca.] 
1, The earthy particles of combustible substances remain- 
ing after combustion, 2, The remains of the human body 
when burnr. Hence, figuratively, a dead body or corpse, 

ASH'-FIRE, 71, A low fire used in chemical operations, 

ASH'-FLY, 71. The oak-fly. Complete Angler. 

ASH'-HoLE, 71. A repository for ashes ; the lower part of 
a furnace. 

ASH'LAR, 71, Common or free stones, as they come from 
the quarry. 

ASH'LER-ING, n. Q,uartering for lathing to, in garrets. 

A-SHoRE', adv. 1. On shore ; on the land adjacent to wa- 
ter ; to the shore. 2. On land, opposed to aboard. 3. On 
the ground. 

ASH'-TUB, 71, A tub to receive ashes, 

ASH'-WEDNES'DAY, (ash-wenz'de) n. The first day of 
Lent ; supposed to be so called from a custom of sprin- 
kling ashes on the head. 

ASH'-WEED, 71, A plant, the small, wild angelica, gout- 
wort, goats-foot, or herb-gerard, 

ASH'Y, a. Belonging to ashes ; ash-colored ; pale ; inclining 
to a whitish gray, Shak. 

ASH'-Y-PALE, a. Pale as ashes, Shak. 

A SIAN, a. Pertaining to Asia, 

A'SIAR€H. n. A chief or pontifi" of Asia ; one who had the 
superintendence of the public games. 

A-SIAT'I€, a. Belonging to Asia. 

A-SIAT'I€, 71. A native of Asia. 

A-SIAT'I-CISM, 71. Imitation of the Asiatic manner. 

A-SlDE', adv. 1. On or to one side ; out of a perpendicular 
or straight direction. 2. At a little distance from the 
main part or body. 3. From the body. 4. From the 
company ; at a small distance, or in private. 5. Separate 
from the person, mind or attention ; in a state of aban- 

AS-IN-E'GO, n. [Sp. asnico.'] A foolish fellow, 

AS'I-NINE, rarely ASII-NA-RY, a. [L, asinus.] Belonging 
to the ass •, having the qualities of the ass, 

ASK, V. t. [Sax, ascian, acsian, or axian.] 1, To request ; 
to seek to obtain by words ; to petition ; with of before 
the person to whom the request is made, 2. To require, 
expect or claim. 3, To interrogate, or inquire ; to put a 
question, with a view to an answer. 4. To require, or 
make claim. 5. To claim, require or demand, as the price 
or value of a commodity •, to set a price. 6. To invite. 

ASK, v> i. 1. To request or petition, followed by /or. 2 

To inquire, or seek by request, 
ASK, ASH, AS, come from the Saxon asc, an ash-tree 


ASK, See Asker, 

AS-KANCE', ) adv. [D, schuins.] Towards one corner of 

AS-KANT', \ the eye. 

ASKED, pp. Requested ; petitioned ; questioned 5 interro- 

ASK'ER, n. 1. One who asks 5 a petitioner; an inquirer 
2. A water newt. Johnson. 

AS-KEW, adv. [G. schief.] With a wry look ; asi(?e ; 
askant ; sometimes indicating scorn, or contempt, cr 

ASK'ING, p;j?-. 1. Requesting ; petitioning; interrogating; 
inquiring, 2. Silently expressing request or desire, 

f A-SLAKE', V. t. [Sax. aslacian.] To remit ; to slacken 

AS-La'NI, n. A silver coin, 

A-SLANT', a. or adv. On one side ; obliquely ; not perpen- 
dicularly, or with a right angle, 

A-SLEEP', a. or adv. 1, Sleeping ; in a state of sleep ; at 
rest, 2, To a state of sleep ; as, to fall asleep. 3. Dead ; 
in astate of death. 4. To death, 

A-SLoPE', a. or adv. With leaning or inclination ; oblique- 
ly ; with declivity or descent, as a hill. 

t A-SLUG^, adv. In a sluggish manner. Fotherby. 

AS-MO-Ne'AN, a. Pertaining to Asmoneus. 

AS-MO-Ne'AN, 71. One of the family of Asmoneus. 

t A-S6'MA-T0US, a. [Gr, a and ccojua.] Without a mate- 
rial body ; incorporeal, 

ASP, See Aspen, 

ASP, or ASP'IO, 7!, [L. aspis ; Gr. acj-is,] A small, poison 
ous serpent of Egypt. 

AS-PAL'A-THUS, n. A plant. 

AS-PAR'A-GIN, 71. White, transparent crystals of a peculiar 
vegetable principle. 

AS-PAR'A-GUS, 71. [L, and Gr.] Sparagus ; sperage ; vul- 
garly, sparroiD-grass ; a genus of plants. 

ASPECT, 71. [L. aspectus.] 1. Look ; view ; appearance 
to the eye or the mind. 2, Countenance ; look, or partic- 
ular appearance Of the face. 3. View ; sight ; act of see- 
ing. 4. Position or situation with regard to seeing, or 
that position which enables one to look in a particular 
direction.— 5. In astronomy, the situation of one planet 
with respect to another. 

t AS-PE€T', V. t. To behold. Temple. 

t AS-PE€T'A-BLE, a. That may be seen. 

t AS-PE€T'ED, a. Having an aspect. Ben Jonson. 

t AS-PEC'TION, n. The act of viewing. Brown. 

ASP'EN, or ASP, n. [D. esp ; G. aspe, Hspe ; Sax. aspe.] A 
species of the poplar, so called from the trembling of its 
leaves, which move with the slightest impulse of the 

ASP'EN, a. Pertaining to the aspen, or resembling it ; made 
of aspen wood. 

ASTER, a. [L.] Rough ; rugged. [Little used.] 

AS'PER, 71. [L, aspiro, to breathe,] In grammar, the Greek 
accent '. 

AS'PER, n. A Turkish coin. 

AS'PE-RATE, v.t. [L. aspero.] To make rough or uneven. 

AS-PE-Ra'TION, n. A making rough. 

AS-PER-GOIRE', n. [Fr. aspersoir.] A holy-water-sprin- 
kle. Warton. 

AS-PER-I-Fo'LI-ATE, a. [L. asper ?iiiA. folium.] Having 
rough leaves. 

AS-PER-I-FO'LI-OUS, a. Having leaves rough to the touch, 

AS-PER'I-TY, 77, [L. asperitas.] 1, Roughness of surface : 
unevenness ; opposed to smoothness. 2. Roughness of 
sound ; harshness of pronunciation. 3. Roughness to the 
taste ; sourness. 4, Roughness or ruggedness of temper j 
moroseness ; sourness ; crabbedness, 5, Sharpness. 

t AS'PER-LY, or AS'PRE-LY, adv. Roughly ; sharply. 

AS-PER-Na'TION, 77. [L, aspernatio.] Neglect ; disregard . 

ASTER-OUS, a. [L. asper, rough.] Rough; uneven. 

AS-PERSE', (as-pers') v. t. [L. aspergo, aspersus.] 1 To 
bespatter with foul reports or false and injurious charges ; 
to tarnish in point of reputation, or good name ; to slander 
or calumniate. 2. To cast upon. 

AS-PERS'ER, 71. One that asperses, or vilifies another. 

AS-PER'SION, 71. A sprinkling. 2. The spreading of ca 
lumnious reports or charges. 

AS-PHALT', or AS-PHALT'UM, n. [Gr. aacpaXroi.] Bitu- 
men Judaicum, Jew's pitch ; a smooth, hard, brittle, black 
or brown substance, which breaks with a polish, melts 
easily when heated, and, when pure, bums without leav- 
ing any ashes. 

AS-PHALT'I€, a. Pertaining to asphalt, or containing it ; 
bituminous. Milton. 

AS-PHALT'ITE, a. Pertaining to or containing asphalt. 

* See Synopsis. MOVE, BOOK, D6VE ;— B^LL, UNITE— € as K ; G as J ; S as Z ; CH as SH ; TH as in this, f Obsolete. 




.S'PHO-DEL, n. [L and Gr. j King's-spear ; a genus of 

liliaceous plants, cultivated for the beauty of their flowers. 

iS-PHtJ'REL-ATES, n. [Gr. a and aipvpa.] A series of 

semimetallic fossils. 
\.S-PHYX'Y, n. [Gr. a(7(pv^ia.] A temporary suspension of 
the motion of the heart and arteries ; swooning ; fainting. 

'^Sl'ie, 7i. i. The asp, which see. 2. A piece of ord- 
nance, carrjing a twelve pound shot. 

ASP'ie, 71. A species of lavender, a plant. 

AS-PI'RANT, n. One who aspires, breathes after, or seeks 
with eagerness. 

AS'PI-RATE, V. t. [L. asjnro.] To pronounce with a 
breathing, or full emission of breath. We aspirate the 
words horse and house. 

AS'PI -KATE, V. i. To be uttered with a strong breathing ; 
as, the letter h aspirates. Dryden. 

AS'Pl-RATE, n. A letter marked with an asper, or note of 
breathing ; a mark of aspiration, as the Greek accent ' . 

AS'Pl-RATE, a. Pronounced with a full breath. 

AS PI-RA-TED, pp. Uttered with a strong emission of 

AS'Pl-RA-TING, ;7pr. Pronouncing with a full breath. 

AS-PI-Ra'TION, n. ]. The pronunciation of a letter with 
a full emission of breath. 2. A breathing after ; an ardent 
wisli or desire. 3. The act of aspiring, or of ardently de- 
siring what is noble or spiritual. 

AS-PiRE', r. i. [L. aspiro.] 1. To desire with eagerness ; 
to pant after an object. 2. To aim at something elevated. 

t AS-PTRE MENT, n. The act of aspiring. Brewer. 

AS-PlR'ER, n. One who aspires ; one who aims to rise. 

AS-PiR'ING, ppr. Desiring eagerly ; aiming at something 
noble, great, or spiritual. 

AS-PlR'LNG, a. Ambitious ; animated with an ardent de- 
sire^ of power, importance, or excellence. 

AS-PlR'ING, n. 1. Ambition ; eager desire of something 
great. 2^ Points ; stops. [JVot used.] 

AS-POR-Ta-TION, ?!. [li.asportatio.] A carrying away. — 
In laK, the felonious removal of goods. 

A-SQ,UINT', adv. [D. schuinte.] 1. To the corner or angle 
of the eye ; obliquely ; towards one side. 2. Not with 
regard, or due notice. 

ASS, 71. [W. Gsyn ; Ir. asan ; L. asinus.l ]. A quadruped 
of the equine geni's 2. A dull, heavy, stupid fellow : a 

AS-SA'I. [It.] A term in music ; added to a word signify- 
ing slow, it denotes a little quicker ; and to a word sig- 
nifying quick, it denotes a little slower. 

AS-SaIL', v. t. [Fr. assaillir.] 1. To leap or fall upon by 
violence ; to assault ; to attack suddenly. 2. To invade 
or attack, in a hostile manner. 3. To attack with argu- 
ments, censure, abuse, or criticism. 

AS-SaIL'A-BLE, a. That may be assailed, attacked, or 

[Fr.] One who assails, attacks, or as- 

Assaulting ; attacking ; invading with 
Assaulted ; invaded ; attacked 




AS-SAIL'ED, (as-sald') pp 
with violence. 

AS-SaIL'ER, 71. One who assails. 

AS-SaIL'ING, ppr. Assaulting ; invading by force , at- 
tacking with violence. 

tAS-S_ATL'MENT, ??. Attack. Johnson. 

AS-SA-PAN'ie, 71. The flying squirrel. 

AS'SA-RON, 7(. A Hebrew measure of five pints. 

AS-SART', n. [o\i Fr. assarter.] 1. In ancient laics, the 
offense of grubbing up trees, and thus destroying thickets 
or coverts of a forest. 2. A tree plucked up by the roots ; 
also, a piece of land cleared. Ash. 

AS-SART', V t. To grub up trees ; to commit an assart. 

AS-SAS'SIN, n. One who kills, or attempts to kill, by sur- 
prise or secret assault. 

t AS-SAS'SIN, V. t. To murder. Stillingfieet. 

AS-SAS'SIN-ATE, v.t. 1. To kill, or attempt to kill, by 
surprise or secret assault ; to murder by sudden violence. 
2. To waylay : to take by treachery. 

t AS- S AS SIN- ATE, 7i. A murder or murderer. 

AS-SAS'SIN-A-TED, pp. Murdered by surprise, or secret 

AS-SAS'SIN-A-TING, ppr. Murdering by surprise or secret 

AS-SAS-SIN-A TION, n. The act of killing or murdering, 
by surprise or secret assault ; murder by violence. 

AS-SAS'SlN-A-'l OR, n. Aj\ assassin, which see. 

t A3-SAS'SI-NOUS, a.. Murderous. 

AS-SAS'SINS, n. In %ria, atribe or clan called Ismaelians, 
Batavists, or Eatenians. 

t AS-Sa'TION, n. [Fr.] A roasting. 

AS-SAULT', 71. [Ft. assault, now assaut.} 1. An attack, 
or violent onset. 2. An attack by hostile words or meas- 
ures.- 3. In lair, an unlawful setting upon one's person ; 
an attempt or o/Ter to beat another, without touchhig his 
person. If thf blow aimed takes efiect, it is a battery. 

AS-SAULT', V. t. 1. To attack or fall tipon by violence, 
or with a hostile intention, 2. To invade or fall on with 
force. 3. To attack by words, arguments, or unfriendly 
measures, with a view to shake, impair, or overthrow. 

AS-SAULl'A-BLE, a. That may be assaulted. Williams. 

AS-SAULT'ED, pp Attacked with force, arms, violence, 
or hostile views. 

AS-SAULT'ER. n. One who assaults, or violently attacks. 

AS-SAULT'ING, ppr. Attacking with force, or with hostile 

AS-SaY', 77, [Fr. essai; Sp. ensayo.] 1. The trial of the 
goodness, purity, weight, value. Sec. of metals or metallic 
substances, — 2. In law, an examination of weights and 
measures by the standard. 3. Examination ; trial ; ef- 
fort ; first entrance upon &ny business ; attempt. 4. 
Value ; great purity. Obs. 

AS-Sa Y', V. t. 1. To try or prove, by examination or ex- 
periment, the quantity and purity of metallic substances. 
2. To apply to the touchstone. Milton. 

AS-SaY', v. i. To attempt, try, or endeavor. 

AS-SaY'-BAL-ANCE, 77. A balance for the trial of the 
weight and purity of metals. 

AS-SaY'ED, (as-sade') pp. Examined ; tested ; proved by 

AS-SaY'ER, n. One who examines metals to find their 
quantity and purity. An ofiicer of the mint, whose busi- 
ness is to try the weight and purity of metals. 

AS-SaY'ING, ppr. Trying by some standard ; examining 
by experiment, as metals ; proving ; attempting. 

AS-SaY'-MAS-TER,77. Anassayer; an ofiicer appointed to 
try the weight and fineness of the precious metals. 

t AS-SE€-Ta'TION, 71. [L. assectatio.] Attendance, or 
waiting upon. Diet. 

t AS'SE-€LE, 77. [L. assecla.l A dependent ; a follower. 

t AS-SE-€U'RANCE, n. Assurance. Sheldon. 

t AS-SE-€U-Ra'TION, n. Assurance ; a making secure. 

t AS-SE-€URE', V. t. To secure. Bullokar. 

AS-SE-€u'TION, 77. [L. assequar.] An obtaining or acquir- 
ing. Ayliffc. 

AS-SEM'BLAGE, 71. [Fr.] 1. A collection of individuals, 
or of particular things ; the state of being assembled. 2. 
Rarely, the act of assembling. 

f AS-SEM'BLANCE, 77. Representation ; an assembling. 

AS-SEM'BLE, v, t. [Fr. assembler.'] To collect a number 
of individuals or particulars into one place, or body ; to 
bring or call together 5 to convene ; to congregate. 

AS-SEM'BLE, v. i. To meet or come together ; to convene, 
as a number of individuals, 

AS-SEM'BLED, pp. Collected into a body ; congregated. 

AS-SEM'BLER, 7?. One who assembles. 

AS-SEM'BLING, p;jr. Coming together ; collecting into one 

AS-SEM'BLING, n. A collection or meeting together 
Heb. X. 

AS-SEM'BLY, 77, [Sp, asamblea ; It, assemblea ; Fr, assent 
blee.] 1. A company or collection of individuals in the 
same place ; usually for the same purpose. 2. A congre- 
gation or religious society convened. 3. In some of the 
United States, the legislature. 4. A collection of persons 
for amusement. 5. A convocation, convention, or coun- 
cil of ministers and ruling elders delegated from each 
presbytery. — 6. In armies, the second beating of the drum 
before a march, when the soldiers strike their tents. 7. 
An asspmblage. [J^Tot in use.] 

AS-SEM'BLY-ROOM, n. A room in which persons assem- 

AS-SENT', 71. [L. assensus.] 1. The act of the mind in 
admitting, or agreeing to, the trath of a proposition. 2 
Consent ; agreement to a proposal, respecting some right 
or interest. 3. Accord ; agreement. 

AS-SENT', 7;. i. To admit as true ; to agree, yield, or con- 
cede, or rather to express an agreement of the mind to 
what is alledged, or proposed. 

AS-SEN-Ta'TION, 77. [L, assentatio.] Compliance with 
the opinion of another, from flattery or dissimulation. 

AS-SEN-Ta'TOR, 7!. A flatterer. 

t AS-SEN-TA-To'RI-LY, adv. With adulation. 

AS-SENT ER, 77. One who assents, agrees to, or admits 

AS-SENT'ING, pp): Agreeing to, or admitting as true , 
yielding to. 

AS-SENT'ING-LY, adv. In a manner to express assent , 
by agreement, 

AS-SENT'MENT, n. Assent ; agreement. Brown. [Rarely 

AS-SERT', ?7. «. [L. assero, assertum.] 1. To afiirm posi 
lively •, to declare with assurance •, to aver. 2. To main- 
tain or defend by words or measures ; to vindicate a claim 
or title to. 

AS-SERT'ED, pp. Affirmed positively ; maintained ; vindi- 

AS-SERT'ING, ppr. Peclaring with confidence ; maintain 
ing ; defending. 

AS-SER'TION, 77. 1. The act of asserting ; the maintainin. 

* Sec Synopsis, a, e, I, 0,.U, Y, Zow^.— FAR, FALL, WHAT -.—PREY ;— PIN, MARiNE, BIRD ;— t 




of a claim. 2. Positive declaration or averment ; affirma- 
tion ; position advanced. 

AS-SERTiVE, a. Positive ; affirming confidently. 

AS-SERT'IVE-LY, adv. Affirmatively. Bedell. 

AS-SERT'OR, n. One who affirms positively ; an affirmer, 
supporter, or vindicator. 

AS-fcERT'U R\r, a. Affirming ; maintaining. 

■f AS-SERVE', V. t. [L. asservio.] To serve. Diet. 

ASSESS', v.t. [Fr. asseoir.] 1. To set, fix, or charge, a 
certain sum upon one, as a tax. 2. To value ; to fix the 
value of property, for the purpose of being taxed. 3. To 
set, fix, or ascertain. 

I AS-SESS', 71. Assessmrnt. 

AS-SESS'A-BLE, a. That may be assessed. 

AS-SESS'ED, (as-sesf) pp. Charged with a certain sum ; 
v^llued ; set ; fixed ; ascertained. 

ASSESS' IN G,ppr. Charging with a sum ; valuing; fixing; 

t AS-SES'SION V. A sitting down by a person. 

AS-SES'SION-A-RY, a. Pertaining to assessors. 

AS-SESS'MENT, n. 1. A valuation of property or profits 
of business, for the purpose of taxation. 2. A tax. or spe- 
cific sum diarged on the person or property. 3. The act 
of assessing ; the act of detennining the amount of dam- 
ages by a jury. 

AS-SEfeSiQll, n. 1. One appointed to assess the person or 
property. 2. An inferior officer of justicey^ who sits to 
assist the judge. 3. One who sits by another, as next in 

AS -SETS,n. plu. [Fr. assez.] Goods or estate of a deceased 
person, sufficient to pay the debts of tlie deceased. 

AS-SEV'ER, I V. t. [L. assevero.] To affirm or aver 

AS-SEVER-ATE, ) positively, or with solemnity. 

AS-SEV-ER-A'TION, n. Positive affirmation or assertion ; 
solemn declaration. 

ASS'-JHEAD, /(. One dull, like the ass ; one slow of appre- 
hension : a blockhead. 

AS-SI-De'ANS, or CHAS-I-De'ANS, n. A sect of Jews. 

AS'Sl-DENT, a. [L. assideo, assidens.] Assident signs, in 
medicine, are such as usually attend a disease. 

t AS-SID^U-ATE, a. Daily. K. Charles. 

AS-SI-Du'I-TY, 71. [L. assidititas.] 1. Constant or close 
application to any business or enterprise ; diligence. 2. 
Attention ; attentiveness to persons. — .dssiduities, in the 
plural, are services rendered with zeal and constancy. 

AS-tJlD'U-OUS, a. [L. assiduus.] 1. Constant in applica- 
tion. 2. Attentive ; careful ; regular in attendance. 3. 
Performed with constant diligence or attention. 

AS-SID' U-OUS-LY, ado. Diligently; attentively; with 
earnestness and care ; with regular attendance. 

AS SID'U-OUS-NESS, n. Constant or diligent application. 

|- AS S1e6E', 77. f . [Ft. assieger.j To besiege. Diet. 

AS-S[-ENT'0, n. [Sp. asiento.j A contract or conven- 

AS-SiGN', (as-sIneO v. t. [Fr. assigner.] I. To allot ; to 
appoint or grant by distribution or apportionment. 2. To 
designate or appoint for a particular purpose. 3. To fix, 
specify, or designate. 4. To make or set over ; to trans- 
fer, sell, or convey, by writing. 5. To alledge or show 
in particular. — 6. In law, to show or set forth with par- 

AS-SiGN', (as-sine') n. A person to whom property or an 
interest is or may be transferred. 

AS-SIGN' A-BLE, (as-sine a-bl) a. 1. That may be allotted, 
appointed, or assigned. 2. That may be transferred by 
writing. 3. That may be specified, shown with precision, 
or designated. 

AS'SIG-NAT, n. A public note or bill in France ; paper 
currency^ Burke. 

AS-SIG-Na'TION, 7j. I. An appointment of time and place 
for meeting ; used chiefly of love-meetings. 2. A making 
over by transfer of title. 3. In Rtissia, a public note, or 
baiik bill ; paper currency. 
AS-SlGN'ED, (as-sind') pp. Appointed ; allotted ; made 
over ; shown or designated. 

AS-SIGN-EE', (as-se-ne') n. A person to whom an assign- 
ment is made ; a person appointed or deputed to do seme 
actj^or enjoy some riglit, privilege, or property. 

AS-SiGN'ER, (as-si'ner) n. One who assigns, or appoints. 

AS-SlGN'ING, ppr. Allotting ; appointing ; transferring ; 

shojving specially. 
AS-SlGN'MENT, (as-slne'ment) n. 1. An allotting, or an 
appointment to a particular person or use. 2. A transfer 
of title or interest by writing. 3. The writing by which 
an interest is transferred. 4. The appointment or designa- 
tion of causes or actions in court, for trial on particular 
days.— 5. In law the conveyance of the whole interest 
which a mar has in an estate, usually for life or years. 
AS-SIGN-OR'. (as-se-nor ) 77. An assigner ; a person who 

assigns or transfers an interest. 
AS-SIM J-LA-BLE, a. That may be assimilated. 
AS-SIM 1-LATE, 75. t. [L. assimilo.] 1. To bring to a like- 
ness ; to caus3 to resemble. 2. To " 

convert into a like 


AS-SIM'I-LATE, v.i. 1. To become similar. 2. To be 
converted into a like substance. 

AS-SIM' 1-LA-TED, pp. Brought to a likeness ; changed 
into a like substance. 

tAS-SlM'I-LATE-]\ESS, 77. Likeness. Diet. 

AS-SIM' I-LA-TING, ppr. Causing to resemble ; converting 
into a like substance. 

AS-S1M-1-La'TION, 71. 1. The act of bringing to a resem- 
blance. 2. The act or process by which bodies convert 
ither bodies into their own nature ai J substance. 

AS-SIM'I-LA-TlVE, a. Having power of converting to a 
likeness, or to a like substance. 

tAS-SlM'U-LATE, 7;.t. [h. assimulo.] To feign. 

{aS-SIM-U-La'TION, n. A counierfeiting. See Simula- 

AS SI-NE'GO, n. [Port.] An ass. Sir T. Herbert. 

AS-SIST', V. t. [L. assisto.] To help ; to aid ; to succor 5 to 
give support to in some undertaking or effiart, or in tmie 
of distress, 

AS-SIST', V. i. To lend aid. 

AS-SIST'ANCE, n. Help ; aid ; furtherance succor ; a 
contribution of support. 

AS-SIST 'ANT, a. Helping ; lending aid or support ; auxil- 

AS-SIST'ANT, 71. One who aids, or who contributes his 
strength, or other means, to further the designs or welfare 
of another ; an auxiliary. 

t AS-SIST'ANT-LY, adv. So as to assist. Sternkold. 

AS-SIST'ED, pp. Helped ; aided. 

AS-SIST'ER, n. One that lends aid. 

AS-SIST'ING, ppr. Helping ; aiding ; supporting with 
strength or means, 

AS-SIST'LESS, a. Without aid or help. Pope. 

AS-SiZE', or AS-Si'ZES, n. [Fr. assises, and sometimes 
so written in EngUsh.] 1. Originally, an assembly of 
knights and other substantial men, with a bailiff or jus- 
tice, for public business. 2. A court in England, held in 
every county by special commission to one of the judges, 
who is called a justice of the assize, and empowered to 
take assizes, that is, the verdict of a jury called the assize. 
3. A jury. 4. A writ. 5. A particular species of rents. 
6. The time or place of holding the court of assize. 7. In 
a more general sense, any court of justice. 8. A statute 
of regulation ; an ordinance rt-gulating the weight, meas- 
ure, and price of articles sold in market ; and hence the 
word came to signify the weight, measure, or price itself 
This word is, in a certain sense, now corrupted into size, 
wliich see. 

AS-SiZE', V. t. To fix the weight, measure, or price ot 
commodities, by an ordinance or regulation of authority. 

AS-SlZ'ED, (as-slzd') pp. Regulated in weight, measure, 
or price, by an assize or ordinance. 

AS-SrZ'ER, 71. An officer who has the care or inspection of 
weights and measures. 

AS-SlZ'OR, 77. In Scotland, a juror. Bailey. 

ASS'-LIKE, a. Resembling an ass. Sidney. 

t AS-So'BER, 75. f. To keep under. Oower. 

AS-SO-CIA-BIL'I-TY, n. The quality of being capable of 
association ; the quality of suffering some change by sym- 
pathy. Darwin. 

AS-So'CIA-BLE, (as-so'sha-bl) a. 1. That may be joined 
to or associated. — 2. In a medical sense, liable to be af- 
fected by sympathy. 

AS-So'CIATE, (as-so'shate) v. t. [Fr. associer ; L. associo.] 
I. To join in company, as a friend, companion, partner, 
or cjjnfederate. 2. To unite in the same mass. 

AS-So'CIATE, V. i. 1. To unite in company ; to keep com- 
pany, implying intimacy. 2. To unite in action, or be 
affected by tlie action of a different part of the body. 

AS-SO'CIATE, a. Joined in interest, purpose, or office ; 

AS-So'CIATE, 71. 1. A companion ; one frequently in 
company with another ; a mate ; a fellow. 2. A partner 
in interest, as in business ; or a confederate in a league. 
3. A companion in a criminal transaction ; an accomplice. 

AS-So'CIA-TED, pp. United in company or in interest ; 

AS-So'CIATE-SHIP, n. The state or office of an associate 

AS-So'CIA-TING, ppr. Uniting in company or in interest , 

AS-SO-CI-A'TION, 77. 1. The act of associating ; union ; 
connection of persons. 2. Union of persons in a company ; 
a society formed for transacting or carrying on some busi- 
ness for mutual advantage ; a partnership ; a confederacy 

3. Union of things ; apposition, as of particles of matter 

4. Union or connection of ideas. An association of ideas, 
is where two or more ideas constantly or naturally follow 
each other in the mind, so that one almost infallibly pro- 
duces the other. 5. An exertion or change of some ex- 
treme part of the sensory residing in the muscles or organs 
of sense, in consequence of some antecedent or attendant 
fibrous contractions. Darioin. — 6 In ecclesiastical affairs, 
a society of the clergy. 

* See Synopsis. M5VE, BOOK, DOVE ;— BIJLL, UNITE.— € as K : (^^ as J : S as Z ; CH as SH ; TH as in this, f Obsolete 


ASS "^^^ \ '58 

AS-SO-CIa'TION-AL, a. Pertaining to an association of 

AS-So'CIA-Ti VE, a. Having tlie quality of associating, or 
of being affected by sympathy 

t AS-SO-CiArOR, n. A confederate. Dryden. 

\ AS-SO£L', V. t. [Old Fr. ; L,. ahsoloo.} To solve ; to re- 
lease ; to absolve. Mede 

fAS-SUlL', w t. [Ft.sGuiller.'] To soil ; to stain. 

AS'SO-NANCE, 71. [Fr.] Resemblanceof sounds,— In rAet- 
oric and poetry^ a resemblance in sound or terminatirn, 
withou' making rhyme. 

ASSO-NAiN'T, a. Having a resemblance of sounds. 

f AS'SO-NATE, V. i. [L. assoiio.] To sound like a bell. 

A.<SORT', V. t. [Fr. assortir.] 1. To separate and dis- 
tribute into classes. 2. To furnish with all sorts. 

AS-S( >RT', V. i. To agree ; to be in accordance vi'ith. 

AS-SORTED, pp. 1. Distributed into sorts, kinds, or 
classes. 2. Furnished with an assortment. Burke. 

AS-SORT ING, ppr. Separating into sorts •, supplying with 
an assortment. 

AS-SORT'MENT, n. 1. The act of distributing into sorts. 
2. A mass or quantity ofVarious kinds or sorts ; or a num- 
ber of things assorted. 

f AS-SOT', V. t. To infatuate ; to besot. Spenser. 

AS-S(Ja6E', (as-swaje') v. t. To soften ; to allay, mitigate, 
ease, or lessen, as pain or grief; to appease or pacify, as 
passion or tumult. 

AS-SUa6E', v. i. To abate or subside. Gen. viii. 

AS-SUa6'ED, (as-swajd') pp. Allayed ; mitigated ; eased ; 

AS-SUa6E'MENT, n. Mitigation ; abatement. 

AS-SUaG'ER, 71. One who allays ; that which mitigates or 

Aa-SUA6'ING, ppr. Allaying ; mitigating ; appeasing 5 

AS-SJa'SIVE, a. Softening ; mitigating ; tranquilizing. 

t AS-SUB'JECT, v. t. [Fr. assoubjectir.] To make subject. 

t AS-SUB'JU-GATE, v. t. To subject to. Shak. 

t AS-SLrE-FA€'TION, n. [L. assuefacio.] The act of ac- 
customing. Bro7j)n. 

AS'SUE-TUDE, (as'swe-tude) n. [L. assuetudo.] Custom ; 
hamt •, habitual use. Bacon. 

AS-SUME', V. t. [L. assumo.] 1. To take, or take upon 
one. 2. To arrogate ; to seize unjustly. 3. To take for 
granted, or without proof-, to suppose as a fact. 

AS-SUxME', V. i. 1. To be arrogant ; to claim more than is 
due. — 2. In law, to take upon one's self an obligation ; 
to undertake or promise. 

AS-SuM'ED, (,as-sumd') pp. Taken ; arrogated ; taken 
without proof 5 pretended. 

f A3-Su'MENT, «. [Ij. assumentam.] A piece or patch set on. 

AS-SuM'ER, 71. One who assumes ; an arrogant person. 

AS-SuM'xNG ppr. Taking ; arrogating ; taking for grant- 
ed ;_ pretending. 

AS-SuM'ING, a. Taking or disposed to take upon one's 
selfmore than is just ; hauglity ; arrogant. 

AS-SuMTNG, 71. Presumption. Juvson. 

AS-SUMP'SIT, n. [pret. tense of L. assiimo.] 1. In law, 
a promise or undertaking founded on a consideration. 
2. An action founded on a promise. 

tAS-SUMPT', w. t. To take up; to raise. Sheldon. 

t AS-SUMPT', n. That which is assumed. 

AS-SUMP'TION, n. [L. assiimptio.] 1. The act of taking 
to one's self. 2. The act of taking for granted ; supposi- 
tion. 3. The thing supposed ; a postulate or proposition 
assumed. — In locric, the minor or second proposition in a 
categorical syllogism. 4. A consequence drawn from the 
proposition of whicli an argument is composed. 5. Un- 
dertaking ; a taking upon one's self. Kent. — 6. In tlie 
Rmnlsk church, the taking up a person into heaven, as 
the Virgin Mary. Also, a festival in honor of the mirac- 
ulous ascent of Mary. 7. Adoption. 

AS-SUMP'TIVE, a. That is or may be assumed. 

.4S-SU'RANCE, (as-shQ'-ranse) ?;. [Fr.] 1. The act of as- 
suring. 2. Firm persuasion ; full confidence or trust ; 
freedom from doubt ; certain expectation ; tlie utmost 
certainty. 3. Firmness of mind ; undoubting steadiness ; 
intrepidity. 4. Excess of boldness ; impudence. 5. 
Freedom from excessive modesty, timidity, or bashful- 
ness ; laudable confidence. 6. Insurance ; a contract to 
make good a loss. [Sse Insurance.] 7. Any writing or 
legal evidence of the conveyance of property. 8. Con- 
viction. — 9. In theoloffy, full confidence of one's interest 
in Christ, and of final salvation. 

AS-SuRE', (ash-shure') ". t. [Fr. assurer.] ]. To make 
certain ; to give confidence by a promise, declaration, or 
other evidence. 2. To confirm ; to make certain or se- 
cure. 3. To embolden ; to make confident. 4. To make 
secure, with of before the object secured. 5. To afliance ; 
to betroth. \dbs,] Shak. 6. To insure ; lo covenant to 
indemnify for loss. See Insure. 
AS-SUR'ED, (ash shurd') iJp. Made certain or confident; 
made secure ; insured. I 

AST- — .. 

AS-SUR'ED, (ash-shur'-ed, or ash-shiird') a. Certain ; indtt- 

bitable ; not doubting ; bold to excess. 
AS-SuR'ED-LY, (ash-shur'-ed-ly) adv. Certainly ; indubi- 
AS-SuR'ED-NESS, (ash-shur'-ed-ness) n. The state of be- 
ing assured ; certainty ; full confidence. 
AS-SUR'ER, (ash-shur'-er) n. One who assures ; one who 

insures against loss ; an insurer or underwriter. 
AS-SUE'6ENT, a. [L. assurgens, assurgo.] Rising up- 
wards in an arch Eaton. 
AS-SU R'iNG, ppr. Making sure or confident ; giving secu ■ 

rity ; confirming. 
AS-SVVaGE'. See Assuage. 

AS'TA-CITE, I n. [Gr. aaraKos and \idos.] Petrified 
AS'TA-€0-L1TE, ) or fossil craw-fish, and other crusta- 

ceous animals ; called also cancriles, crabites, and gam- 

AS'TE-ISM, n. [Gr. ao-reiof.] In rhetoric, genteel irony ; a 

polite and ingenious manner of deriding another 
AS'TER, 71. [Gr. aarijp.] A genus of plants with compound 

AS-Te'RI-AS, or AS'TER, n. [Gr. aarri^.l Stella marina, 

sea-star, or star-fish. 
AS-Te'RI-A-TED, a. Radiated ; presenting diverging rays, 

like a star. Cleaveland. 
AS-Te'RI-A-TITE, n. Petrified asterias. 
ASfTER-ISK, n. [Gr. aaTEpicKo<;.] The figure of a star, 

thus. *, used in printing and writing. 
AS'TER-ISM, 7). [Gr. aaTepicrjioi.] 1. A constellation ; a 

sign in the zodiac. 2. An asterisk, or mark of reference. 
AS'TE-RITE, or star-stone. See Astrite. 
A-STERN', adv. 1. In or at the hinder part of a ship ; or 

towards the hinder part, or backwards. 2. Behind a 

ship, at any indefinite distance. 
AS'TE-ROID, 71, [Gr. aaryp and £1605.] A name given by 

Herschel to the newly discovered planets between the 

orbits of Mars and Jupiter. 
AS-TE-ROID'AL, a. Resembling a star; or pertaining to 

the asteroids. Journ. of Science. 
AS'TE-RO-PODE, ) n. [Gr. acrnp and irovs, -koSos.] A 

AS-TE-RO-Po'DI-UM, \ kind of extraneous fossil. En- 

t AS-TERT', V. t. To startle. Spenser. 
AS-THEN 'I€, (as-ten'ik) a. [Gr. a and cBevog.] Weak ; 

characterized by extreme debility. 
AS-THE-NOL'0-6Y, n. [Gr. a, cdevog, and \oyos.] The 

doctrine of diseases arising from debility. 
ASTH'MA, (ast'ma) n. [Gr. acBpa.] A shortness of breath ; 

intermitting difficulty of breathing, with cough, strait- 

ness, and wheezing. 
ASTH-MAT'lC, a. Pertaining to asthma ; also, affected by 

t AS-TIP'U-LATE, for Stipulate. 
fAS-TIP-U-LA'TlON, for Stipulation. 
t AS-ToNE', or t AS-TON'Y, 7;. t. [See Astonish.] Toter- 

rify or astonish. Chaucer. 

\ Al-TON'fED I PP' -Astonished. Spenser. Milton. 

t AS-TON'IED-NESS, n. The state of being astonished 

AS-TON'ISH, V. t. [Old Fr. estonner, now itonner ; L. at- 
tono.] To stun or strike dumb with sudden fear, terror, 
surprise, or wonder ; to amaze ; to confound with some 
sudden passion. 

AS-TON'ISHED, pp. Amazed ; confounded with fear, sur- 
prise, or admiration. 

AS-TON'ISH-ING, p2"'' Amazing; confounding with won- 
der or fear. 

AS-TON'ISII-ING, a. Very wonderful ; of a nature to ex- 
cite great admiration or amazement. 

AS-TON'ISH-ING-LY, adv. In a manner or degree to ex- 
cite amazement. Bp. Fleetwood. 

AS-TON'ISII-ING-NESS, 7i. The quality of exciting aston- 

AS-TON'ISH-MENT, n. Amazement ; confusion of mind 
from fear, surprise, or admiration, at on extraordinary or 
unexpected event. 

AS-TOUND', V. t. To astonish ; to strike dumb with 
amazement. [From Old Fr. estonner.] 

t AS- TOUND', 7;. i. To shake ; to stun. Thomson. 

A-STRAD'DLE, adv. With the legs across a thing, or on 
different sides. 

AS'TRA-GAL, n. [Gr. acTpayaXo^-'] I. In architecture, a 
little round molding, which surrounds the top or bottom of 
a column, in the form of a ring. — 2. In gunnery, a round 
molding on cannon near the mouth. — 3. In anatomy, the 
huckle, ankle, or sling bone ; the upper bone of the foot, 
supporting the tibia. Coze. — 4. In botany, the wood-pea ; 
the milk vetch; the licorice vetch. ' . 

AS'TRAL, a. [L. astrxLm ; Gr. aarrjp.] Belonging to the 
stars ; starry. Dryden. 

A-STRaY', adv. Out of the right way, or proper place. 

* Sec Synopsis. A_ 13. I, o, V, Y, long.— F All, FALL, WH/^T }— PREY ;— PIN, MARINE, BIRD ;— f Obsolete. 




AS-TRe'A, 71. [Gr. aarrip.] The goddess of justice. Encyc. 

AS-TR1€T', V. t. [L. astrinffo, astrictus.] To bind fast, or 
compress. [JVot much used.'] 

AS-T11I€T', a. Compendious ; contracted. Weever. 

AS-TR1€T'ED, pp. Bound fast ; compressed with ban- 

AS-TR1€T ING, ppr. Binding close ; compressing ; con- 

AS-TR1€'T10N, n. 1. The act of binding close. 2. A 
contraction of parts by applications ; the stopping of hem- 
orrhages. Coze. 

AS-TR]€T'IVE, a. Binding •, compressing ; styptic. 

AS-TR[€TO-RY, a. Astringent ; binding ; apt to bind. 

A-STRlDE', adv. With the legs open. Hudihras. 

AS-TRIF'£R-OUS, a. [L. astrifer.] Bearing or containing 
stars. {Little used.] 

t AS-TRIG'ER-OUS, a. [Low L. astriger.] Bearing stars. 

AS-TRINGE', V. t. [L. astringo.] To compress ; to con- 
tract by pressing the parts together. 

AS-TRIJNG'ED, (as-trinjd') pp. Compressed ; straitened ; 

AS-TRING'EN-CY, n. The power of contracting the parts 
of the body ; that qnality in medicines which binds, con- 
tracts, or strengthens parts which are relaxed. 

AS-TRINg'ENT, a. Binding ; contracting ; strengthening ; 
opposed to laxative. 

AS-TRIA'G'ENT, n. An astringent medicine. 

AS-TRIN6'ER, n, A falconer that keeps a goss hawk. 

AS-TRING'ING, ppr. Compressing ; binding fast ; con- 

AS-TRITE , n. [Gr. ttorvp.] An extraneous fossil, called 
also asteria and astroit. 

AS-TROG'RA-PHY, n. [Gr. airrrip, or aarpov, and ypacpw.] 
A description of the stars, or the science of describing 

AS'TROIT, n. 1. Star-stone. [See Astrite.] 2. A species 
of petrified madrepore. 

AS'TRO-LABE, n. [Gr. aarTtip and Xa^ELV.] 1. An instru- 
ment formerly used for taking the altitude of the sun or 
stars at sea. 2. A stereographic projection of the sphere. 
3. Among the ancients ^ the same as the modern armillary 

AS-TROL'0-6ER, ) n. [L. astrologus.,\ 1. One who 

AS-TRO-Lo'GI-AN, \ professes to foretell future events 
by the aspects and situation of the stars. .Bstrologian is 
little used. 2. Formerly, one who understood the mo- 
tions of the planets without predicting. Raleigh. 

it7rlo±o%\%i., I ''■ Pertaining to astrology. 

AS-TRO-LOG'I-€AL-LY, adv. In the manner of astrology. 

AS-TROL 0-GlZE, v. i. To practice astrology. 

AS-TROL O-GY, n. A science which leaches to judge of 
tlie effects and influences of the stars, and to foretell fu- 
ture events, by their situation and different aspects. 

AS-TRON'O-MER, n. One who is versed in astronomy. 

aItRoInOM'iSaL, i «• Pertaining to astronomy. 

AS-TRO-NOM'I-€AL-LY, adv. In an astronomical man- 
ner ; by the principles of astronomy. 

AS-TRON'O-AliZE, v. u To study astronomy. Brown. 
[Little used.] 

AS-TRON'0-MY, n. [Gr. aarpov and vof/os.] The science 
which teaches the knowledge of the celestial bodies, 
their magnitudes, motions, distances, periods of revolu- 
tion, aspects, eclipses, order, &c. 

ASTRO-SCOPE, n. [Gr. aarpov and (TKo-neu).] An astro- 
nomical instrument. 

AS'TRO-Se')-PV", 71. Observation of the stars. 

AS'TEO-TilE-OL'O-GY, n. [L. astrum and theologia.] 
Theology founded on the observation of the celestial 

A-^'TRUT', adv. In a strutting manner. 

i A-aTUN', V. t. To stun. 

AS-TuTE', a. [L. astutus.] Shrewd ; sharp ; eagle-eyed ; 
critically examining or discerning. 

A-SUND'ER, adv. [Sax. asundrian.] Apart ; into parts ; 
separately •, in a divided state. 

f A-SWOON , adv. In a swoon. Qower. 

A-SY'LUM, n. [L.] I. A sanctuary, or place of refuge, 
where criminals and debtors shelter themselves from jus- 
tice. 2. Any place of retreat and security. 

A-SYM'ME-TRAL, ) a. [See Symmetry.] Not having 

AS-YM-MET'RT-CAL, \ symmetry. More. [Little used.] 

A-SYMME-TRY, 7!. [Gr. a KnA (rvnntrpia.] The want of 
proportion between the parts of a thing. 

AS YMP-TOTE, n. [Gr. a, gvv, and rrow.] A line which 
approaches nearer and nearer to some curve, but, though 
infinitely extended, would never meet it. 

AS-YMP-TOT'I-€AL, a. Belonging to an asymptote. 

A-SYN'DE-TOIN, n. [Gr. a and o-ui/(5£w.] In grammar, a 
figure which omits the connective ; as, veni, vidi, vici. 

AT, prep. [ <ax mt ; Goth, at.] In general, at denotes near- 
ness or presence ; as, at the ninth hour, at the house , but 
it is less definite than in or on , at the house, may be in 
or near the house. It denotes, also, totvards, versus ; as, 
to aim an arrow at a mark. From this original import 
are derived all the various uses of at. At the sight, is 
witli, present, ^r coming the sight ; at this news, present 
the news, on or with the approach or arrival of this news. 
At peace, at war, in a state of peace or war, peace or 
war existing, being present ; at ease, at play, at a loss, 
&c., convey the like idea. 

AT A-B AL, n. [Sp.] A kettle drum ; a kind of tabor 

A-TA€'A-MITE, n. A muriate of copper. 

AT'A-GAS, n. The red cock or moor-game. 

AT-A-MAS'€0, n. A species of lily of the genus ama' 

AT'A-RAX-Y, n. [Gr. aTapa')(os.] Calmness of mind ; a 
term used by the Stoics. 

A-TAX'Y, n. [Gr. a and ra^ti-] Want of order } disturb 
ance ; irregularity in the functions of the body. 

ATCHE, 7!. In Turkey, a small silver coin, value about 
six or ?even mills. 

ATE, the preterit oteat, which see. 

a'TE, (a'-ty) 71. [Gr. art].] In pagan mythology, the god- 
dess of mischief. 

A-TEL'LAN, a. Relating to the dramas at Atella. 

A-TEL'LAN, n. A dramatic representation, satirical or li- 
centious. Shaftes^mry. 

A TEMP'O GI-US'TO. [It.] A direction in music, which 
signifies to sing of play in an equal, true, or just time. 

ATH-A-Na'SIAN, a. Pertaining to Athanasius or hia 

ATH-A-Na'SIAN, n. He who espoused the doctrine of 
Athanasius. Waterland. 

ATH'A-NOR, n. A digesting furnace, formerly used in 

_ chemical operations, 

A'THE-ISM, n. The disbelief of the existence of a God, or 
supreme intelligent Being. 

A'THE-IST, 71. [Gr. ab^og.] One who disbelieves the ex- 

_ istence of a God, or supreme intelligent Being. 

A'THE-IST, a. Atheistical ; disbelieving or denying the 
being of a supreme God. 

A-TIlE-ISTie, I a. 1. Pertaining to atheism. 2. Dis- 

A-THE-1ST'I-€AL, \ believing the existence of a God : 
impious. 3. Implying or containing atheism. 

A-THE-IST'I-€AL-LY, adv. In an atheistic manner; im- 
piously. - 

A-THE-IST'I-CAL-NESS, n. The quality of being athe- 
istical. _ 

t a'THE-iZE, v. i. To discourse as an atheist. 

A-THEL, A-DEL, or ^-THEL, noble, of illustrious birth. 
Sax. cnde.l, (sthel ; G. adel ; as in Atheling, a noble 
youth ; Ethelred, noble counsel. 

ATH-E-Ne'UM, n. A reading-room. 

A-THe'NI-AN, a. Pertaining to Athens, the metropolis of 
Attica, in Greece. 

A-THe'NI-AN, 71. A native or inhabitant of Athens. 

ATH-E-0-Lo'GI-AN,?i. One who is opposed to a theologian. 

T ATH-E-OL'0-GY, n. Atheism. Swift. 

t A'THE-OUS, a. Atheistic •, impious. Milton. 

ATH'E-RINE, or ATII-E-RI'NA, n. A genus of fishes of 
the abdominal order. 

ATH-B-RO'MA, or ATH'E-ROJME, n. [Gr. from aQr,pa.'\ 
An encj^sted tumor. 

ATH-E-ROM'A-TOUS, a. Pertaining to or resembling an 
atherome. Wiseman. 

A-THiRST', a. I. Thirsty ; wanting drink. 2. Having a 
keen appetite or desire. 

ATH'LeTE, n. A contender for victory. 

ATH-LET'I€, a. [Gr. aO\nTri?.] 1. Belonging to wres- 
tling, boxing, running, and other exercises. 2. Strong , 
lusty ; robust ; vigorous. 

A-THWART', prep. 1. Across ; from side to side ; trans- 
verse.— 2. In marine language, across the line of a ship's 
course ; as, a fleet standing athwart our course. Mar 

A-THWART', adv. In a manner to cross and perplex , 
crossly 5 wrong; wrongfully. 

A-TILT', adv. 1. In the manner of a tilter ; in the posi- 
tion, or with the action, of a man making a thrust. 2. In 
the manner of a cask tilted, or with one end raised. 

AT'I-MY, n. [Gr. arijxia.] In ancient Greece, disgrace ; 
exclusion from office or magistracy, by some disqualify- 
ing act or decree. 

AT-LAr^'TI-AN, or AT-LAN-TE'AN, a. 1. Pertaining to 
the isle Atlantis, which the ancients alledge was sunk 
and overwhelmed by the ocean. 2. Pertaining to Atlas ; 
resembling Atlas. 

AT-LAN'Tl€, a [from Atlas or Atlantis ] Pertaining to 
the Atlantic ocean. 

AT-LAN'Tie, u The ocean, or that part of the ocean, 
which is between Europe and Africa on the east and 
America on the west. 

♦ See Synopsis. MOVE, BOOK, D6VE ;— BULL, UNITE ;— € as K ; 6 as J ; S as Z ; CH as SH ; TH as in this, f Obsolete 




AT-LAN'Tr-€A, or AT-LAN'TfS, n. An isle mentioned 
by the an'>,ients, situated west of Gades, or Cadiz, on the 
strait of Gibraltar. 

AT-LAN'Ti-DES, n. A name given to tlie Pleiades or seven 

AT-LAN'TIS, n. A fictitious piiilosopliical commonwealth 
of Lord Bacon, or the piece describing it. 

AT LAS, n. J. A collection of maps in a volume ; supposed 
to be so called from a picture of mount Atlas, supporting 
the heavens, prefixed to some collection. Johnson. 2. A 
large, square folio, leserabling a volume of maps. 3. The 
supporters of a building. 4. A silk satin, or stuff, manu- 
factured in the East. 5. The first veitebre of the neck. 
6 A term iipplied to paper, as atlas fine. 

AT-MOM'E-TER, n. [Gr. ar/ioj and yiCTpew.\ An instru- 
ment to measure the quantity of exhalation from a humid 
surface in a given time ; an evaporometer. 

AT'MOS-PHERE, n. [Gr. arfiog and acpai^a.] The whole 
mass of fluid, consisting of air, aqueous and other vapors, 
surrounding the earth. 

AT-MOS-FHER'I€, ) a. 1. Pertaining to the atmosphere, 

AT-M0S-PHER'1-€AL, \ 2. Dependent on the atmosphere. 

AT'OM, n. [Gr. aroixos , L. atomiis.] 1. A particle of mat- 
ter so minute as to admit of no division. 2. The ultimate 
or smallest component part of a body. 3. Any thing ex- 
tremely small. 

A-TOiM'£€, I a. Pertaining to atoms ; consisting of 

A-TOM't-€AL, \ atoms ; extremely mhiute. 

AT'OM-ISM, n. The doctrine of atoms. 

AT'OM-IST, 7/,. One who holds to the atomical philosophy, 

AT'OM-LIKE, a. Resembling atoms. Browne. 

AT'O-MY, n. A word used by Shakspeare for atom ; also an 
abbreviation oi anatomy. 

AT-OiVE', ado. [at and one.'] At one ; together. Spenser. 

A-ToNE', V. i. [supposed to be compounded of ai and one.] 
1. To agree ; to be in accordance ; to accord. [This sense 
is obsolete.] 2. To stand as an equivalent ; to make rep- 
aration, amends or satisfaction for an offense or a crime. 
3. To atone for, to make conrpensation or amends. 

A-ToNE', V. t. 1. To expiate ; to answer or make satisfac- 
tion for. Pope. 2. To reduce to concord ; to appease. 
[Jyot now iLsed.] 

A-ToN'ED, (a-tond') ;;p. Expiated; appeased; reconciled. 

A-ToNE'MENT, n. 1. Agreement; concord; reconcilia- 
tion after enmity or controversy. Rom.Y. 2. Expiation; 
satisfaction or reparation made by giving an equivalent 
for an injury, — 3, In theology, the expiation of sin made 
by the obedience and personal sufferings of Christ, 

A-ToN'ER, ?t. He who makes atonement. 

A-TON'ie, a. Relaxed; debilitated, 

A-ToN'ING, ppr. 1. Reconciling. 2. Making amends, or 

AT 0-NY, n. [Gr. arovia.] Debility ; relaxation ; a want 
of tone or tension ; defect of muscular power ; palsy. 

A-TOP', adv. On or at the top. Milton. 

AT-RA-BI-La'RI-AN, ( a. [L, atra bills.] Affected with 

AT RA-BI-La'RI-OUS, \ melancholy, which the ancients 
attributed to the bile ; replete with black bile, 

AT-RA-Bl-LA'Rl-OUS-NESS, n. The state of being melan- 
choly, or affected with disordered bile, 

AT-RA-MENT'AL, ) a. [L, atramentum.] Inky ; black 

AT-RA-MENT'OUS, \ like ink, 

AT-RA-MEN-Ta'RI-OUS, a. Like ink ; suitable for mak- 
ing ink. 

t A'TRED, a. [L. ater.] Tinged with a black color. 

A-TRfP', adv. In nautical language, the anchor is atrip, 
when drawn out of the ground in a perpendicular direc- 

A-TRo'CIOUS, a. [L. atrox.] 1. Extremely heinous, crim- 
inal or cru€l ; enormous ; outrageous, 2. Very griev- 
ous ;^ violent. Obs. 

A-TRo'CIOUS-LY, adv. In an atrocious manner ; with 
enormous cruelty or guilt. 

A-TRo'CIOUS-NESS, n. The quality of being enormously 
criminal or cruel. 

A-TROC'I-TY, n. Enormous wickedness ; extreme hein- 
ousness or cruelty. 

ATRO-PHY, n. [Gr. a and rpecfxi) ] A consumption or 
wasting of the fiesh, with loss of strength, without any 
sensible cause or hectic fever; a wasting from defect of 

A-TRo'Pl-A, n. A vegetable alkali extracted from the 
atropa belladonna, or deadly nightshade. 

AT-TACH', V. t. [Fr, attacker.] 1. To take by legal au- 
thority ; to arrest the person by writ, to answer for a 
debt, 2. To take, seize and lay hold on, by moral force, 
as by affection or interest ; to win the heart ; to fasten or 
bind by moral influence, 3, To make to adhere ; to tie, 
bind or fasten. 

AT-TACH'A-BLE, a. That may be legally attached ; lia- 
ble to be taken by writ or precept, 

AT-TACH'ED, (at-tachf) pp. Taken by writ or precept ; 
drawn to and fixed, or united by affection or interest. 

AT-TACH'ING, ppr. Taking or seizing by commandment 
or writ ; drawing to, and fixing by influence ; winning 
the affections. 

AT-TACH'MENT, n. L A taking of the person, goods cr 
estate by a writ or precept in a civil action, to secure a 
debt or demand, 2, A writ directing the person or estate 
of a person to be taken, to secure his appearance before a 
court. 3. Close adherence or affection ; fidelity ; regard ; 
any passion or affection that binds a person. 

AT-tA€K , V. t. [Fr. attaquer.] 1. To assault ; to fall upon 
with force ; to assail, as with force and arms. 2. To fall 
upon with unfriendly words or writing ; to begin a con- 
troversy with. 

AT-TACK', n. An onset ; first invasion ; a falling on, with 
force or violence, or with calumny, satire or criticism. 

AT-TA€K'ED, (at-takf) pp. Assaulted ; invaded ; faUen 
on by force or enmity. 

AT-TACK'ER, n. One who assaults or invades. 

AT-TA€K'ING, ppr. Assaulting ; invading ; falling on 
with force, calumny or criticism. 

AT-TA-€OT'TI€, a. Pertaining to the Attacotti, a tribe of 
ancient Britons, allies of the Scots. 

AT'TA-GEN, 7i. A beautiful fowl, resembling the pheas- 

AT-TaIN', v. i. [Fr. and Norm, atteindre.] 1. To reach ; 
to come to or arrive at. 2. To reach ; to come to or ar- 
rive ^t, by an effort of mind. 

AT-TaIN', v. t. 1. To gain ; to compass ; to achieve or ac 
complish, that is, to reach by efforts, 2, To reach or come 
to a place or object by progression or motion. 3. To reach 
in excellence or degree ; to equal. 

t AT-TaIN', 7t. Attainment. Olanville. 

AT-TaIN'A-BLE, a. That may be attained ; that may be 

AT-TaIN'A-BLE-NESS, n. The quality of being attain- 

AT-TaIN'DER, 77. [Norm. Fr, atteindre.] 1. Literally, a 
staining, corruption, or rendering impure ; a corruption 
of blood, 2. The judgment of death, or sentence of a 
competent tribunal upon a person convicted of treason or 
felony, which judgment attaints, taints or corrupts his 
blood, so that he can no longer inherit lands. 3. The act 
of attainting. 

AT-TaIN'MENT, n. 1. The act of attaining ; the act of ar- 
riving at or reaching. 2. That which is attained to, or 
obtained by exertion ; acquisition, 

AT-TaINT', v. t. I. To tahit or corrupt ; to extinguish the 
pure or inheritable blood of a person found guilty of trea- 
son or felony. 2. To taint, as the credit of jurors, con- 
victed of giving a false verdict. 3. To disgrace ; to stain 
4, To taint or corrupt, Shak. 

AT-TaINT', (at-tantO n. 1. A stain, snot or taint. Shak. 

2. Any thing injurious ; that which impairs. [Obs.] Shak. 

3. A blow or wound on the hinder feet of a horse. 4. A 
writ which lies after judgment against a jury for giving a 
false verdict in any court of record. 

fAT-TAINT', part. a. Convicted. 

AT-TaINT'ED, pp. Stained ; corrupted ; rendered infa^ 
mous ; rendered incapable of inheriting. 

AT-TaINT'ING, ppr. Staining ; corrupting ; rendering in- 
famous by judicial act ; depriving of inheritable blood. 

AT-TaINT'MENT, n. The being attainted. 

AT-TaINT'URE, n. A staining or rendering infamous ; 
reproach ; imputation. 

t AT-TAM'IN-ATE, v. t. [L, attamino.] To corrupt. 

t AT-TASK', V. t. To task ; to tax. Shak. 

t AT-TaSTE', v. t. To taste. 

AT-TEM'PER, v. t. [L, attempero.] 1. To reduce, modify 
or moderate by mixture, 2, To soften, mollify or moder- 
ate, 3, To mix in just proportion ; to regulate. 4. To 
accommodate ; to fit or make suitable. 

t AT-TEM'PER-ANCE, n. Temperance. Chaucer. 

AT-TEM'PER-ATE, a. [L. attemperatus.] Tempered ; 
proportioned ; suited. 

t AT-TEM'PER-ATE, v. t. To attemper. 

AT-TEM'PERED, pp. Reduced in quality ; moderated : 
softened ; well mixed ; suited, 

AT-TEM'PER-ING, j9;)r. Moderating in quality ; softening ; 
mixing in due proportion ; making suitable, 

t AT-TEM'PER-LY, adv. In a temperate manner. 

AT-TEMTER-MENT, 7i. A tempering or proportioning 
Dr. Chalmers. 

AT-TEMPT', V. t. [Fr. attenter.] 1. To make an effort to 
effect some object ; to make trial or experiment ; to try , 
to endeavor ; to use exertion for any purpose. 2. To at- 
tack ; to make an effort upon. 

AT-TEMPT', n. An essay, trial or endeavor; an attack; 
or an effort to gain a point. 

AT-TEMPT' A-BLE, a. That may be attempted, tried or 
attacked ; liable to an attempt. 

AT-TEMPT'ED, pp. Essayed ; tried ; attacked. 

AT-TEMPT'ER, n. One who attempts, or attacks. 

AT-TEMPT'ING, ppr. Trying ; essaying ; making an ef- 
fort to gain a point ; attacking. 

* See Synopsis. A, E, I, O, U, Y, long.— FAB., FALL, WHAT ;— PREY ;— PIN, MARINE, BiRD ;— f Obsolete 




AT-TEND', V. t. [L. attendo ; Fr. attendre.] 1. Togo with, 
or accompany, as a companion, minister or servant. 2. To 
be present ; to accompany or be united to. 3. To be con- 
sequent to, from connection of cause, 4. To await ; to 
remain, abide or be in store for. 5. To wait for ; to lie in 
wait. 6. To wait or stay for. 7. To accompany with 
solicitude ; to regard. 8. To regard ; to fix the mind 
upon. 9. To expect. [JVot in use.] Raleigh. 

AT-TEND', V. i. 1. To listen ; to regard with attention ; fol- 
lowed by to. 2. To fix the attention upon, as an object 
of pursuit ; to he busy or engaged in. 3. To wait on ; to 
accompany or be present, in pursuance of duty ; with 07i 
or upon. 4. To wait on, in service or worship ; to serve, 
(j. To stay ; to delay. Obs. 7. To wait ; to be within 
call. Spenser. 

AT-TEND'ANCE, n. [Fr.] 1. The act of waiting on, or 
serving. 2. A waiting on ; a being present on business 
of any kind. 3. Service ; ministry. 4. The persons at- 
tending 5 a train ; a retinue. 5. Attention ; regard ; care- 
ful application of mind. 6. Expectation. [Obs.] Hooker. 

AT-TEND' ANT, a. 1. Accompanying ; being present, or in 
the train. 2. Accompanying, connected with, or imme- 
diately following, as consequential. — 3. In law, depending 
on or owing service to. 

AT-TEND' ANT, n. 1. One who attends or accompanies •, 
one who belongs to the train. 2. One who is present. 3. One 
who owes service to or depends on another. 4. That 
which accompanies or is consequent to. 

AT-TEND'ED, pp. Accompanied ; having attendants ; 
served ; waited on. 

AT-TEND'ER, n. One who attends ; a companion ; an as- 
sociate. [Little used.] 

AT-TEND'ING, ppr. Going with ; accompanying ; wait- 
ing on ; being present ; serving ; listening. 

t AT-TEND'ING-LY, adv. With attention. Oley. 

AT-TENT', a. Attentive. 2 Chron. vi. 

AT-TENT'ATES, n. Proceedings in a coiul; of judicature, 
after an inhibition is decreed. 

AT-TEN'TION, n. 1. The act of attending or heeding. 
2. Act of civility, or courtesy. 

AT-TENT'IVE, a. [Fr. attentif.] Heedful ; intent ; ob- 
servant ; regarding with care. 

AT-TENT'lVE-LY, adv. Heedfully ; carefully ; with fixed 

AT-TENT'IVE-NESS, n. The state of being attentive ; 
heedfulness ; attention. 

AT-TEN'U-ANT, a. Making thin, as fluids ; diluting ; 
rendering less dense and viscid. 

AT-TEN'U-ANT, n. A medicine which thins the humors, 
subtilizes their parts, dissolves viscidity, and disposes the 
fluids to motion, circulation and secretion ; a diluent. 

AT-TEN'U-ATE, v. t. [L. attenuo.] 1. To make thin or 
less consistent ; to subtilize or break the humors of the 
body into finer parts ; to render less viscid. 2. To com- 
minute ; to break or wear solid substances into finer or 
very minute parts. 3. To make slender ; to reduce in 

AT-TEN'U-ATE, a. Made thin, or less viscid ; made slender. 

AT-TEN'U-A-TED, pp. Made thin or less viscid ; commi- 
nuted ; made slender. — In botany, growing slender to- 
wards the point. 

AT-TEN'U-A-TING, ppr. Making thin, as fluids ; making 
fine, as solid substances ; making slender or lean. 

AT-TEN-U-A'TION, n. 1. The act of making thin, as 
fluids. 2. The act of making fine, by comminution or 
attrition. 3. The act or process of making slender, thin 
or lean. 

AT'TER, 71. [Sax. ater.] Corrupt matter. Skinner. 

AT'TER-ATE, v. t. [L. attero.] 1. To wear away. 2. To 
form or accumulate by wearing. 

AT'TER-A-TED, pp. Formed by wearing. Ray. 

AT-TER-A'TION, n. The operation of forming land by the 
wearing of the sea, and the wer.ring of the earth in one 
place and deposition of it in anailier. 

AT'TER-lop' i "• ^ spider. Jforth of England. 

AT-TEST', v.^t. [Fr. attester; h. attestor.] 1. To bear wit- 
ness to ; to certify ; to affirm to be true or genuine ; to 
make a solemn declaration. 2. To bear witness, or support 
the truth of a fact, by other evidence than words. 3. To 
call to witness ; to invoke as conscious. 

AT-TEST', 7!. Witness ; testimony ; attestation. [L. u.] 

AT-TES-Ta'TIOxN, n. Testimony ; witness ; a solenm or 
oflicial declaration. 

AT-TEST'ED, pp. Proved or supported by testimony, sol- 
emn or official ; witnessed ; supported by evidence. 

AT-TEST'ING, ppr. Witnessing •, cailmg to witness ; af- 
firming in support of. 

AT-TEST'OR, n. One who attests. 

AT'Tie, a. [L. Atticus; Gr. Kttiko?.] Pertaining to Attica 
in Greece, or to its principal city, Athens. Thus, .^ttic 
v/it, Attic salt, a poignant, delicate wit, peculiar to the 
Athenians.— ^Mic story, a story in the upper part of a 
house, where the windows are usually square. 

AT'T1€, n. 1. A small square pillar with its cornice on the 
uppermost part of a building. 2. An Athenian j an Athe- 
nian author. 

AT'Tl €AL, a. [L. atticus.] Relating to the style of Athens ; 
pure ; classical. Hammond. 

AT'TI-CISM, n. 1. The peculiar style and idiom of the Greek 
language, used by the Athenians ; refined and elegant 
Greek. 2. A particular attachment to tlie Athenians. 

AT'TI-CiZE, V. t. To conform or make conformable to the 
language or idiom of Attica. 

AT'Tl-CiZE, V. i. To use Atticisms, or the idiom of the 

AT'TI€S, n. plu. The title of a book in Pausanias, which 
treats of Attica. 

AT-TfNGE', u. t. [L. attingo.] To touch lightly Diet. 

AT-TlRE', V. t. [Norm, attyrer.] To dress ; to array ; to 
adorn with elegant or splendid garments. 

AT-TlRE', 7t. 1. Dress ; clothes ; habit ; but appropriately^ 
ornamental dress. 2. The horns of a deer. — 3. In botany, 
the generative parts of plants. 

AT-TIR'ED, (at-tird') pp. Dressed ; decked with onia- 
meivts or attire. 

Al'-TlR'ER, n. One who dresses or adorns with attire. 

AT-TlRTNG, ppr. Dressing 5 adorning with dress or attire. 

t AT-TI'TLE, V. t. To entitle. Oower. 

AT'Tl-TUDE. ?!. [Fr. attitude.] 1. In painting and sculp- 
ture, the posture or action in which a figure or statue is 
placed. 2. Posture ; position of things or persons. 

AT-TOL'LENT, a. [L. attollens.] Lifting up; raising. 

AT-TOL'LENT, n. A muscle which raises some part, as 
tlie ear, the tip of the nose, or the upper eye-lid ; other- 
wise called levator or elevator. 

AT-ToNE'. See Atone. 

AT-T6RN', V. i. [L. ad and torno.] In the feudal law, to 
turn, or transfer homage and service from one lord to an- 

AT-ToRN'EY, n. ; plu. Attorneys. [Norm, attournon.] 
One who is appointed or admitted, in the place of another, 
to manage his matters in law. The word formerly signified 
any person who did any business for another. Attorney- 

fencral is an officer appointed to manage business for the 
ing, the state or public ; and his duiy, in particular, is to 
prosecute persons guilty of crimes. 

t AT-T6RN'EY, v. t. To perform by proxy ; to employ as 
a proxy. Shak. 

AT-T6RN'EY-SHIP, n. The oflice of an attorney ; agency 
for another. Shak. 

AT-ToRN'ING, ppr. Acknowledging a new lord, or trans- 
ferring homage and fealiy to the purchaser of an estate. 

AT-T6RN'MENT, n. The act of a feudatory vassal or ten- 
ant, by which he consents to receive a new lord or supe- 

AT-TRA€T', v. t. [L. attraho, attractus.] To draw to ; to 
cause to move towards, and unite with ; to invite or al 
lure ; to engage. 

t AT-TRACT', 71. Attraction. Hudibras. 

AT-TRA€T-A-BIL'I-TY, n. The quality of being attracta- 
ble. Asiat. Researches. 

AT-TRACT' A-BLE, a. That may be attracted ; subject to 

AT-TRACT'ED, pp. Drawn towards ; invited ; allured j 


t AT-TRACT'I-CAL 1 "" ^^^^'"g powex to draw to. Ray. 

AT-TRA€T'ILE, a. That has power to attract. Med. Rep. 

AT-TRACT'ING, ppr. Drawing to or towards ; inviting ; 
alluring ; engaging. 

AT -TRACT' ING-LY, adv. In an attracting manner. 

AT-TR ACTION, n. 1. The power in bodies which is sup- 
posed to draw them together. 2 The act of attracting ; 
the effect of the principle of attraction. 3. Tlie power or 
act of alluring, drawing to, inviting or engaging. 

AT-TRACT'IVE, a. [Fr. attractif.] 1. Having the ruality 
of attracting ; drawing to. 2. Drawing to by moral in 
fluence •, alluring ; inviting ; engaging. 

AT-TRACT'lVE-LY, adv. With the power of attracting, 
or drawing to. 

AT-TRACT'IVE-NESS, n. The quality of being attractive, 
or engaging. 

AT-TRACT'OR, n. The person or thing that attracts. 

*AT-TRa'IIENT, a. [L. attrahens.] Drawing to ; or, as a 
noun, that which draws to. Olanville. 

t AT-TRAP', v. t. To clothe •, to dre-'s. 

AT-TRP:€-Ta'TION, n. [L. attrectatio.] Frequent hand- 
ling. Diet. 

AT-TRIB'U-T A-BLE, a. That may be ascribed, imputed 
or attributed ; ascribable ; imputable. 

AT-TRIB'UTE, -w. t. [1.. attribuo.] 1. To allot or attach, in 
contemplation ; to ascribe ; to consider as belonging. 2. 'Lo 
give as due : to yield as an act of the mind. 3 To iiQ' 
pute, as to a'cause. 

AT'TRI-BUTE, n. 1. That which is attributed ; that which 

* See Synopsis MOVE BOOK , D6VE ;— BTJLL, UNITE.— € as K ; G as J ; S as Z ; CH asSH ; TH as in this, f Obsolete 


Is considered as belonging to, or inherent in. 2. Quality ; 
characteristic disposition. 3. A tiling bekmging to an- 
other ; an appendant. 4. Reputation ; honor. Shak. 

AT-TRIB'U-TED,i>;». Ascribed ; yielded as due ; imputed. 

AT-TRIB'U TING, ppr. Ascribhig ; yielding or giving as 
due ; imputing. 

AT-TRI-BU'TION, n. The act of attributing, or the quality 
ascribed ; commendation. 

AT-TRIB'U-TIVE, a. Pertaining to or expressing an attri- 

AT-TRlB'U-TlVE, n. In grammar, a word significant of 
an attribute ; as an adjective, verb or particle. 

AT-TRiTE', a. [L. attritus.] Worn by rubbing or friction. 
Milton. See Trite. 

AT-TRITE'NESS, n. The being much worn. 

AT-TRi"T10i\, n. 1. Abrasion ; the act of wearing by fric- 
tioTi, or i-iibbing substances together. 2. The state of be- 
ing worn. 3. With divined, grief for sin arising from fear 
of punishment ; the low est desree of repentance. Wallis. 

AT-TUNL', V. t. 1. To make musical. 2. To tune, or put 
in tune ; to adjust one sound to another ; to make accord- 
ant. _ 

AT-TuN'ED, (at-tund') pp. Made musical or harmonious ; 
accommodated in sound. 

AT-TuN'ING, ppr. Putting in tune ; making musical, or 
accordant in sound. 

f A-TW AlN', adtj. In twain ; asunder. Shak. 

t A-TWEEN', adv. Between. Spenser. 

t A-TWIXT', adv. Betwixt. Spenser. 

t A-TW&, adv. In two. Chaucer. 

AU-BaINE', (au-bane') n. [Fr. aubain.] The droit d'au- 

" bailie, in France, is the right of tiie king to the goods of 
an alien dying within his jurisdiction. 

AU'BURN, a. [from brun, bruno, Fr. and It., brown.] 

" Brown ; of a dark color. 

AUOTiOiV, n. [L. auctio.] 1. A public sale of property to 
the highest bidder, and, regularly, by a person licensed 
and authorized for the purpose ; a vendue. 2. The thing 
sold ai auction. Pope. 

t A 1J€'T10N, V. t. To sell by auction. 

Al €'T10N-A-RY, a. Belonging to an aaction or public sale. 

AUe-TlON-EER', n. [L. auctionarius.] The person who 
"sells at auction. 

AU€-TrON-EERi, v. t. To sell at auction. Cowper. 

t AU€'TIVE, a. Of an increasing quality. Diet. 

AU-eU-PA'TlON, n. [L. aucupatio.] The act or practice 
" of taking birds ; fowling ; bird-catching. [Little used.] 

AU-Da'CIOUS, a. [L. audax ; Fr. aiidacieux.] 1. Very 

'" bold or daring ; impudent. 2. Committed with, or pro- 
ceeding from, daring effrontery. 3. Bold ; spirited. 

AU-Da'CIOUS-LY, adv. In an impudent manner ; with 

' excess of boldness. Shak. 

AU-Da'CIOUS-NESS, n. The quality of being audacious ; 
"impudence-, audacity. Sandys. 

AU-DA(J'I-TY, n. 1. "Boldness, sometimes in a good sense ; 

" daring spirit, resolution or confidence. 2. Audaciousness ; 
impudence ; ni a bad sense ; implying a contempt of law 
or moral restraint. 

AUD'E-AN-ISM, n. Anthropomorphism ; or the doctrine of 
" Audeus. 

AUD'I-BLE, a. [L. audibilis.] That may be heard; per- 

'" ceivable by the ear ; loud enough to be heard. 

t AUD'I-BLE, n. The object of hearing. Did. 

AUB'I-BLE-NESS, n. The quality of being audible. 

AUD'I-BLY, adv. In an audible manner ; in a manner so as 

'" to be heard. 

AUD'1-ENCE, n. I. The act of hearing, or attending to 

" sounds. 2. Admittance to a hearing ; public reception to 
an interview. 3. An auditory ; an assembly of hearers. 
— 4. In the Spanish dominions, a court. 5. In England, a 
court held by the archbishop of Canterbury, on the subject 
of consecrations, elections, institutions, marriages, &c. 

AUD'I-ENCE-CHaM'BER, n. The place of reception for a 
solemn meeting. Translation of Boccalini. 

ALJIH-ENCE-€oURT, n. A court belonging to the arch- 

" bishop of Canterbury, of eq\ial authority with the arches 
court, though inferior both in dignitv and antiquity. 

t AUDT-ENT, )!. A hearer. Shelton. 

AUD'IT, ?(. [L. audit.] 1. An examination of an account, 
or of accounts, with a hearing of the parties concerned. 
2. The result of such an examination ; a final account. 

AUD'iT, V. t. To examine and adjust an account or ac- 

\ AUD' IT, V. i. To sum up. Arbuthnot. 

AUD'TT-HOUSE, n. An appendage to a cathedral. 

^ AUn-i"TrON, n. IJearing. 

A'UDT-TIVE, a. Having the power of hearmg. 

AUDT-TOR, 71. [L.] 1. a hearer ; one who attends to hear 

" f» discourse. 2. A person appointed and authorized to ex- 
amine an account or accounts. 

AUD'1-TOR-SHIP, 7!. The office of auditor. 

/iUD'I-TO-RY, a. That has the power of hearing ; pertain- 
ing to the sense or organs of hearing. 

\ AUR 

AUD'I-TO RY, n. [L. auditorium.'] 1. An audience ; an 

assembly of hearers. 2. A place or apartment where dis- 
courses are delivered. 3. A bench tn which a judge sita 

to hear causes. 
AUD'l-TRESS, n A female hearer. Miltor 
AUF, 71. A fool ; a shnpleton. See Oaf. 
AU-6E'AN, a. Belonging to j3ifo-ea5 ,• as, the ^Mo-ean stable 
AUG'ER, n. [D. avegaar.] An instrument tor boring large 

AUG'ER-HOLE, n. A hole made by an auger. 
AUGHT, (awt) n. [Sax. awiht^ aht, or owiht, ohwit, oht.] 

1. Any thing, indefinitely. 2. Any part, the smallest ; a 

jot or tittle. 
AU'GlTE, n. [Gr. avyrj.] A mineral, called by HaUy, pyroz- 

ene ; often found in distinct crystals. 
AU-6lT'ie, a. Pertaining to augite -, resembling augite. 
AUG-MENT', V. t. [Fr. augmenter.] 1. To increase ; to 

enlarge in size or extent ; to swell ; to make bigger. 2. 

To increase or swell the degree, amount or magnitude. 
AUG-MENT', V. i. To increase ; to grow larger. 
AUG'MENT, 7). 1. Increase •, enlargement by addition 

state of increase.— 2. In philology, a syllable prefixed to a 

word ; or an increase of the quantity of the initial vowel. 
AUG-MENT'A-BLE, a. That may be increased ; capable 

of augmentation. WalsWs Jimer. Rev. 
AUG-MENT-a'TION, 77. 1. The act of increasing, or mak 

ing larger. 2. The state of being increased or enlarged 

3. The thing added by which a thing is enlarged. — 4. In 

music, a doubling the value of the notes of the subject of 

a fugue or canon. 
AUG-MExNT'A-TiVE, a. Having the quality or power of 

AUG-MENT'ER, n. He that augments. 
AUG-MENT'ING, ;>;?r. Increasing ; enlarging. 
AU'GRE. See Auger. 

AU GRE-HOLE, n. A hole made by an augre. Shak. 
AU'GUR, n. [L. augur.] 1. Among the Romans, an ofiice 

whose duty was to foretell future events by the singing 

chattering, flight, and feeding of birds. 2. One who pre 

tends to foretell future events by omens. 
AU'GUR, V. i. To guess ; to conjecture by signs or omens ; 

to prognosticate. 
AU'GUR, V. t. To predict or foretell ; as, to augur ill suc- 
" cess. 
AU'GU-RAL, a. [L. auguralis.] Pertaining to an augur, or 

to prediction by the appearance of birds. 
AU'GU-RATE, v. i. To judge by augury ; to predict. War- 

burton. [Little used.] 
AU-GU-Ra'TION, n. "The practice of augury, or the fore- 
'" telling of events by the chattering and flight of birds. 
AUGURED, pp. Conjectured by omens ; prognosticated 
AU'GU-RER, 7?. An augur. Shak. [JVot legitimate.] 
AU-Gu'RI-AL, a. Relating to augurs. Brown. 
f AU'GU-RlZE, V. t. To augur. 

AU'GUR-OUS, a. Predicting ; foretelling ; foreboding. 
AU'GU-RY, 71. [L. augurium.] 1. The art or practice of 
" foretelling events by the flight or chattering of birds. 2 

An omen •, prediction ; prognostication. 
AU-GUST', a. [L. uugustus.] Grand ; magnificent ; ma- 
'" jestic ; impressing awe •, inspiring reverence. 
AU'GUST, n. Th^ eighth month of the year, named in 
" honor of the emperor Octavius Augustus. 
AU-GUST'AN, a. 1, Pertaining to Augustus ; as, the Au~ 
" gustan age. 2. The Augustan confession, drawn up at 

Augusta or Augsburg, by Luther and Melancthon, in 

1530, contains the principles of the Protestants. 
AU-GUS-TIN'I-AN.«, n. Those divines, who, from St. Au 
'" gustin, maintain that grace is eflfectual from its nature. 
AU-GUST'INS, or AU-GUS-TIN'I-ANS, n. An order of 

monks, so called from St. Augustin. 
AU-GUSTNESS, n. Dignity of mien ; grandeur ; magnifi- 
AUK, 71. [contracted from alca ] A genus of aquatic fowls, 
" of the order of ansers. 
AUK'WARD. See Awkward. 

AU-La'RI-AN, 71. [L. aula.] At Oxford, the member of a 
" hall, distinguished from a collegian. Todd. 
t AULD, a. [Sax. aid.] Old. Shak. 

AU-LET'IC, a. [Gr. av'kriTiKos.] Pertaining to pipes, or to a 
'" pipe. [Little used.] 

AU'LIC, a. [L. auliciis.] Pertaining to a royal court, proba- 
" bly confined to the German empire. 

AULN, n. [Fr. aulne.] A French measure of length ; an ell. 
f AU-MaIL', v. t. [Fr. email.] To figure or variegaie. 
AUM'BRY. See Ambry. 

AUME, 7!. A Dutch measure for Rhenish wine. 
AUNE, 71. [a contraction of aulne, ulna.] A French cloth 
AUNT, (ant) n. [L. amita ; qu. Fr. tante.] The sister of 

one's father or mother, conelative to nephew or niece. 
t AUN'TER, 71. Old word for adventure. 
AU'RA, n. [L.] Literally, a breeze, or gentle current of 
" air, but used by English writers for a stream of fine parti- 

* See Synopsis. A, E, I, O, Cf, "?, long.— FAR, FALL, WHAT ;— PREY j—PIN, MARtNE, BIRD ;— f Obsolete. 




cles flowing from a body, as effluvia, aroma, or odor ; an 

A U 'RATE, n. A sort of pear. 

All KATE, n. [L. aurtim.] A combination of tlie oxyd of 

"gold with a base. 

AU'PtA-TED, a. Resembling gold. 

t'AU'RE-AT, a. [L. auratus.] Golden. Shelton. 

AtJ-RE'Li-A, n. in natural history, the nymph or chrysalis 

'" of an insect. 

AU-Rk'LI-AN, a. Like or pertaining to the aurelia. 

AU'RI€, a. [from awum.] Pertaming to gold. 

^U'RI-€LE, n. [L. auricula.] 1. The external ear, or that 
part which is prominent from the liead. 2. The auricles 
of the heart are two muscular bags, situated at the base, 
serving as diverticula for the blood, during the diastole. 

AU-RI€'U-LA, n. A species of primrose, called, from the 
' shape of its leaves, beards ear. 

AU-RI€'U-LAR, a. [L. auricula.] 1. Pertaining to the 

'ear; within the sense of hearing; told in the ear. 2. 
Recognized by the ear ; known by the sense of hearing. 
3. Traditional ; known by report. 

AU-RI€'U-LAR-LY, adv. In a secret manner ; by way of 

" whisper, or voice addressed to the ear. 

AU-R1€'U-LATE, o Shaped like the ear. Botany. 

AU-Rie'U-LA-TED a. Having large or elongated ears. 

AU-RIF'ER-OUS, a. [L. aurifer.] That yields or produces 


^U-Rl'GA, n. [L. aurea, orea, and rego.] 1. Literally, the 
" director of a car, or wagon. — In astronomy, the Wagoner, 
a constellation in the northern hemisphere. 2. The fourth 
lobe of the liver ; also a bandage for the sides. 

AU-RI-Ga'TION, n. [L. aurig-a.] The act or practice of 

'" driving horses harnessed to carriages. 

AU-RI-PIG-MEN'TUM. .See Okpiment. 

AU'RI-S€ALP, n. [L. auris and scalpo.] An instrument to 
" clean the ears. 

AU'RIST, n. [L. auris.] One skilled in disorders of the 

"ear, or who professes to cure them. 

AU'IIOCHS, n. [G. urochs.] A species of ox, whose bones 

" are found in gravel and alluvial soil. Jour, of Science. 

AU-Ro'RA, n. [L. aurora.] 1. The rising light of the 

" morning ; the dawn of day, or morning twilight. 2. The 
goddess of the morning, or twilight deified by fancy. 3. 
A species of crowfoot. 

Aurora borealis, or lumen boreale ; northern twilight. This 
species of light usually appears in streams, ascending to- 
wards the zenith from a dusky line a few degrees above 
the horizon. 

AU-Ro'RAL, a. Belonging to the aurora, or to the northern 

"liehts ; resembling the twilight. E. Goodrich. 

ALARUM, n. Gold. 

Aurum fulminans, fulminating gold, is gold dissohed in 
aqua regia or nitro-muriatic acid, and precipitated by vol- 
atile alkali. 

AUS-€UL-Ta'TION, n. 1. The act of listening, or heark- 
' ening to. — 2. In medicine ^ a method of distinguisliing dis- 
eases, particularly in the thorax, by observing the sounds 
in the part, generally by means of a tube applied to the 

A(J'SPI-€ATE, V. t. [L. auspicor.] 1. To give a favorable 
turn to. Burke. 2. To foreshow. ^To begin. Burke. 

AU'SFlCE, ) n. [L. auspicium.] l.^lie omens of an un- 

AfJ'SPl-CES, \ dertaking, drawn from birds ; augury. 

"2. Protection; favor shown ii patronage; influence. In 
this sense the word is generally plural, auspices. 

t AU-SPl"CIAL, a. Relating to prognostics. 

AtJ-SPi"CIOUS, a. 1. Having omens of success, or favora- 

" ble appearances 2. Prosperous; fortunate. 3. Favora- 
ble ; kind ; propitious. 

AU-SPi"CIOUS-LY, adv. With favorable omens ; happily ; 

" prosperously ; favorably ; propitiouslv. 

AU-SPi"CI0US-NESS,7i. A state of fair promise; prosperity. 

AUS'TER, n. [L.l The south wind. Pope. 

AU-STeRE', a. [L. austerus.] 1. Severe ; harsh ; rigid ; 

" stern._ 2. Sour ; harsh ; rough to the taste. 

AU-STkRE'LY, adv. Severely ; rigidjy ; harshly. 

AU-STeRE'NESS, ?f. 1. Severity in manners ; harshness ; 
' austerity. 2. Roughness in taste. 

AU-STER'I-TY, n. [L. austeritas.] Severity of manners or 
life •, rigor ; strictness ; barsh discipline. 

AUS'TRAL, a. [L. australis.] Southern; lying or being in 

' the south. 

AUS-TRAL-a'SIA, 91. [austral and .^sia.] A name given 

"to tlie countries situated to the south of Asia, compre- 
hending New Holland, New Guinea, New Zealand, &c. 

f AOS'TRAL-iZE, v. i. [L. auster.] To tend towards the 

AUS'TRT-AN, a. Pertaining to Austria. 

AUS'TRI-AN, n. A native of Austria. 

AUS'TRINE, a. [L. austrinus.] South ; southerly; southern. 

AUS'TRO-MAN-CY, n. [from auster, and Gr. iiavTeia.'] 
Soothsaying, or prediction of future events, from observa- 
tion of the winds. 

\ AU'TAR-€HY, n. [Gr. avrapKEia.] Self-sufficiency. Coles. 

iVU-THEN'Tie, I a. [Fr. authentique.] I, Having a 

AU-THEN'TI-€AL, \ genuine original or authority, in 

"opposition to that which is false, fictitioua, or counterfeit ; 
being what it purports to be ; genuine ; true. 2. Of ap 
proved authority. 

AU-THEN'TI-€AL-LY, adv. In an authentic manner; 

" with the requisite or genuine auiiiority. 

AU-THEN'T[-€AL-NESS, n. The quality of being authen- 
tic ; authenticity. 

AU-THEN'Tr-€ATE, v. t. To render authentic ; to give 

" authority to, by the proof. 

AU-THEN'TI-€A-TED, pp. Rendered authentic ; having 

" received the forms which prove genuineness. 

AU-THEN'TI-€A-T1NG, ppr. Giving authority by the 
" necessary signature, seal, attestation, or other forms. 

AU-THEN-TI-€a'T10N, n. The act of authenticating ; the 

" giving of authority by the necessary formalities. 

AU-THEN'T1€-LY, ad7u After an authentic mam er. 

AU-THEN-TIC'I-TY,7i. Genuineness ; the quality of being 

" of genuine original. 

AU-THEN'Tie-NESS, n. Authenticity. [Rarely used.] 

AU'THOR, n. [L. auctor ; Fr. auteur ; Sp. autor ; It. au 

"tore.] 1. One who produces, creates, or brings into being. 
2. The beginner, former, or first mover of any thing; 
hence, the efficient cause of a thing. It is appropriately 
applied to one who composes or writes a book, or original 

t AU'THOR, V. t. To occasion ; to effect. 

AU'THOR-ESS, n. A female author. 

AU-THOR'[-TA-TiVE, a. 1. Having due authority. 2 
Having an air of authority ; positive ; peremptory. 

AU-THOR'I-TA-TiVE-LY, adv. In an authoritative man- 
ner ; with due authority. 

AU-THOR'1-TA-TIVE-NESS, n. The quality of being au- 
thoritative ; an acting by authority. 

AU-THOR'I-TY, n. [L, auctoritas.] 1. Legal power, or a 
right to command or to act ; power ; rule ; sway. 2. The 
power derived from opinion, respect or esteem ; influence 
of character or office ; credit. 3. Testimony ; witness ; 
or the person who testifies. 4. Weight of testimony ; 
credibility. 5. Weight of character ; respectability; dig- 
nity. 6. Warrant ; order ; permission. 7. Precedents, 
decisions of a court, officia! dec! irations, respectable 
opinions and sayings, also the book ^ that contain them 
8. Government ; the persons or I'le body exercising pow- 
er or command. 

AU-TH0R-I-Za'T10N, 71. The act of giving authority, or 

"legal power ; establishment by authority. 

AU'THOR-IZE, V. t. [Fr. autoriser.] 1. To give authority, 

" warrant or legal power to ; to give a right to act ; to em- 
power. 2. To give authority, credit or reputation to 3. 
To justify ; to support as right. 

AU'THOR-lZED, pp. Warranted by rght ; supported by 
' authority ; derived from legal or proper authority ; hav- 
ing power or authority. 

AU'THOR -I-ZING, ppr. Giving authority to, or legal pow- 

" er, credit, or permission. 

t AU'THOR-LESS, a. Without authority. Sir E. Sackville. 

AU'THOR-SHIP, n. The quality or state of being an author. 

AU-TO-BI-OG'RA-PHY, n. [Gr. avros, and biography.] 
Biography or memoirs of one's life written by liimself. 

AU-TO€H'THON, n. [Gr.] One who rises or grows out of 

" the earth. 

AU-TO€'RA-SY, n. [Gr. avTos and Kparog.] Independent 

" power ; supreme, uncontrolled authority. 

V. An absolute prince or sovereign ; a title assumed by 
the emperors of Russia. 

AU-TO-€RAT'I€, ) a. Pertaining to autocracy ; abso- 

AU-TO-€RAT'I-€AL, ( lute. 

AU'TOeRA-TRIX, n. A female absolute sovereign. 

AUTO DA FE. [Port, act of faith.] 1. In "lie Romish 
church, a solemn day held by the Inquisition, for the pun- 
ishment of heretics. [Span. Auto defc.] 2. A sentence 
given by the Inquisition, and read to a criminal, or he- 
retic. 3. The session of the court of Inquisili^u. 

t AU-TO-GE'NE-AL, a. [Gr. avroyevris.] Self-begotten. 

AU'TO-GRAPH, or AU-TOG'RA-PHY, n. [Gr. ivtos and 
yp«^j7.] A person's own hand-writing ; an original man- 

AU-TOG'RA-PHAL, a. Of the particular hand- writing of a 

"person. ^ 

AU-TO-GRAPH'l€, ) a. Pertaining to an autograph, or 

AU-TO-GRAPH'I-€AL, | one's own hand-writing. 

AU-TOMA-LlTE, n. A mineral, called by Haiiy, spinelle 

t AU-TOM'A-TAL, a. Automatical ; automat^us. 

AU'TO-MATH, n. [Gr. avrog and pavBavu).] One who is 

"self-taught. Young. 

AU-TO-MAT'I€, ) a. 1. Belonging to an automaton • 

AU-TO-MAT'I-€AL, ] havuig the power of moving 

* Sec Synopsis PvIOVE. BOOK, D6VE ;— BULL, UNITE— € as K ; 6 as J ; S as Z ; CH as SH ; TH as in this, f Obsolete 


itself; mechanical. 2. Not voluntary ; not depending on 
tiie will. 
AU-TOM'A-TON, n. [Gr. avTonaros.} A self-moving ma- 
chine, or one which moves by invisible springs. 
A'.' TOM'A-TOUS, a. Having in itself the power of mo- 
AU-TON'0-MOLrS,a. Independent in government ; having 

the right of self-government. Mitford. 
AU-TON'0-MY,w. [Gr. auroj and vo/zoj.] The power or 

right of self-government. 
AU'TOP-SY, ?t. \Gt. avToi^ia.'] Personal observation ; ocu- 
lar view. [Autopsy and its derivatives are rarely used.J 
AU-TOP;TI-€AL, a. Seen with one's own eyes. 
AU-T0P'T1-€AL-LY, adv. By means of ocular view, or 

one's own observation. Brown. 
t AU-TOS€HED-l-AS'TI-€AL,ffl. Hasty 5 slight. Martin. 
A-l^'TUMN, (aw'tum) 71. [L. autunmus.'\ The third season 
of the year, or the season between summer and winter. 
Astronomically, it begins at the equinox, when the sun 
enters libra, and ends at the winter solstice ; but, in popu- 
lar language, autumn comprises September, October, and 
Nf vember. 
AU-TUM'NAL, a. Belonging to autumn ; produced or 
gathered in autumn. 

A(J-TUJ\1 NAL, n. A plant that flowers in autumn. 

t'AU-TUMNl-TY, n. The season of autumn Hall. 

ALJX-E'SIS, n. [Gr. av^rjaig.] In rhetoric, a figure by 
" which any thing is magnified too much. 

AUX-ET'1€, a. Amplifying ; increasing. Hatch. 

^UX-IL'IAR,or AUX-IL'IA-RY, a. \l.. auxiliaris.] Help- 
ing; aiding; assisting; subsidiary. 

AUX-IL'IA-RIES, n. plu. Foreign troops in the service of 

'" nations at war. 

^UX-IL'IA-RY,n. 1. A helper ; an assistant ; a confederate. 
' — 2. In grammar, a verb which helps to form the modes 
and tenses of ether verbs ; as, have, be, may, can, do, 
must, shall, and will, 

\ AUX-IL-lA'TlON, n. Help. Diet. 

t ACX-IL'IA-TO-RY, a. Assisting. Sir E. Sandys. 

A' V AlL', V. t. [Fr. valoir.] 1. To profit one's self; to turn 
to advantage ; followed by the pronouns myself, thyself, 
himself. Sec. 2. To assist or profit ; to effect the object, 
or bring to a successful issue. 

A-VaIIJ, v. i. To be of use, or advantage ; to answer the 

A-VaIL', n. Profit ; advantage towards success ; benefit. 

A-Va1L'A-BLE, a. 1. Profitable; advantageous; having 
efficacy. 2. Having sufficient power, force, or efficacy, 
forthe object ; valid. 

A-VAlL'A-BLii-NESS, n. 1. Power or efficacy, in pro- 
moting an end in view. 2. Competent power ; legal 
force ; validity. 

A-Y A 111' A -BhY, adv. Powerfully; profitably; advantage- 
ously ; validly ; efficaciously. 

A-VaIL'ING, ppr. Turning to profit ; using to advantage 
or effect. 

A-VaIL'MENT, n. Profit; efficacy; successful issue. 
[Little used.] 

A-VaILS', n. plu. Profits or proceeds. It is used in JVew 
England for the proceeds of goods sold, or for rents, 
issues, or profits. 

A V-A-LANCHE', ) n. [Fr.] A snow-slip ; a vast body of 

AV-A-LANGE'', S snow sliding down a mountain. 

t A-VaLE', v. t. [Fr. avaler.] To let fall ; to depress. 

f A-VaLE', v. i. To sink. Spenser. 

t A-VANT', n. The front of an army. See Van. 

A-VANT'-€5U-RIER, n. [Fr.] One who is despatched 
before the rest, to notify their approach. 

* A-VANT'-GUARD, n. The van or advanced body of an 

A-V ^NT'U-RINE, n. A variety of quartz rock. 

AY A-RTCE, 7i. [1,. avaritia.] An inordinate desire of gain- 
ing and possessing wealth ; covetousness. Shak. 

AV-A-RI"C10US, a. Covetous ; greedy of gain. 

AV-A-Rl'CIOUS-LY, adv. Covetously; with inordinate 
desire of gaining wealth. Goldsmith. 

AV- A-RT"CIOUS-NESS, n. The quality of being avaricious ; 
insatiable passion for property. 

t AV'A-ROUS, a. Covetous. Oowcr. 

A-VAST', excl. [Ger. basta.] In seamen's language, cease ; 
stop ; stay. 

t A-VAUNCE'MENT, n. Advancement. Bale. 

A-VAUNT', excl. [W. ibant.] Begone ; depart ; a word of 
contempt or abhorrence. 

t A-VAUNT' V. t. [It. avantare.] To boast. Abp. Cranmer. 

T A-VAUNT', V. i. To come before ; to advance. Spenser. 

t A-VAUNT', ) 

t A-VAUNT'ANCE, > n. Boasting. Chaucer. 

t A-VAUNT'RY, ) 

aVE iVlA-RY, n. [from the first words of Gabriel's saluta- 
tion to the Virgin Mary ; L. ave, hail.] A form of devo- 
tion in the Romish church. 



A'VE, 71. [L. ave.] An address to the Virgin Mary ; an ab- 
breviation of the Ave Maria, or Ave Mary. 
t A-VEL^, V. t. [L. avello.] To pull away. Brown. 
AV-E-Na'CEOUS, a. [L. avenaceus.] Belonging to, o 

partaking of the nature of oats. 
AV'E-NAgE, w. [Fr.] A certain quantity of oats paid by a 

tenant to a landlord in lieu of rent or other duty. 
AV'EN-ER, or AV'EN-OR, n. [Norm. Fr.J in English 
feudal law, an officer of the king's stable, whose duty was 
to provide oats. 
A-VEN6E', (a-venj') v. t. [Fr. venger.] 1. To take satis 
faction for an injury by punishing the injuring party. 2 
To revenge. 3. In the passive form, this verb signifies to 
have or receive just satisfaction, by the punishment of the 
t A-VENGE , n. Revenge. Spenser. 
t A-VENGE'ANCE, n. Punishment. 
A-VEN6'ED, (a-venjd') pp. Satisfied by the punishment of 

the offender ; vindicated ; punished. 
A-VENGE'MENT, n. Vengeance ; punishment ; the act of 
taking satisfaction for an injury, by inflicting pain or evil 
on the offender ; revenge. 
A-VENG'ER, n. One who avenges or vindicates ; a vmdi- 
cator ; a revenger. 

A-VEN6'ER-ESS, n. A female avenger. Spenser. 

A-Y EN &1ING, ppr. Executing vengeance ; takuig satisfac- 
tion for an injury ; vindicating. 
AV'ENS, n. The herb bennet. Miller. 

AV'EN-TINE, a. Pertaining to Mons Aventinus. 

A-VEN'TURE, n. [Fr. aventure.] A mischance causing a 
person's death without felony. 

AV'E-NUE, n. [Fr.] 1. A passage ; a way or opening for 
entrance into a place. 2. An alley, or walk in a garden, 
planted with trees, and leading to a house, gate, wood, 
&c. 3. A wide street. 

A-VER', V. t. [Fr. averer.] To affirm with confidence ; to 
declare in a positive manner. Prior. 

AVER-AGE, 71. 1 . In commerce, a contribution to a general 
loss. When, for the safety of a ship in distress, any de- 
struction of property is incurred, either by cutting away 
the masts, throwing goods overboard, or other means, all 
persons who have goods on board, or property in the ship, 
contribute to the loss according to their average, that is, 
the goods ef each on board. 2. A mean proportion, medial 
sum, or quantity, made out of unequal sums or quantities. 
3. A small duty payable by the shippers of goods to tlie 
master of the ship, over and above the freight, for his 
care of the goods. — 4. In England, the breaking up of 
cornfields, eddish, or roughings. — Upon, or on an aver- 
age, is taking the mean of unequal numbers or quanti- 

AV'ER-AGE, a. Medial ; containing a mean proportion 
Price. Beddoes. 

AV'ER-AGE, V. t. To find the mean of unequal sums or 
quantities ; to reduce to a medium. 

AV'ER-AGE, V. i. To form a mean or medial sum or quan- 

AVER-AGED, pp. Reduced or formed into a mean propor- 
tion. Jefferson. 

AVER-A-GING, ppr^ Forming a mean proportion out of 
unequal sums or quantities. 

A-VER'MENT, n. 1. Affirmation ; positive assertion ; the 
act of averring. 2. Verification ; establishment by evi- 
dence. — 3. In pleading, an offer of either party to justify 
cr prove what he alledges. 

A-VER 'NAT, n. A sort of grape. Ash. 

A-VER'NI-AN, a. Pertaining to Avernus, a lake of Cam- 
pania, in Italy. 

AVER-PEN-NY, n. Money paid towards the king's car- 
riages by land, instead of service by the beasts in kind. 

A-VER'RED, (a-verd') pp. Affirmed ; laid with an aver 

A-VER'RING, ppr. Affirming ; declaring positively ; offer- 
ing to justify or verify. 

A- VER'RO-IS'T, 71. One of a sect of peripatetic philosophers 
so denominated from Avcrrocs. 

AV-ER-RUN€'ATE, v. t. [L. averrunco.] To root up ; to 
scrape or tear away by the roots. 

AV-ER-RUN-€a'T10N, n. The act of tearing up or raking 
away by the roots. 

AV-ER-Sa'TION, n. [L. aversor.] A turning from with 
disgust or dislike ; aversion ; hatred ; disinclination. It 
is nearly superseded by aversion. 

A-VERSE', (a-vers') a. 1. Disliking ; unwilling ; having 
a repugnance of mind. 2. Unfavorable ; indisposed ; 
malign. Dryden. This word and its derivatives ought tc 
be followed by to, and never hy from. 

A-VERSE'LY, (a-vers'ly) adv. With repugnance ; uiiwi! 
lingly. Brown. 

A-VERSE'NESS, (a-vers'nes) n. Opposition of mind ; dis 
like ; unwillingness ; backwardness. 

A-VER'STON, n. [Fr. aversion.] 1. Opposition or re 
pugnance of mind ; dislike ; disinclination ; reluctance , 

See Synopsis. A, E, T, O V Y, long.— FAR, FALL, WHAT ;— PREY ;— PIN, MARINE, BIRD ;— t Obsolete 




f A-VlZE', V. t. To counsel ; to consider. Spenser. 
V V-0-€a'DO, 71. [Sp.l The name of a tree. See Avigato. 

jjatred. 2 Opposition or contrariety of nature. 3. The 
cause of dislike. 

A-VERT', V. t. [L averto.] 1. To turn from ; to turn off 
or away. 2. To keep off, divert, or prevent. 3. To 
cause to dislike. Hooker. 

A-V£iiT', ?;. t. To turn away. Thomson. 

A-VERT'ER, 7^. One that turns away ; that which turns 

A-^"ERT''[NG, pj}r. Turning from ; turning away. 

A'Vf-A-RY, n. [li. aviarium.] A bird cage ; an inclosure 
for keeping birds confined. 

A-VLD 1-OUS-LY, adv. Eagerly ; with gresdiness. 

A-VID'I-TY, 71. [h. aviditas.] 1. Greediness ; strong ap- 
petite. 2. Eagerness ; intenseness of desire. 

AV-I-Ga'TO, or AV-0-€a'DO, n. The Persea, or alligator- 

t A-ViL£', V. t. [Fr. avilir.] To depreciate. Ben Jonson, 

I A-VlSE', or t A-VI'SO, n. [Fr. avis.] Advice , intelli- 

t A-V'ISE', 7). i. To consider. Spenser. 

A-VlSEMENT, 7?. Advisement. See Advice and Advise. 

tAV'I-TOUS, a. [Ij. avitus.] Ancient 

■ • "-"T, t;. t. To( 


t AV'0-€ATE, V. t. [L. avoco.] To call off, or away 

AV-0-€a'TION, n. 1. The act of calling aside, or diverting 
from some employment. 2. Tlie business which calls 
aside. The word is generally used for the smaller affairs 
of life, or occasional calls which summon a person to 
'eave his ordinary or principal business. The use of this 
word for vocation is very improper. 

\ A-Vo'€A-TlVE, a. Calling off. 

A.-VOW,v.t. [Fr. vuider, or vider.] 1. To shun ; to keep 
at a distance from ; that is, literally^ to go or be wide 
from. 2. To shift off, or clear off. 3. To quit ; to evac- 
uate ; to shun by leaving. 4. To escape. 5. To emit or 
throw out. 6. To make void ; to annul or vacate. 

A-VOID', 7).i. 1. To retire ; to withdraw. 2. To become 
void, vacant, or empty. 

A-VOID'A-BLE, a. 1. That may be avoided, left at a dis- 
tance, shunned, or escaped. 2. That may be vacated ; 
liable to be annulled. 

A-VOID'ANCE, n. I. The act of avoiding, or shunning. 2. 
the act of vacating, or the state of being vacant. 3. The 
act of annulling. 4. The course by which any thing is 
carried off. 

A-VOID'ED, pp. Shunned ; evaded ; made void ; ejected. 

A-VOLD'ER, 71. 1. One who avoids, shuns, or escapes. 2. 
The person who carries any thing away ; the vessel in 
which things are carried away. 

A-VOID'ING, ppr. Shunning •, escaping ; keeping at a dis- 
tance ; ejecting ; evacuating ; making void, or vacant. 

A-VOID'LESS, a. That cannot be avoided; inevitable. 

AV-OIR-DU-POIS', 71. [Fr. avoir da poids.] A weight, of 
which a pound contains 16 ounces. Its proportion to a 
pound Troy, is as 17 to 14. This is the weight for the 
larger and coarser commodities. 

t A-VOKE', z;. t. [L. avoco.] To call back. Cockeram. 

AV-O-LA'TION, n. [L. avolo.] The act of flying away •, 
flight ; escape. [Little used.] 

AV'O-SET, ) n. In ornitliology, a species of fowls, ar- 

AV-0-SET'TA, \ ranged under the genus recurvirostra. 

A- VOUCH', V. t. [Norm, voucher.] 1. To affirm ; to de- 
clare or assert with positiveness. 2. To produce or call 
in ; to affirm in favor of, maintam or support. 3. To 
maintain, vindicate, or justify. Shak. 

A-VOUCH', 7!. Evidence ; testimony ; declaration. Shak. 

( Little use 


A-VOUCIi'A-BLE, a. That may be avouched. [Little itsed.] 

A-VOUCH'ED, (a-vouchf) pp. Affirmed ; maintained ; 
called in to support. 

A-VOUCH'ER, n. One who avouches. 

A-VOUCH'ING, ppr. Aflarming ; calling m to maintain ; 

A-VOUCH MENT, n. Declaration ; the act of avouching 

A- VOW, V. t. [Fr. avouer.] To declare openly ; to own, 
acknowledge, or confess frankly. 

f A-VOW, ri. A vow or determination. Oower. 

A-VOW'A-BLE, a. That may be avowed, or openly ac- 
knowledged with confidence. Donne. 

A-VOW ATj, 71. An open declaration ; frank acknowledg- 
ment. Hume. 

A-VOW ANT, n. The defendant in replevin, who avo7cs 
the distress of the goods, and justifies the taking. Cowel. 

A- VOWED, (a-vowd) pp. Openly declared ; owned •, 
frankly acknowledged. 

A-VOW'ED-LY, adv. In an open manner; with frank 

*A-VOW'EE, n. Sometimes used for advowee, the person 
who his a right to present to a benefice, tlie patron. 
Cowel. See Advowson. 

A-VOWER, n. One who avo'vs, owns, or asserts. 

A-VOWING, ppr. Openly declaring ; frankly acknowledg- 
ing •; justifying. 

A-VOW'IIY, n. In laio, the act of the distrainer of goods 
who, in an action of replevin, avoios and justifies tho 
taking ; the act of maintaining the right to distrain, by 
the distrainer, or defendant in replevin. Blackstone. 

fA-VOWSAL, n. A confession, nict. 

A-VOW'TRY. See Advowtry. 

A-VULS'ED, a. Plucked or pulled off. Shenstone. 

A-VUL'SION, n. [L. avulsio.] A pulling or tearing asun- 
der j a rending or violent separation. 

A-WaIT'j v. t. Literally, to remain, hold, or stay 1. To 
wait for ; to look for, or expect. 2. To be in store for ; 
to attend ; to be ready for. 

A-WaIT', n. Ambush ; in a state of waiting for. Spenser. 

A-WaIT'ING, ppr. Waiting for ; looking for ; expecting 5 
being ready or in store for. 

A-WaKE', v. t. ; pret. awoke, awaked ; pp. awaked. [Sax 
gewcccan, wacian, or wecoan.] 1. To rouse from sleep. 
2. To excite from a state resembling sleep, as from death, 
or inaction ; to put into action, or new life. 

A-WaKE', v. i. 1. To cease to sleep ; to come from a state ol 
natural sleep. 2. To bestir, revive, or rouse from a state 
of inaction ; to be invigorated with new life. 3. To rouse 
from spiritual sleep. 4. To rise from the dead. Job, xiv. 

A-WaKE', a. Not sleeping ; in a state of vigilance or 

A-Wa'KEN, (a-wa'kn) v. t. and v. i. The same with 

A-Wa'KENED, pp. Roused from sleep, in a natural or 
moral sense. 

A-Wa'KEN-ER , n. He or that which awakens. 

A-Wa'KEN-ING, 71. A revival of religion, or more general 
attention to religion than usual. 

A-WARD', V. t. [Scot, warde.] To adjudge ; to give by 
sentence or judicial determination ; to assign by sentence. 

A-WARD', 77. i. To judge ; to determine ; to make an 

A-WARD', n. The judgment, or determination of arbitia- 
tors ; judgment; sentence. 

A-WARD'ED, pp. Adjudged, or given by judicial sentence, 
or by the decision of arbitrators. 

A-WARD'ER, n. One that awards, or assigns by sentence 
or judicial determination ; a judge. 

A-WARD'ING, ppr. Adjudging ; assigning by judicial sen- 
tence ; determining. 

A-WaRE', a. [Sax. gewarian.] Watchful ; vigilant ; guard- 
ed ; but more strictly, in modern usage, apprisv.d ; expect- 
ing jin event from information, or probability. 

A-WaRE', 7;. i. To beware ; to be cautious. Milton. 

A-WARN', v. t. To warn, which see. Spenser. 

A-W^T'CHA, n. A bird of Kamtchatka. 

A-WaYi, adv. [Sax.aweg.] 1. Absent; at a distance. 2. 
It is much used with words signifying moving, or going 
from ; as, go aioay, send away, run away, &c. 3. As an 
exclamation, it is a command or invitation to depart ; 
away, that is, be gone, or let us go. " jSv-ay with him," 
take him away. 4. .^way toith has a peculiar signification 
in the phrase, "I cannot away with it." Isa, i. The 
senseis, " I cannot bear, or endure it." 

f A-WaY'WARD, a<Z7). [Sax. aweg weard,] Turned aside. 

AWE, (aw) n. [Dan. ave ] 1. Fear mingled with admira- 
tion or reverence; reverential fear. 2. Fear; dread in- 
spired by something great or terrific. 

AWE, V. t. To strike" with fear and reverence ; to influence 

" bv fear, terror, or respect. 

A-WkA'RY, a. Weary, which see. Shak. 

A-WEATH'ER, adv. On the weather-side, or towards the 
wind ; as, the helm is aweather ; opposed to alee. Mar. 

AWE'BAND, 71. A check. Diet. 

AWE'-COM-MANiyiNG, a. Striking with awe. 

AWED, (awd) pp. Struck with fear ; influenced by fear or 

A-W.EIGH', (a-wa') adv. Atrip. The anchor is aweigh, when 
it is just drawn out of the ground, and hangs perpendicular. 

AWE'-IN-SPxR'ING, a. Impressing with awe. Bp. Hobart. 

AWE'-STRU€K, a. Impressed or struck with awe. 

AWFUL, a. 1. That strikes with awe ; that fills with 
'" profound reverence. 2, That fills with terror and dread 
3. Struck with awe ; scrupulous. 

t AW'FUL-EyED, a. Having eyes exciting awe. 

AWTUL-LY, ado. In a manner to fill with awe ; in a rev 
" erential manner. 

AWFUL-NESS, n. 1. The quality of striking with awe, 
"or with reverence; solemnity. 2. The state of being 
struck with awe. 

t A-WHAPE', (a-whap') v. t. [W. cwapiaw.] To strike ; to 
ccnfoimd. Spenser. 

t A-VMIEELS', arfu. On wheels. Ben Jonson. 

A-WHiEE', adv. A space of time ; for some time ; for a 
short time. 

' See Synopsis. 

MOVE, BQQK, D6VE ;~BULL, UNITE.^€ as K ; G as J ; S as Z ; CHasSH j THasiutAia. 

t ObsolcU. 




r A-WHIT', adv A jot ; a tittle. Bp. Hall. 

AWK, a. 1. Odd ; out of order. L^Estrange. 2. Clumsy 
* in performance, or manners ; unhandy ; not dextrous. 
[Vulgar 1 

^WK'WARD, a. 1 Wanting dexterity in the use of tlie 
hands or of instruments ; unready ; not dextrous ; bun- 
gling , untoward. Dryden. 2. Inelegant ; unpolite ; un- 
graceful in manners ; clumsy ; unnatural ; bad. S/iak. 

^WK'VVARD-LY, adv. Clumsily; in a rude or bungling 
" manner ; inelegantly ; badly. 

^WK'WARD-NESS, n. Clumsiness •, ungracefulness in 
manners ; want of dexterity in the use of the hands or 

AWli, 11. [Sax. al ; Ger. ahl.] An ii'on instrument for 

" piercing small holes ir. leather. 

AW LESS, a. 1. Wanting reverence ; void of respectful fear. 

■■ 2. Wanting the power of causing reverence ; not excitmg 

AWL'WORT, 71. The popular name of the subulana aquat- 

" ica, or roagh-leaved alyssum. 

AWM,or AUM, 7i. [D. aam ; G. ahm.] A Dutch liquid 

'" measure, "equal to the English tierce. 

^WN, n. [Svv. agne.] The beard of corn, or grass, as it is 
usually understood. But, technically, a slender, sharp 
process, issuing from the chaff or glume in corn and 


AWN'ING, ?i. [Goth. Milyan.'] 1. A cover of canvas, usu- 
" ally a sail or tarpauling, spread over a boat or ship's deck, 
to shelter from the sun's rays the officers and crew, and 
preserve the decks. 2. That part of the poop deck which 
is continued forward beyond the bulk-head of the cabin. 
Mar. Diet. 
AWN'LESS, a. Without awn or beard. 
AWN'Y, a. Having awns ; full of beard 
A-WoKE'. The jn-eterit of awake. 
t A-W6RK', adv. [Sax. geweorcan.'] At work ; in a state of 

labor or action. Shak. 
A-WoRK'IJ\G, adv. At work ; into a state of working or 

action. Hubbard's Tale. 
1-WRY', (a-ri') a. or adv. [Dan. vrider.] 1. Turned or 
twisted towards one side ; not in a straight or true direc- 
tion, or position •; asquint ; with oblique vision. — 2. In a 
figurative sense, turned aside from the line of truth, or 
right reason ; perverse or perversely. Milton. 
AXE, ) ?i. [improperly written aze. Sax. cbx, eaz, esse.] An 
AX, \ instrument, usually of iron, for hewing timber, 

and chopping woi-J. 
AX-A-Ya'€AT, n. A flj in Mexico. 

AXE'STONE, I n. A mineral, a subspecies of jade, les? 
AX'STONE, \ hard than nephrite. 
AX'HEAD, n. The head of the axe. 
AX'1-FORM, a. [L. axis and forma.] In the form of an 

axis. Encyc. 
AX'IL, 7?,. [L. axilla.] 1. The armpit ; a cavity under the 
upper part of the arm or shoulder. — 2. In botany, the 
space or angle formed by a branch with the stem, or by a 
leaf with the stem or branch. 
AX'IL-LAR, ) a. Pertaining to the armpit, or to the axil 
AX'IL-LA-RY, \ of plants. .Axillary leaves are those 
which proceed from the angle formed by the stem and 
AX'1-xMTE, n. A mineral. 

AX-I-NOM'AN-CY, n. [Gr. a^ivrj and ixavreia.] Among 
the a7icieni5, a species of divination, by means of an axe or 
AX'IOM, 71. [Gr. a^iwua.] 1. A self-evident truth, or a 
proposition whose truth is so evident at first sight, that no 
process of reasoning or demonstration can make it plainer. 
2. An established principle in some art or science. 
AX-IO-MAT'I€, } a. Pertaining to an axiom ; having 
AX-IO-MAT'I-€AL, \ the nature of self-evident truths. 
AX'IS, 7!. ,- plu. Axes. [L.] 1. The straight line, real or 
imaginary, passing through a body, on which it revolves, 
or may revolve.— 2. In geometry, a straight line in a plain 
figure, about which it revolves to produce a solid. 
AX'LE, (ak'sl) ) n. [Sax. tsx, and tree.] Apiece 

AX'LE-TREE, (ak'sl-tre) \ of timber, or bar of iron, fitted 
for insertion in the hobs or naves of wheels, on which the 
wheels turn. 
AX'0-LOTE, 71. A water lizard found in the Mexican 

XY, } adv. [G. D. Dan. Sw. ja, pron. ya ; Fr. nui.] Yes, 
AYE, \ yea, a word expressing assent, or an affirmative 

answer to a question. 
AYE, adv. [Sax. aa, a, or awa.] Always ; forever ; con- 
tinually ; for an indefinite time ; used in poetry, 
t AY'-GREEN, n. Houseleek. Diet. 
AYLE, n. In law, a grandfather. 
Z'Y-RY. See Aerie. 
AZ'A-ROLE, 71. [Fr.l A species of thorn. 

of plum, or pruTiMS. Fam. of Plants. 

AZ'I-MUTH, 72. 1. In astronomy, an arch of the horizon 

intercepted between the meridian of the place and the 

A species 

azimuth, or vertical circle, passing through the centre of 
the object. — 2. Magnetical azimuth, an arch of the hori- 
zon, hitercepted between the azimuth, or veitical circle, 
passing through the centre of any heavenly body, and the 
magnetic meridian. — '3. Aziynuth compass, an instrument 
for finding either the magnetic azimuth or amplitude of 
a Jieavenly object. — 4. Jlzimuth dial, a dial whose stile or 
gnomon is at right angles to the plane of the horizon. — 5. 
Azimuths, or vertical circles, are great circles uitersectiug 
each other in the zenith and nadir, and cuttmg the hori- 
zon at right angles. 

A-ZoTE', n. [Gr. a and ^u>n or ^u)rt»fof .] A species of gas, 
called also viephitic air, and atmospheric mephitis, on ac- 
count of its fatal effects upon animal life. 

f AZ'OTH, n. 1. Among alchimists, the first principle of 
metals ; the mercury of metals -, a universal medicine. 
Ash. 2. The liquor of sublimated quicksilver ; brass. 

A-ZOT'I€, a. Pertaining to azote ; fatal to animal life. 

AZ'0-TlTE, n. A salt formed by a combination of the prot- 
oxyd of azote, or nitrous oxyd, witli an alkali. 

* AZ'URE, (azh'-ur) a. [Fr. azur ; Sp. azul, or azur ; It. 
azzui-ro.] Of a sky-blue ; resembling the clear blue color of 
the sky. 

* AZ'URE, (azh'-ur) n. 1. The fine blue color of the sky 
2. The sky, or azure vault of heaven. — 3. In heraldry, a 
blue color in coats of all persons under the degree of baron. 

AZ'URE, V. t. To color blue. 

AZ'URED, (azh'-ured) a. Colored azure ; being of an azure 
color. Sidney. 

Ai'LjiS-rE °^^' i "• Another name of the lazulite. 
AZ'URN, (azh'-um) a. Ofa blue color. Milton. [Littleused.] 
t AZ'YME, n. Unleavened bread. 
AZ'Y-MlTE, 71. In church history, Azymites are Christiana 

who adramister the eucharist with unleavened bread. 
AZ'Y-MOUS, a. [Gr. a and ^vpr].] Unleavened ; unfer- 

mented ; as sea-biscuit. 


Bis the second letter, and the first articulation, or conso- 
nant, in the English, as in the Hebrew, Greek, Latin, 
and most other alphabets. It is a wute and a labial, be- 
ing formed by pressing the whole length of the lips to- 
gether, as in pronouncing eb. The Greek B is always pro- 
nounced like the English V, and the Russian B corre- 
sponds with the Greek. 

BAA, (ba) n. Tlie cry or appropriate bleating of sheep. 

BAA, V. i. To cry or bleat as sheep. 

BA'AL, 71. An idol among the ancient Chaldeans and Syri- 
ans, representing the sun. 

BAB'BLE, v.i. [D. babbelen.] 1. To utter words imper- 
fectly or indistinctly, as children. 2. To talk idly or irra- 
tionally ; to talk thoughtlessly. 3. To talk much ; to 
prate ; hence, to tell secrets. Shak. 4. To utter sounds 
frequently, incessantly, or indistinctly. 

BAB'BLE, V. t. To prate ; to utter. 

BAB'BLE, n. Idle talk ; senseless prattle. Shak. 

BAB'BLE-RIENT, v. Idle talk ; senseless prate ; unmean- 
ing words. Milton. 

BABBLER, n. An idle talker ; an irrational prattler ; a 
teller of secrets. 

BABBLING, ppr. I. Talking idly ; telling secrets. 2. 
Uttering a succession of murmuring sounds. 3. In hunt- 
ing, babbling is when the hounds are too busy after they 
have found a good scent. 

BAB'BLING, n. Foolish talk. 1 Tim. vj. 

BABE, 7i. [Ger. bube ; Ir. baban.] An infant; a young 
child of either sex. 

B^ 'BEL, n. [Heb.] Confusion ; disorder. 

BA'BE-RY, n. Finery to please a child. Sidney. 

Ba'BISH, a. Like a babe ; childish. Ascham. 

BA'BmU-hY,adv. ChUdLshly. 

BAB-oON', 71. [Fr. babouin.] A monkey of the largest spe 

BA'BY, a. Like a young child ; pertainmc to an infant. 

Ba'BY, n. I. An infant or young child ot either sex ; a babe ; 
[used in familiar language.] 2. A small image m form 
of an infant, for girls to play with ; a doll. 

BA'BY, tj. f. To treat like a young child. Young. 

BA'BY-HOOD, n. The state of being a baby. Ash. 

BA'BY-HOUSE, n. A place for children's dolls and babies. 

BA'BY-ISH, a. Childish. Bale. 

BAB-Y-Lo'NI-AN, or BAB-Y-LO'NISH, a. 1. Pertaining 
to Babylon. 2. Like the language of Babel ; mixed ; con- 

BAB-Y-Lf^NT-AN, n. An inhabitant of Babylonia.— In an- 
cient writers, an astrologer. 

See Synopsis A, E, I, O, C, Y, long.— FAR, Fi^LL, WHAT ;— PREY ;— PIN, MARINE, BIRD ;— f Obsolete 




BAB-Y-LON'ie ? 2. ]. Pertaining to Babylon, or made 

BAB-Y-LON'I-€AL ) there. 2. Tumultuous ; disorderly. 

BAB-Y-LOiX'I€S, 7i ylu. Tlie title of a fragment of the his- 
tory of the world, composed by Berosus, a priest of Baby- 

BAB-Y-ROUS'SA, n. In zoology, the Indian hog, a native 
uf Celebes and of Buero. 

f BA'BY-SHIP, n. Infancy; childhood. 

BA€, or BA€K, n. [D. bak, a bowl or cistern.] I. In navi- 
gation, a ferry-boat or praam. — 2. In breicing, a large flat 
tub, or vessel, in whicli wort is cooled belbre boiling ; 
hence called a cooler. — 3. In distilleries, a vessel uito 
which the liquor to be fermented is pumped, from the 
cooler, in order to be worked with the yeast. 

BAG'CA, n. [L.J In botany, a berry. 

BA€-eA.-LAU'ilE-ATE, n. The degree of bachelor of 

BA€'eA-TED, a. [L. baccatus.] Set or adorned with 
pearls ; having many berries. [Little used.] 

BAtJ €HA-NAL, or BA€-€HA-Na'LI-AN, n. [from Bac- 
chus, Gr. BaK^os.l One who indulges in drunken revels ; 
a drunkard. 

BA€ €HA-NAL, ) a Reveling in intemperate drink- 

BA€-€HA-Na'LI-AN, \ ing ; riotous ; noisy. 

BA€-€HA-Na'LJ- \N, a. Pertaining to reveluig and drunk- 

BAe'CHA-NALS, n. plu. Drunken feasts ; the revels of 
bacclianalians. — In antiquity, feasts in honor of Bacchus, 

BAC'CHANTE, \ "' ^^ ^'^° ^'^""^^ ^^^ Bacchus. 

BA€'eHI-€AL,' or BA€'€HI€, a. 1. Jovial ; drunken ; 
mad with intoxication. 2. Relating to Bacchus, the god 
of wine. 

BA€'€H1-US, n. In ancient poetry, a foot composed of a 
short syllable and two long ones. 

BA€'€H US-BOLE, n. A flower. J.Tortimer. 

BA€-CIF'ER-OUS, a. [L. baccifer.] That produces berries. 

BA€-CIV'0R-0U^t5, a. [L. bac^a and voro.] Eating or sub- 
sisting on berries. 

BACH'E-LOR, ?t. [Ft. bachelier ; Sp. bachiller.] 1. A man 
who has not been married. 2. A person who has taken 
the first degree in the liberal arts and sciences. 3. A 
knight of the lowest order, or, more correctly, a young 
knight, styled a knia-ht bachelor. 

BACH'E-LOR-SHIP, H. 1. The state of being a bachelor. 

2. The state of one who has taken his first degree in a 
college or university. 

BA€K. n-. [Sax. bac, bcec] 1. The upper part of an aniical, 
particularly of a quadruped, whose back is a ridge.— In 
human beings, the hinder part of the body. 2. The out- 
ward or convex part of the hand, opposed to the inner, 
concave part, or palm. 3. As the back of man is the part 
on tlie side opposite to the face, hence, the part opposed 
to the front ; as, the back of a book. 4. The part opposite 
te or most remote from that which fronts the speaker or 
actor. 5. As the back is the strongest part of an animal, 
and as the back is behind in motion, hence, the thick and 
strong part of a cutting tool ; as, the back of a knife. 6. 
The place behind or nearest the back.— 7. To turn the 
back on one, is to forsake him. 8 To turn the back to one, 
to acknowledge to be superior. 9. To turn the back, is to 
depart, or to leave the care or cognizance of; to remove, 
or be absent. 10. Behind the back, is in secret, or when 
one is absent. 11. To cast behind the back, in Scripture, 
is to forget and forgive, or to treat with contempt. 12. To 
plow the back, is to oppress and persecute. 13. To bow 
the back, is to submit to oppression. 

BA€K, adv. 1. To the place from which one came. 2. In 
ajitrurative sense, to a former state, condition, or station. 

3. Behind ; not advancing ; not coming or bringing for- 
ward ; as, to keep back a part. 4. Towards times or 
things past. 5. Again ; in return. 6. To go or come back, 
is to return, either to a former place or state. 7. To ao 
or fflve back, is to retreat, to recede. 

BA€K, f . t. 1. To mount ; to get upon the back ; some- 
times, perhaps, to place upon the back. 2. To support , 
to maintain ; to second or strengthen by aid. 3. To put 
backward ; to cause to retreat or recede. 4. To bark a 
warrant, is for a justice of the peace in the county where 
the warrant is to be executed, to sign or indorse a war- 
rant, issued in another county, to apprehend an oflTender. 

BACK, V. i. To move or go back ;-as, the horse refuses to 

BACK'BTTE, v. t. To censure, slander, reproach, or speak 
evil of the absent. 

BA€K'Bi-TER, n. One who slanders, calumniates, or 
speaks ill of the absent. 

BA€K Br-TIXG, n. The act of slandering the absent ; se- 
cret calumnv. 2 Cor. xii. 

BA€K Bl-TING-LY, adu. With secret slander. Barret. 

BA€K Board, n. a board placed across the after part of a 

BACK BoNE, n The b( ne of the hack ; or the spine. 

BA€K€AR-RY, n. A having on the back. 

BA€K DoOR, n. A door en the back part of a building a 
private passage ; an indirect way. 

BAOK'ED, (bakt) pp. Moimted ; having on the back j sup- 
ported by aid ; seconded ; moved backward. 

BA€K'ED, a. Having a back ; a word used in comdosI- 

BACK'END, 71. The latter part of the year. .N-orih of Eng- 

BACKFRIEND, (bak'frend) n> A secret enemy South. 

BA€K-GAM'MOA", n. [W. bac and cammaun.] A game 
played by two persons, upon a table, with box and dice. 

BACK'GROUXD, n. 1. Ground in the rear, or behind, as 
opposed to the front. 2. A place of obscurity, or shade ; 
a situation little seen or noticed. 

BACK HANB-ED, a. With the hand turned backward. 

BA€K'HAND-ED, adv. With the hand directed backwai.i. 

BACK'HOUSE, ?i. A building behind the main or front 

BACK'ING, ppr. Mounting ; moving back, as a horse ; sec- 

BA€K'PAINT-IXG, n. The method of painting mexzotinto 
prints, pasted on glass of a size to fit the print. 

BA€K'PI£CE, 71. The piece of armor which covers the 

BACK'RE-TURN, n. Repeated return. Shak. 

BACK'ROOM, n. A room behind the front room, or in the 
back part of the house. 

BACKS, n. Among dealers in leather, the thickest and 
best tanned hides. 

BACK-SET, a. Set upon in the rear. 

BACK SIDE, n. 1. The back part of any thing ; the part 
behind that which is presented to the face of a spectator. 
2. The hind part of an animal. 3. The yard, ground, or 
place behind a house. 

* BACK-SLlDE', v.i. To fall off; to apostatize; to turn 
graduallvfrom the faith and practice of Christianitv 

*BA€K-SLlD ER, ?;. 1. An apostate ; one who falls from 
the faith and practice of religion. 2. One who neglects 
his vows of obedience, and falls into sin. 

* B ACK-SLlD'ING, n. The act of apostatizing from faith or 
practice ; a falling msensibly from religion into sin or 
idolatry. Jer. v. 6. 

BACK STAFF, n. A quadrant; an instrument for taking 
the sun's altitude at sea ; called also, from its inventor, 
D avisos quadrant 

BACK'STAIRS, n. Stairs in the back part of a house ; pri- 
vate stairs ; and, figuratively, a private, or indirect way 

BACK'STAYS, n. Long ropes or stays extending from the 
topmast lieads to both sides of a ship, to assist the shrouds 
in supporting the mast. 

BACK STOXE, ?(. The heated stone, or iron, on which 
oat-cake is baked. JSi'orth of England. 

BACKSWORD, n. A sword with one sharp edge.— In 
England, a stick with a basket handle, used in rustic 

BACK WARD, or BACK Vr.ARDS, adv. 1. With the back 
in advance. 2. Toward the back. 3. On the back, or 
with the back downwards. 4. Toward jnst times or 
events. 5. By way of reflection ; reflexively . C. From 
a better to a worse state. 7. In time past. 8. Perverse- 
ly ; from a wrong end. 9. Towords the beginning ; in an 
order contrary to the natural order. 10. Contrarily ; in a 
contrary manner. 

BACK'^VARD, a. 1. Unwilling ; averse ; reluctant ; hesi- 
tating. 2. Slow ; shiETgish ; dilatory. 3. Dull : not quick 
of apprehension ; beiund in progress. 4. Late ; behind 
-in time ; coming after something else, or after the usual 

BACK' WARD, v. t. To keep back ; to hinder. 

t BACK WARD, n. The things or state behind or past. 

BACK WARD-LY, adv. Unwillingly ; reluctantly ; averse- 
Iv ; perverselv. - 

BACK'WARD-NESS, ??. 1. Unwillingness; reluctance; 
dilatoriness, or dullness in action. 2. A. state of being 
behind in progress ; slowness ; tardiness. 

BACK-WOODS MAN, ri. (Used mostly in the plural.) A 
term applied to the people who inhabit the i-ewl) settled 
territory west of the Alleghany mountains. 

BACK ^V6RM, n. A small worm, in a thin skin, in the 
reins of a hawk. 

BACKWOUND, r. t. To wound behind the back Shak. 

BACON, (ba'kn) n. [W . haccun.] Eog's flesh, salted, or 
pickled and dried, usually in smoke. — To save onc''s ba- 
con, is to preserve one's self from harm. 

BAC'LLE, ,(. [Fr. basntle.] In f>rtificatio7i, a. kind cf port- 
cullis or gate, made like a pit-fall. 

BAC'U-LTTE, N. [L.. baculus.] A genus of fossil shells. 

BAC-U-LOM E-TRY, v. [L. bacuUs, and Gr. ixcToov.] The 
act of measurmg distance or altitude by a staif or staves. 

BAD, a. Ill ; evil ; opposed to good ; a word of general 
use, denotmg pliysical defects and moral faults in men 
and thines ; whatever is injurious, hi;rtful, inconvenient, 
nnl-iwful, or immoral ; whatever is ofl'dnsive, painful, or 
unfavorable ; or what is defective. 

' See Synopsis. MOVE, BOOK, D6VE ;— ByLL, UNITE •,— € as K ; 6 as J ; S as Z ; CH as SH ; TH a3 in tbis. f Obsolete 




BAD, BADE. The past tense of WtZ. See Bid. 

BAD6E, n. 1. A mark, sign, token, or thing, by which a 
person is distinguished. 2. The mark or token of any 
thing. 3. An ornament on ships, near the stern, deco- 
rated with tigures. 

BADGE, V. t. To mark, or distinguish with a badge. 

BADGE'LESS, a. Having no badge. Bp. Hall. 

BAD6 ER, n. In laic, a person who is licensed to buy corn 
in one place and sell it in another, without incurring the 
penalties of engrossing. 

BADg'ER, n. A quadruped of the genus ursus. — The Amer- 
ican badge)- is called the ground hog. 

BAD6 ER. V. t. To confound. 

BADGER-LEGGED, a. Having legs like a badger. 

BAD-I-A'GA, n. A small spunge in Russia. 

BAD'I-ANE, or BAN'DI-AN, n. The seed of a tree in 
China, which smells like anise seeds. 

BAD-I-GE'ON, n. A mixture of plaster and free stone, 
ground together and sifted. 

BAD'IN-AGE, ) n. [Er.l Light or playful discourse. Ches- 

BA-DIN'E-RIE, S tcrfieid. 

BAD'LY, adxi. In a bad manner ; not well ; unskilfully ; 
grievously ; unfortunately ; imperfectly. 

BADNESS, 71. The state of being bad, evil ; vicious or de- 
praved ; want of good qualities. 

BAF'FE-TAS, BAF'TAS, or BAS TAS, n. An India cloth, 
or plain muslin. That of Surat is said to be the best. 

BAFFLE, v. t. [Fr. befler.] To mock or elude by artifice ; 
to el'-.Je by shifts and turns ; hence, to defeat or con- 

Bj*.i''FLE, V. i. To practice deceit. Barrow. 

^AF'FLE, 71. A defeat by artifice, shifts and turns. 

BAF'FLED, pp. Eluded ; defeated ; confounded. 

BAF'FLER, n. One that baffles. 

BAF'FLING, ppr. Eluding by shifts and turns, or by strat- 
agem ; defeating 5 confounding. 

BAG, n. [Norm, bage.] 1. A sack ; a pouch, usually of 
cloth or leather, used to hold, preserve, or convey corn 
and other commodities. 2. A sack in animal bodies 
containing some fluid, or other substance. 3. Formerly, 
a sort of silken purse tied to the hair. 4. In commerce, a 
certain quantity of a commodity, such as it is customary 
to carry to market in a sack ; as a bag of pepper. 

BAG, V. t. 1. To put into a bag. 2. To load with bags. 

BAG, V. i. To swell like a full bag, as sails when filled with 

BAG-A-TELLE', (bag-a-tel') «. [Fr.] A trifle ; a thing of 
no importance. 

BAGGAGE, 71. [Fr. bagage.] 1. The tents, clothing, uten- 
sils, and other necessaries of an army. 2. The clothing 
and other conveniences, which a traveler carries with 
him on a journey. [The English now call this Zwo-gaife.] 

BAG'GAGE, n. [Fr. bagasse.] A low, worthless woman 5 a 

BAG'GING, ppr. Swelling ; becoming protuberant. 

BAG'GING, 71. The cloth or materials for bags. U. States. 
Edwards^ W. Indies. 

BAGN'IO, (ban yo) n. [It. bagno ; Sp. bano.] 1. A bath ; 
a house for bathing, cupping, sweating, and otherwise 
cleanjing the body. 2. A brothel. 

BAG'PiPE, n. A musical wind instrument, used chiefly 
in Scotland and Ireland. It consists of a leathern bag, 
which receives the air by a tube, which is stopped by a 
valve ; and pipes, into which the air is pressed by the per- 
former. . 

BAG'Pl-PER, 71. One who plays on a bag-pipe. 

BAG'RE, 71. A small bearded fish, a species of siZmt-ms. 

BAG'REEF, n. A fourth and lower reef used in the British 

BA-GUET', (ba-gef) n. [Fr. baguette.] In architecture, a 
little round molding, less than an astragal. 

BAR'RE ' ( "' Weights used in the East Indies. Encyc. 

fBAIGNE, V t. [Fr. 6aio-7ier.] To soak or drench. 

BaI'KAL-iTE, n. A mineral. 

BAIL, V. t. [Fr. and Norm, bailler.] 1. Tosetfree, deliver, 
or liberate, from arrest and imprisonment. 2. To deliv- 
er goods in trust, upon a contract. 3. To free from wa- 
ter, as to bail a boat. This word is improperly written bale. 

BAIL, 71. 1. The person or persons who procure the release 
of a prisoner from custody, by becoming surety for his 
appearance in court. 2. The security given for the release 
of a prisoner from custody. 3. The handle of a kettle or 
other vessel. 4. In England, a certain limit within a for- 

BaIL'A-BLE, a. 1. That may be set free upon bond with 
sureties ; that may be admitted to bail. 2. That admits 
of bail. 

BaIL'BOND, n. Abend or obligation given by a prisoner 
and his surety. 

Bailed, pp. l. Released from custody on bonds for ap- 
pearance in court. 2. Delivered in trust, to be carried 
and deposited, re-delivered, or otherwise accounted for. 
3. Freed from water, as a boat. 

BaI'LEE, 71. The person to whom goods are committed in 

BaIL'ER, or BaIL'OR, n. One who delivers goods to an- 
other in trust. 

BaIL'IFF, ) 71. [Fr. baillif.] In England, an officer ap- 

BaIL'IF, \ pointed by the sheriff, who is the king's bailiflf. 

BaIL'I-WICK, 71. [Scot, bailli, and Sax. wic.] The precincts 
in which a bailiff has jurisdiction ; the limits of a bailiff's 

BaIL'MENT, 71. A delivery of goods in trust, upon a con- 

BaIL'PIeCE, n. A slip of parchment, or paper, containing 
a recognizance of bail above, or bail to the action. 

t BAIL Y, n. The office or jurisdiction of a bailiff. Wickliff. 

jBAIN, 71. [Fr. bain.] A bath. Hakewill. 

t BANE, V. t. To bathe. Tuberville. 

BaIRN, or BARN, n. [Sax. beam ; Scot, bairn.] A child 
Little used in English. 

BAIT, n. [Sax. batan.] 1. Any substance for food, used to 
catch fish, or other animals. 2. A portion of food and 
drink, or a refreshment taken on a jomney. 3. An allure 
ment ; enticement ; temptation. 

BAIT, V. t. 1. To put meat on a hook or line, or in an in- 
closure, or among snares, to allure fish, fowls and other 
animals into human power. 2. To give a portion of food 
and drink to man or beast upon the road. 

BAIT, V. i. To take a portion of food and drink for refresh- 
ment on a journey. 

BAIT, V. t. [Goth, beitan.] I. To provoke and harass 
by dogs ; to harass by the help of others. 2. To attack 
with violence •, to harass in the manner of small ani- 

BAIT, V. i. To clap the wings ; to flutter as if to fly ; or to 

BAIT, n. White bait, a small fish of the Thames. 

BaIT'ED, pp. 1. Furnished with bait 5 allured ; tempted. 
2. Fed, or refreshed, on the road. 3. Harassed by dogs 
or other small animals ; attacked. 

BAIT'ING, ppr. 1. Furnishing with bait ; tempting 5 allur- 
ing. 2. Feeding ; refreshing at an inn. 3. Harassing 
with dogs •, attacking. 

BAIZE, n. [Sp. bausan.] A coarse, woolen stuff, with a 
long nap. 

BAKE, V. t. [Sax. bacan.] 1. To heat, dry, and harden, as 
in an oven or furnace, or under coals of fire ; to dress and 
prepare for food, in a close place ; heated. 2. To dry and 
harden by heat, either in an oven, kiln, or furnace, or by 
the solar rays. 

BAKE, V. i. 1. To do the work of baking. 2. To be baked j 
to dry and harden in heat. 

BaKED, pp. Dried and hardened by heat ; dressed in 

BaKE'HOUSE, n. A house or building for baking. 

BaKE'MEATS, 71. Meats prepared for food in an oven. 

BaK'EN, (bakn) pp. The same as baked, and nearly obso- 

BaK'ER, n. One whose occupation is to bake bread, bis- 
cuit, &c. 

BAK'ER-FOOT, n. An ill-shaped or distorted foot. Tay- 

BAK'ER-LEGGED, a. Having crooked legs, or legs that 
bend inward at the knees. 

BAK'ER-Y, n. 1 . The trade of a baker. 2. A place occu- 
pied with the business of baking bread, &c. 

BaK'ING, ppr. Drying and hardening in heat j dressing 
or cooking in a close place, or in heat. 

BaK'ING, n. The quantity baked at once ; as a 
of bread. 

BAL'AN, n. A fish of a beautiful yellow. 

BAL'ANCE, 71. [Fr. balance; Sp. balanza.] 1. A pair ol 
scales, for weighing commodities. 2. One of the simple 
powers in mechanics. 3. Figuratively, an impartial state 
of the mind, in deliberating, 4. As balance signifies 
equal weight, or equality, it is used for the weight or sum 
necessary to make two unequal weights or sums equal. 5. 
Balance of trade is an equal exportation of domestic pro- 
ductions, and importation of foreign. 6. Equipoise, or an 
equal state of power between nations ; as, the " balance 
of power." 7. Equipoise, or an equal state of the pas- 
sions. 8. That which renders weight or authority equal. 
9. The part of a clock or watch which regulates the 
beats. — 10. In astronomy, a sign in the zodiac, called, in 
Latin, Libra. — The hydrostatic balance is an instrument 
to determine the specific gravity of fluid and solid bodies 
The assay balance is one which is used in docimastic op- 
erations, to determine the weight of minute bodies. 
BAL'ANCE, V. t. 1. To adjust the weights in the scales of a 
balance, so as to bring them to an equipoise. 2. To weigh 
reasons •, to compare, by estimating the relative force, 
importance, or value of different things. 3. To regulate 
different powers, so as to keep them in a state of jist oro- 
portion. 4. To counterpoise ; to make of equal weigntor 
force ; to make equipollent ; to support the centre of grav 
ity. 5. To settle and adjust, as aa account 

* See Synopsis. A, E, I o, tJ, "?, long —FAR. FALL, WHAT j— PRfiY ;~PiN, IMAP.iNE, Eilll) : 

]' Giii'Olcta 



BAIi'ANCE, v.i. 1. T« have on each side equal weight ; to 
fce on a poise 2. To hesitate ; to fluctuate between mo- 
tives which appear of equal force. 

BAL'ANCEU, pp. Charged with equal weights ; standing 
on an equipoise ; regulated so as to be equal ; settled ; 
adjusted ; made equal in weight or amount. 

BAL'AlNCE-FlSH, n The zygoma, or marteau. 

BAL'AN-CER, 11. L The person who weighs, or who uses 
a balance 2. A member of an insect useful in balancing 
the body. 3. One skilled in balancing. 

BAL'ANCE-REEF, n. A reef band that crosses a sail di- 
agonally, used to contract it in a storm. 

BAL'AW-CING, ppr. Charging with equal weights ; being 
in a state of equipoise ; bringing to a state of equality ; 
regulating respective forces or sums to make them equal ; 
settling ; adjusting j paying a difference of accounts ; hes- 

BAL'AN-CING, 71. Equilibrium ; poise. Spenser 

BAL'A-NlTE, n. A fossil shell of the genus balanus. 

BAL' ASS, or BAL' AS, n. [Sp. balax ; Fr. balais.] A va- 
riety of spinel ruby. 

BA-LALTS'TINE, n. The wild pomegranate-tree. 

BAL-iJu'CIN-ATE, ) v. i. [L. balbutic] To stammer in 

BAL-Bfj'TlATE, \ speaking. Diet. 

*BAL'€0-Nf ED, a. Having balconies. R. JSTorth. 

*BAL'eO-NY, n. [Fr. balcon ; It. halcone.'] In architec- 
ture, a frame of wood, iron or stone, in front of a house 
or other building. 

BALD, (bawid) a. [Sp. baldio.J 1. Destitute of hair, es- 
pecially on the top and back of the head. 2. Destitute of 
the natural covering. 3. Without feathers on the head. 
4. Destitute of troes on the top. 5. Unadorned ; inelegant. 

6. Mean ; naked j base ; without dignity or value. S/iak. 

7. In popular language, open, bold, audacious. 8. With- 
out beard or awn. 

BALD'A-€HIN, ) n. [It. baldaccliino ; Sp. baldaquin o."] In 

BALD'A-CIUIN, \ architecture, a building in form of a can- 
opy, supported by columns, and often used as a covering 
to insulated altars. 

BALD'M6N-Y, n. The same with gentian. 

BALD'ER-DASH, n. Mean, senseless prate; a jargon of 
words ; ribaldry ; any thing jumbled together without 

BALD'ER-DASH, v. t. To mix or adulterate liquors. 

BALD'LY, adv. Nakedly ; meanly •, inelegantly ; openly. 

BALD'NESS, n. Want of hair on the top and back of the 
head ; loss of hair ; meanness or inelegance of writing ; 
want of ornament. 

BALD'PATE, n. A pate without hair. 

BALD'PA-TED, a. Destitute of hair ; shorn of hair. 

BALD'RICK, n. [L. balteus, and rick.] 1. A girdle, or 
richly ornamented belt ; a war girdle. 2. The zodiac, 

BALE, n. [Fr. balle ; Ger. ballen.] 1. A bundle or pack- 
age of goods in a cloth cover, and corded for carriage or 
transportation. 2. Formerly, a pair of dice. 

BALE, V. t. To make up in a bale. 

t BALE, n. [^ax. beal, bealo.] Misery ; calamity. 

BAL-E-AR'I€, a. Pertaining to the isles of Majorca and 

BaLE'FUL, a. I. Woeful ; sad ; sorrowful ; full of grief ; 
producing misery. 2. Mischievous ; destructive ; perni- 
cious ; calamitous ; deadly. 

BaLE'F(JL-LY, adv. Sorrowfully; perniciously; in a 
calamitous manner. 

BA-LIS'TER, n. [L. balista.] A cross bow. 

BA-LIZE', n. [Fr. balise.] A sea-mark ; a pole raised on a 

BALK, (bawk) n. [Sax. bale ; W. bale] 1. A ridge of 
land, left unplowed, between furrows, or at the end of a 
field. 2. A great beam, or rafter. [G. balken ; D. balk.] 
3. Any thing left untouched, like a ridge in plowing. 4. 
A frustration ; disappointment. 

BALK, (bawk) v. t. 1. To disappoint ; to frustrate. 2. To 
leave untouched ; to miss or omit. 3. To pile, as in a 
heap or ridge. 4. To turn aside ; to talk beside one'; 

rows, as in American husbandry. 2. Frustrated ; disap- 

BALK'ER, (bawk'er) n. One who balks. 

BAliK'ING, ppr. Plowing in ridges ; frustrating. 

BALL, n. [G. ball ; I), bal ; Sw. ball.] 1. A round body ; 
a spherical substance. 2. A bullet. 3. A printer's ball, 
consisting of hair or wool, covered with leatlier, and used 
»X) put ink on the types in the forms. 4. The globe or earth, 
from its figure. 5. A globe borne as an ensign of author- 
ity. 6. Any part of the body that is round or protuberant ; 
as, the eye ball. 7. The weight at the bottom of a pendulum. 

BALL, 71. [Fr. bal ; It. ballo.] An entertainment of dancing. 

BALL, V. i. To form into a ball, as snow on horses' hoofs. 

BAL'LAD, 71. [It. ballata.] A song ; originally, a solemn 
song of praise ; but now a meaner kind of popular song. 

BAL'LAD, V. i. To make or sing ballads. Shak. 

\ BAL'LAD, V. i. To write ballads. 

meaning. [Obs.] Spenser. 5. To plow, leaving balks. 
ft.LK'ED, (bawkt) pp. 1. Plowed in ridges between fur- 

BAL'LAD-ER, n. A writer of ballads. Overbury. 

BAL'LAD-MA'KER, n. A maker or composer of oallads 

BAL'LAD-MoNG'ER, n. A dealer in writing ballads. 

BAL'LAD-RF, n. The subject or style of ballads. 

BAL'LAD-SIWG'ER, n. One whose employment is to sing 

BAL'LAD-ST1?LE, n. The air or manner of a ballad. 

BAL'LAD-TirNE, n. The tune of a ballad. Warton. 

BAL'LAD-WRiT'ER, n. A composer of ballads. 

jBAL'LA-RAG, v. t. To bully ; to threaten. Warton 

BAL'LAST, n. [Sax. bat, with last.] 1. Heavy matter, as 
stone, sand or iron, laid on the bottom of a ship or other 
vessel, to sink it in the water, to such a depth as to ena- 
ble it to carry sufficient sail without oversetting. 2. 
Figuratively, that which is used to make a thing steady. 

BAt'LAST, V. t. 1. To place heavy substances on the bot- 
tom of a ship or vessel, to keep it from oversetting. 2, 
To keep any thing steady, by counterbalancing its force 

BAL'LAST-ED, ;;p. Furnished with ballast ; kept steady 
by a counterpoising force. 

BAL'LAST-IMG, ppr. Furnishing with ballast; keeping 

BAL'LAST-ING, n. Ballast; that which is used for ballast 

BAL'LA-TED, a. Sung in a ballad. [Little used.] 

BAL-LA-TOON'', n. A heavy luggage boat employed on 
the rivers about the Caspian lake. 

BAL'-LA-TRY, n. A song ; a jig. Milton. 

BAL'LET, n. [Fr. ballet.] 1. A kind of dance ; an in- 
terlude ; a comic dance, consisting of a series of severa. 
airs, with different movements, representing some subject 
or action. 2. A kind of dramatic poem, representing some 
fabulous action or subject, 

BAL'LI-AGE, or, more correctly, Idilage, n. [Ir. baile.] A 
small duty paid to the city of London by aliens, and even 
by denizens, for certain commodities exported by tliem. 

BAL'LIARDS. See Billiards. 

BAL'LIS-TER. See Balustek. 

BAL-LIS'Tie, a. [L. balista.] Pertaining to the balista^ 
or to the art of shooting darts. 

BAL-LIS'TI€S, n. The science or art of throwing missive 
weapons, by the use of an engine. 

BAL-LOON', 71. [Fr. ballon.] 1. In general, any spherical, 
hollow body. — 2. In chemistry, a round vessel with a 
short neck, to receive whatever is distilled ; a glass re- 
ceiver, of a spherical form. — 3. In architecture, a ball or 
globe, on the top of a pillar.— 4. In fireworks, a ball of 
pasteboard, or kind of bomb, stuffed with combustibles, to 
be played off, when fired, either in the air, or in water, 
which, bursting like a bomb, exhibits sparks of fire like 
stars. 5. A game, somewhat resembling tennis, played 
in an open field, with a large ball of leather, inflated with 
wind. 6. A bag or hollow vessel, made of silk or other 
light material, and filled with hydrogen gas or heated air, 
so as to rise and float in the atmosphere ; called, for dis- 
tinction, an air-balloon. 

BALLOON', or BAL'LO-EN, n. A state barge of Siam, 
made of a single piece of timber. 

BAL'LOT, n. [Fr. ballutte.] 1, A ball used in voting. 2. 
A ticket, or written vote, being given in lieu of a ballot, is 
now called by the same name. 3. The act of voting by 
balls or tickets. 

BAL'LOT, 7). i. 1. To vote by ballot. 2. To vote by writ- 
ten papers or tickets. 

BAL'LO-TADE, or BAL'0-TADE, n. In the menage, a 
leap of a horse between two pillars, or upon a straightline, 
so that when his fore feet are in the air, he shows nothing 
but the shoes of his hind feet, without jerking out. 

BAL-LO-Ta'TION, n. A voting by ballot. [Little used.] 

BAL'LOT-BOX, 71. A box for receiving ballots. 

BALM, (bam) n. [Fr baume.] 1. The sap or juice of trees 
or shrubs remarkably odoriferous or aromatic, 2. Any 
fragrant or valuable ointment. Shak. 3, Any thing which 
heals, or which soothes or mitigates pain, — 4, In botany, 
the name of several aromatic plants, particularly of the 
genus 7nelissa. 

Balm of Qilead. A plant of the genus amyris. Its leaves 
yield, when bruised, a strong aromatic scent ; and from 
this plant is obtained the balm of Oilead of the shops, or 
balsam of Mecca or of Syria, 

BALM, V. t. 1, To anoint with balm. 2. To soothe ; to 
mitigate ; to assuage 

BALM'Y, (bam'e) a. 1, Having the qualities of balm , 
aromatic. 2. Producing balm, 3. Soothing ; soft ; mild 
4, Fragrant ; odoriferous, 5, Mitigating ; easing ; assuaging. 

BAL NE-AL, a. [L, balneum.] Pertaining to a bath. 

BAL'NE-A-RY, n. [L, balnearium.] A bathing room 
Broicn . 

BAL-NE-A'TION, n. The act of bathing, JBrowTi, 

BAL'NE-A-TO-RY, a. Belonging to a bath or stove. 

BAL'NE-UM, 71. [L,] Used in chemistry, for a vessel 

BAL'SAM, 71, [Gr. ^aXaayiOv.] An oily, aromatic, resirious 
substance, flowing spontaneously, or by incision, from 
certain plants. 

Balsam apple. An annual Indian plant. 

* See Synopsis. M5VE, BOOK, D6VE ;— Bl^LL, UNITE.— € as K ; 6 as J ; S as Z ; CH aa SH ; TH as in this, f Obsolete 




Balsam tree. A name given to a genus of plants. 

halsam of Sulphur is a solution of sulphur in oil. 

balsam of Pent. The produce of a tree in Peru. 

t BAL SAM, V. t. To render balsamic ; to soften. 

BA'L-teAM/'\.'TJON, n. The act of rendering balsamic. 

i:.AL,-SAM''e, or BAL-SAM i€-AL, a. Having tlie qualities 
of bitJsani ; stimulating j unctuous ; soft ; mitigating ; mild. 

I!AL-bA.i ff , n. A warm, stimulating, demulcent medi- 
cine, of a t>nooth and oily consistence. 

iJAL JSA-Ml\£, 71. Touch-me-not, or impatiens, a genus of 

DALteAM-Sl'/EAT-ING, a. Yielding balsam. 

LXi^T'ie, 11. The sea which separates Norway and Swe- 
den fiv^m Ju land, Holslein and Germany. 

BALT'l€, a Pertaining to tlie sea of that name ; situated 
oil the Baltic sea. 

BAL'US-TER, n. [It. balaustro; Sp. balaustre ; Fr. balustre.] 
'I'his is corrupted into banister. A small column or pilas- 
ter, of various forms and dimensions, used for balustrades. 

BAij Ut-TERED, a. Having balusters. Soames. 

BAL'tJfe-TltADK, n. [tep. balaustrado ; It. balaustrata ; 
Fr. balustrade.] A row of balusters, joined by a rail, 
serving as a fence or inclosure, for altars, balconies, stair- 
cases, terraces, tops of buildings, &c. 

BAii, or BEAM, as an initial syllable in names of places, 
signifies wood ; implying that the place took its name from 
a grove, or forest. Ger. bauvi, a tree. 

BAM'liOO, ?(. A plant of the reed kind, or genus arundo, 
growing in the East Indies. 

BAAt-BOO ZLE, V. t. To confound ; to deceive ; to play 
low tricks, [ji low word.] 

BAM-BOO ZLER, n. A cheat ; one who plays low tricks. 

BAA^, ?i. [Sax. bannan, abannan.] 1. A public proclama- 
tion or edict ; a public order or notice, mandatory or pro- 
hibitory. 2. Notice of a marriage proposed, or of a mat- 
rimonial contract, proclaimed in a church. 3. An edict of 
interdiction or proscription. Hence, to put a prince under 
tJie ban of the empire, is to divest Jiim of his dignities. 4. 
Interdiction ; prohibition. Milton. 5. Curse •, excommu- 
nication ; anathema. Raleigh. 6. A pecuniary mulct or 
penalty laid upon a delinquent for offending against a ban. 
7. A mulct paid to the bishop by one guilty of sacrilege 
and other crimes. 8. In military affairs, a proclamation 
by beat of drum, requiring a strict observance of disci- 
pline, either for declaring a new officer, or for punishing 
an offender. — 9. In commerce, a smooth, fine muslin, im- 
ported from the East Indies. 

!>A-V, V. t. To curse ; to execrate. Shak. Knolles. 

biA, V. i. To curse. Spenser. , 

■• i;A-NA NA, n. A species of the genus musa, or plantain- 
tree, and its fruit. 

!?AND, n. [Sax. banda ; Sw. band.] 1. A fillet ; a cord ; a 
tie ; a chain ; any narrow ligament wUh which a thing is 
hound, tied or fastened, or by which a number of things 
are confined together. — 2. In arcliitecture, any flat, low 
member or molding, broad, but not deep, called also fascia, 
ate or plinth. 3. Figuratively, any chain; any means 
of restraint ; that which draws or confines. 4. IMeans of 
union or connection between persons. 5. Any thing 
b.)und round or encircling another. 6. Something worn 
;iboiU the neck. 7. A company of soldiers ; the body of 
men united under one flag or ensign. Also, indefnitely, 
a troop, a body of armed men. 8. A company of persons 
united in any common design. 9. A slip of canvas, 
sewed across a sail to strengthen it. — The bands of a sad- 
dle are two pieces of iron iiailed upon the bows, to hold 
them in their proper situation. Johnson. 

BAND, v.t. 1. To bind together-, to bind over with a 
band. 2. To unite in a troop, company or confederacy. 

BAND, V. i. To unite ; to associate ; to confederate for 
some common purpose. 

BArxiDAGE, ?(. [Fr.] 1. A fillet, roller, or swath, used in 
dressing and binding up wounds, restraining hemor- 
rhages, and joining fractured and dislocated bones. 2. 
Something resembling a bandage ; that which is bound 
over another. 

BAN-DAN'A, n. A species of silk handkerchief. 

BAND'BOX, n. A slight paper box for bands, caps, bonnets, 
muffs, or other light articles. 

BAND'ED, pp. Bound with a band ; united in a band. 

BAND'ER, n. One that bands or associates with others. 

BAND'F",R-£T, n. In Sicisserland, a genertil in chief of 
military forces. 

IIAND'IED, pp. Beat or tossed to and fro; agitated; con- 
troverted without ceremony. 

BAND'IiSG, ppr. Binding with a band ; uniting in a band 
or company. 

BA-N'DIT, n. ; plu. Bandits, or Banditti, (ban-dit'te) 
[It. oandito.] An outlaw ; also, in a general sense, a rob- 
ber ; a highwayman ; a lawless or desperate fellow. 

BAN'DLE, n. An Irish measure of two feet in length. 

BANDLET, I n. [Pr. bandelette.] Any little band or flat 

BANDE-LET, \ molding. 

BAN DOG, 71. A large species of dog. Shak. 

BAN-DO-LEERS', n. [Sp. bandolera.] A large leathern 
belt, thrown over the right shpulder, and hanging undei 
the left arm ; worn by ancienf musketeers for sustaining 
their fire arms, and their musket charges, which, being 
put into little wooden cases, and coated with leather, 
were hung, to the number of twelve, tc each bandoleer. 

tBANDON, ?t. Disposal; license. Chaucer. 

BANDORE, 71. [Sp. bandurria.] A musical stringed instru- 
ment, like a lute. 

BANDROL, 71. [Fi, banderole.] 1. A little flag or streamer 
in form of a guidon, used to be hung on the masts of ves- 
sels. 2. The little fringed silk flag that hangs on a 

BAND'STRING, n. A string appendant to a band. 

BAND'Y, n. [Fr. bander.] A club for striking a ball at play 

BAND'Y, V. t. 1. To beat to and fro, as a ball in play 
2. To exchange ; to give and receive reciprocally. 3. I'd 
agitate ; to toss about, as from mau to man. 

BAND'Y, V. i. To contend, as at some game, in which 
each strives to drive the ball his own way. 

BAND'Y-ING, ppr. Beating, impelling or tossing from one 
to another ; agitating in controversy without ceremony. 

BAND'Y-LEG, ji. A crooked leg ; a leg bending inward or 

BAND'Y-LEGGED, a. Having crooked legs. 

BANE, 7?. [Sax. bana.] Poison of a deadly quality ; hence 
any fatal cause of mischief, injury or destruction. 

BANE, V. t. To poison. Shak. 

BaNE'-BER-RY, n. A name of the herb Christopher, actaia, 
or aconitum racemosum. 

BaNE'FUL, a. Poisonous ; pernicious ; destructive. 

BaNE'FUL-LY, adv. Perniciously ; destructively. 

BaNE'FUL-NESS, n. Poisonousness ; destructiveness. 

BaNE'-WoRT, n. A plant, called also deadly nightshade. 

BANG, V. t. [Dan. banker.] 1. To beat, as with a club or 
cudgel ; to thump; to cudgel, [^i loic word.] 2. To beat or 
handle roughly ; to treat with violence. 

BANG, n. A blow with a club ; a heavy blow. Shak. 

BANG ING, a. Large ; great. Grose. 

BANGLE, V. t. To waste by little and little ; to squander 
carelessly. Johnson. 

*BAN'IAN, n. ]. A man's undress or morning gown, as 
worn by the Banians in the East Indies. 2. A Gentoo ser- 
vant, employed as an agent in commerce. 3. A tree in 
India. Milton. 

BAN'ISH, V. t. [Fr. bavnir.] 1. To condemn to exile, or 
compel to leave one's country. 2. To drive away ; to 
compel to depart. 3. To quit one's country voluntarily ; 
as, he banished himself. 

BAN'iSHED, pp. Compelled to leave one's country ; driven 

BAN'iSH-ER, 71. One who compels another to quit his 

BAN'ISH- ING, ppr. Compelling to quit one's country ; 
driving away. 

BAN'ISH -MENT, n. 1. The act of compelling a citizen to 
leave his country. 2. A voluntary forsaking of one's coun- 
try upon oath, called abjuration. 3. The state of being 
banished ; exile. 4. The act cf driving away or dispelling 

BAN'IS-TER, n. A corruption of baluster, which see. 

BANK, 71. 1. A mound, pile or ridge of earth, raised above 
the surrounding plain. 2. Any steep acclivity, whether 
rising from a river, a lake, or the sea, or forming the side 
of a ravine. 3. A bench, or a bench of rowers, in a gal- 
ley. 4. A collection or stock of money. 5. The place 
where a collection of money is deposited ; a house used 
for a bank. 6. A company of persons concerned in a 
bank. 7. An elevation, or rising ground, in the sea , 
called iiiso fiats, shoals, shelves or shallows. 

BANK, V. t. 1. To raise a mound or dike ; to inclose, de- 
fend or fortify with a bank. 2. To pass by the banks of. 
Shak. fJVot in use.] 3. To lay up or deposit money in a 
bank. [Little used.] 

BANK'A-BLE, a. Receivable at a bank, as bills ; or dis- 
countable, as notes. [Ofrece?it origin.] 

BANK-BILL, or BANK-NOTE, n. A promissory note, is- 
sued by a banking company. 

BANKED, pp. Raised in a ridge or mound of earth ; inclosed, 
or fortified with a bank. 

BANK'ER, n. 1. One who keeps a bank. 2. A vessel em 
ployed in the cod fishery on the banks of Newfoundland 
Mar. Diet. 

BANK'ING, p;)r Raising a mound or bank ; inclosing with 
a bank. 

BANK'ING, n. The business or employment of a banker. 

BANK'RUPT, n. [Fr. banquerovte.] 1, A trader who se- 
cretes himself, or does certain other acts tending to defraud 
his creditors. 2. A trader who becomes unable to pay his 
just debts ; an insolvent trader. 

BANK'RUPT, a. Having committed acts of bankruptcj'^ , 
unable to pay just debts ; insolvent. 

BANK'RUPT, V. t. To break one in trade ; to make inso] 

BANK'RUPT-C"y , n. 1. The state of being a bankrupt, oi 

• See Synopsis. A, E, I, O, XJ, ^, long.— FAR, FALL, WH.^T ;— PREY ;— PTN, MARINE, BiRD ;— f Obsolete 




insolvent , inability to pay all debts. 2. The act of be- 
coming a bankrupt. 

BAN K a UPT-E D, pp. Rendered insolvent. 

BAiXKiRUPT-lIVG, ppr. Breaking in trade , rendering in- 

BANKRUPT-LAW, 71. A law, which, upon a bankrupt's 
surrendering all his property to :omraissioners for the 
benefit of his creditors, discharges hhn from the payment 
of Ills debts. 

BANK'RUPT-SV^S'TEM, n. A system of laws and legal 
proceedings in regard to Itankrupts 

BAiNK-STOCK, n. A share or shares in the capital stock of 
a bank. 

BANiVER, 71. [Fr. hanniere.] 1. A square flag; a military 
ensign , the principal standard of a prince or state. 2. A 
streamer borne at the end of a lance or elsewhere. — 3. In 
botany, tlie upper petal of a papilionaceous corol. 

BAN'iVERED, a. Furnished witii or bearing banners. 

BAiN'NER-ET, n. [Fr.] A kniglit made in the field. On 
the day of battle, the candidates presented their flags to 
the king ar general, who cut off the train or skirt, and 
made it square. They were then called knights- of the 
square flag. 

BANNIAN. See Banian. 

BAN'NE-RoL. See Bandrol. 

t BAN-NI"TION, n. [L. bannitus.] The act of expulsion. 
.^bp. Laud. 

BANNOCK, n. [If. boinneog.] A cake made of oatmeal or 
peas-meal, baked on an iron plate over the fire. 

BAN'OY. 7i. A species of hawk. 

BAN'aUET, 7i. [Fr. banquet.] A feast; a rich entertain- 
ment of meat and drink. 

BAN'aUET, V. t. To treat with a feast. 

BAN'Q.UET, V. i. To feast ; to regale one's self with good 
eating and drinking. Shak. 

BAN'aUET-ED, jW- Feasted ; richly entertained at the 

BAN'CIUET-ER, 7!. 1. A feaster ; one who lives delicious- 
ly. 2. One who makes feasts or rich entertainments. 

BAN'aUET-ING, ppr. 1. Feasting ; entertaining with rich 
fare. 2. Partaking of rich fare. 

BAN'aUET-ING, n. A feast ; luxurious living. 

house where entertainments are made. 

BAN aUFT-ING-ROOM, n. A saloon, or spacious hall for 
public entertainments. 

BAN-aUETTE', or BAN-aUET', (ban-kef) 7i. [Fr.] In 
fortification, a little raised way or foot bank, running 
along the inside of a parapet, on which musketeers stand 
to fire upon the enemy. 

BAN'SIIEE, or BEN'SHI, n. An Irish fairv. Todd. 

BAN'ST[€-KLE, 71. A small fish, called also stickle-back. 

BAN'TER, V. t. To play upon in words and in good liu- 
mor , to rally ; to joke, or jest with. 

BAN'TER, 71. A joking or jesting ; raillery ; wit or humor ; 

BAN'TERED, pp. Rallied ; laughed at in good humor 

BAN'TER-ER, 7i, One who banters, or laughs at with 

BAN'TER-ING, ppr. Joking ; laughing at with good hu- 

BANT'LING, 77. A young child ; an infant. 

BAPTISM, 77. [Gr. ^aTznana.] I. The application of water 
to a person, as a sacrament or religious ceremony, by 
which he is initiated into the visible church of Christ. 
2. The sufferings of Christ. 3. So much of the gospel as 
was preached by John the Baptist. 

BAP-TIS'MAL, a. Pertaining to baptism. 

BAP'TIST, 71. ]. One who administers baptism. This ap- 
pellation is appropriately given to John, the forerunner 
of Christ. 2. As a contraction of Anabaptist, one who 
denies the doctrine of infant baptism, and maintains that 
baptism ought to be administered only to adults by im- 
mersing the body in water. 

BAP'TIS-TER-Y, 77. [L. baptisterium.] A place where the 
sacrament of baptism is administered. 

BAP-TlS'Tr^ ) 

BAP-TIS'TI €'\1, [ '^' Pertaining to baptism. Bramhall. 

BAP-TiZE', V. t. [Gr. ^aTrri^o}.] To administer the sacra- 
mentof baptism to ; to christen. 

BAP-TiZ'ED, (bap-tizd') pp. Having received baptism ; 

BAP-TiZ'ER, 71. One who christens, or administers bap- 
tism ._ 

BAP-TlZ'ING, ppr. Administering baptism to ; cliristen- 

BAR, 7?. [W. bar.] 1. A piece of wood, iron or other solid 
matter, long in proportion to its diameter, used for various 
purposes, but especially for a hindrance or obstruction. 
2. Any obstacle which obstructs, hinders or defends ; an 
obstruction ; a fortification. 3. The shore of the sea, 
wliich restrains its waters. 4. The railing that ijicloses 
the place which coimsel occupy in courts of justice ; the 
body of lawyers licensed in a court. 5. Figuratively, any 

tribunal ; as, the Z»ai of public opinion. 6. The inclosed 
place of a tavern, inn or coffee house, wmjre the land- 
lord or his servant delivers out liquors, ahJ waits upon 
customers ^. A bank of sand, gravel, or earth, forming 
a slioal at the mouth of a river or harbor, obstructing en- 
trance, or rendering it difficult. 8. A rock in the sea ; 
any thing by which structure is held together. 9. Any 
thing laid across another ; as, bars in hei-aldry, stripes in 
color, and the like. — JO. In the menage, the highest part 
of the place in a horse's mouth between the grinders and 
tusks. — 11. In music, bars are lines drawn perpendicu- 
larly across the lines of the staff, including between each 

two a certahi quantity of time, or number of beats 

12. In lav:, a peremptory exception, sufticient to destroy 
the plaintifl^s action, i;^. A bar of gold or silver is an 
ingot, lump or wedge, from the mines, run in a mold, 
and unwrought. A bar of iron is a long piece, wrought 
in the forge, and hammered from a pig. — 14 Among p?-i«£- 
ers, the iron witli a wooden handle, by which the scxew 
of the press is turned. 

BAR, V. t. 1. To fasten with a bar. 2. To hinder ; to ob- 
struct, or prevent. 3. To prevent ; to exclude ; to hinder ; 
to make impracticable. 4. To prohibit ; to restrain or ex- 
clude by express or unplied prohibition. 5. To obstruct, 
prevent or hinder by any moral obstacle. 6. To except ; 
to exclude by exception. 7. To cross with stripes of a 
different color. 8. To bar a vein, in farriery, is an opera 
tion upon the legs of a horse, to stop malignant humors, 
9. To adorn with trappings ; a contraction of barb. 

BARB, 71. [L. barba.] 1. Beard, or that which resembles it, 
or grows in the place of it. 2. The down, or jmbes, cov- 
ering the surface of some plants. 3. Anciently, armor 
for horses ; formerly, barbe or barde. 4. A common name 
of the Barbary pigeon. 5. A horse from Barbary, of 
which it seems to be a contraction. 6. The points thai 
stand backward in an arrow, fish-hook, or other instru- 
ment for piercing, intended to prevent its being extract- 
ed. — 7. In botany, a straight process armed with teeth 
pointing backward like the sting of a bee. 

BARB, V. t. I. To shave ; to dress the beard. [Obs.] Shak. 
2. To furnish with barbs, as an arrow, fish-hook, spear, or 
other instrument. 3. To put armor on a horse. Milton. 

BaR'BA-€AN, 71. [Fr. barbacane.] 1. A fortification or 
outer defense to a city or castle. 2. A fortress at the 
end of a bridge, or at the outlet of a city, having a double 
wall with towers. 3. An opening in the wall of a for- 
tress, through which guns are leveled and fired upon an 

BAR-Ba'DOES-CHER'RY, 77. The malpia-hia. 

BAR-Ba'DOES TAR, n. A mineral fluid" of the nature of 
the thicker fluid bitumens. 

BAR-Ba RI-AN, n. [L. barbarus ; Gr. l3ap§apos.] 1. A 
man in his rude, savage slate ; an uncivilized person. 
2. A cruel, savage, brutal man ; one destitute of pity or 
humanity. 3. A foreigner. 

BAR-Ba'R1-AN, a. 1. Belonging to savages ; rude ; uncivil- 
ized. 2. Cruel ; inhuman. 

BAR-BAR'I€, a. [L. barbaricv^.] Foreign ; imported from 
foreign nations. 

BaR'BA-RISM, 77. [L. barbarismus.] 1. A form of speech 
contrary to the pure idioms of any language 2. Igno- 
rance of arts ; want of learning. Dryden. 3. Rudeness 
of manners ; savagism ; incivility ; ferociousness ; a 
savage state of society. Spenser. 1 Brutality ; cruelty ; 

BAR-BAR'I-TY, 7i. 1. The manners of a barbarian ; savage- 
ness ; cruelty ; ferociousness ., .nhumanity. 2. Barba- 
rism ; impurity of speech. 

BAR'BAR-iZE, v. t. To make barbarous. Burke. 

t BAR'BAR-lZE, n. i. To commit a barbarism. Milton. 

BAR'BAR-OUS, a. I. Uncivilized; savage; unlettered, 
untutored ; ignorant ; unacquainted with arts ; stranger 
to civility of manners. 2. Cruel ; ferocious ; inhuman. 

BAR'BAR-OUS-LY, adv. 1. In the manner of a barbarian ; 
ignorantly ; without knowledge or arts ; contrary to the 
rules of speech. 2. In a savage, cruel, ferocious or inhu- 
man manner. 

BAR'BAR-OUS-NESS, 71. 1. Rudeness or incivility of man- 
ners. 2. rmpurity of language. 3. Cruelty ; inhumanity j 

BAR'BA-R\ , 71 A barbary horse ; a barb. 

BAR'BAS-TEL, n. A bat with hairy lips. 

BAR'BATE, ./ a. [L. barbatus.] In botany, bearded; also 

BAR'BA-TED, \ gaping or ringent. 

BARBE In the military art, to fire in barbe, is to fire the 
cannon over the parapet. 

BAR'BE-€UE, n. In the West Indies, a hog roasted whole 
Lt is, with us, used for an ox, or perhaps any other animal, 
dressed in like manner. 

BAR'BE-€UE, v. t. To dress and roast a hog whole ; to 
roast any animal whole. 

BARBED, pp. 1. Furnished with armor. 2. Bearded j 
jagged with hooks or points. 3. Shaved or trimmed i 
having the beard dressed. 

* See Synopsis. MOVE, BOQK, UOVE ;— BULL, UNITE— € as K ; 6 as J ; S as Z ; CH as SH ; TH as in this f Obsolete. 




BXR'BEL, 71. [L. barba.] 1. A fish of the genus cyprinus. 
2. A knot of superfluous flesh, growing in the channels 
of a horse's mouth ; written also barbie, or barb. 

BaR'BER, 71. [Persian, barbr.] One whose occupation is to 
shave men, or to shave and dress hair. Shak. 

BaR'BER, v. t. To shave and dress hair. Shak. 

BARBER-em-RURGEON, ?i. One who joins the practice 
of surgery with tljat of a barber, a practice now unusual ; 
a low nractitiouer of surgery. 

r Bar BER-ESS, 71. A female barber, 

RaR'BER-MoNG'ER, n. A man who frequents the bar- 
bci'sshop: a fop. Shak. 

BaR'BER-RY , 71. [L. berberis.] A plant of the genus ber- 
berL-, common in hedges ; called in England pipperidge- 

BaR'BET, n. 1. A name of a species of worms. 2. The 
bucco, a genus of birds. 3. A dog so called from liis long 

BaRD, 71. [W. bardh.] ]. A poet and a singer among the 
ancient Celts. 2. In modern usage, a poet. Pope. 

BARD, 71. The trappmgs of a horse. 

BARD'ED, a. In heraldry, caparisoned. 

BAR-DSS'A-NJbTS, n. A sect of heretics, who sprung 
from Bardesanes. 

BARD'ie, a. Pertaining to bards, or to their poetry. 

BaRD'ISH, a. Pertainuig to bards ; written by a bard. 

BARD'ISM, rt. The science of bards ; the learning and 
maxims of bards. Owen. 

BARE, a. [Sax. bar, or te?-.] 1. Naked ; without cover- 
ing. 2. With the head uncovered, from respect. 3. 
Plain ; simple ; unadorned ; without the polish of refined 
jnaniiers. 4. Laid open to view ; detected ; no longer 
concealed. 5. Poor ; destitute ; indigent ; empty ; un- 
furnishsd. 6. Tliread-bare ; much worn. 7. Wanting 
clothes ; or ill-supplied with garments. 

BARFu, :. t. [Sax. abarian.] To strip off the covering ; to 
make naked. 

f BARE. The old preterit of bear, now bore. 

BaRE'BOi^E, 7t. A very lean person. 

BaRE'BoNED, fl. Lean, so that the bones appear, or, rath- 
er, so that the bones show their forms. 

BARED, pp. Made bare -, made naked. 

BaRE'FACED, a. 1. With the face uncovered ; not mask- 
ed. 2. Undisguised ; unreserved ; without concealment ; 
hence, shameless ; impudent ; audacious. 

BaRE^FA-CED-LY, adv. Without disguise or resen^e ; 
openly ; impudently. 

EaRE'FA-CED-NESS, n. Effrontery ; assurance ; auda- 

Barefoot, a. with the feet bare ; without shoes and 

BARE FOOT, a. or adv. With the feet bare. 

BaRE'FOOT-ED, a. Having the feet bare. 

BaRE'GjMAWN, (bare'nawn) a. Eaten bare. Shak. 

BaRE'HEAD-ED, a. Having the head uncovered, either 
from respect or other cause. 

BaRE'H£AD-ED-NESS, n. The state of being bareheaded. 

BaRE'LEGGED, a. Having the legs bare. 

BaRE'LY, ot/y. Nakedly ; poorly; indigently; without 
decoration ; merely ; only ; without any thing more. 

BaRE'NECKED, a. Having the neck uncovered. 

BaRE'NESS, n. Nakedness ; leanness ; poverty ; indi- 
gence ; defect of clothes. 

BaREPICKED, a. Picked to the bone. Skak. 

BaRE'RIBBED, a. Lean. Shak. 

BAR'FUL. See Barrful. 

BaR'GAIN, (bar'gin) 71. [Fr. barguigner.] 1. An agree- 
ment between parties concerning the sale of pi'operty ; a 
contract. 2. Stipulation ; interested dealing. 3. Pur- 
chase, or the thing purchased. 

BAR'GAIN, V. i. To make a contract or agreement. 

BAR'GAIN, V. t. To sell ; to transfer for a consideration. 

BAR-GAIN-EE', ?). The party in a contract who receives 
or agrees to receive the property sold. 

BAR GAIiV-ER, n. The party in a contract who stipulates 
to sell and convey property to another. 

BARGE, (barj) n. [D. bargie.^ 1 A pleasure boat ; a ves- 
sel or boat of state, elegantly furnished. 2. A flat-bot- 
tom^ftd vessel of burden, for loading and unloading ships. 

BARGE'-GoUP-LES, 7!. In architecture, a beam mortised 
into another, to strengthen the building. 

BARGE'-GoURSE, n. In bricklaving, a part of the tiling 
wliich projects beyond the principal rafters. 

BARGE MAN, n. The man who manages a barge. 

BARG E'MAS-TER, n. The proprietor of a barge, cc 
goods for hire. 

BARG'ER, 71. The manager of a barge. 

BA-RIL'LA, 7t. [Sp.] 2. A plant cultivated in Spain for 
its ashes, from which the purept kind of mineral alkali is 
obtained. 2. The alkali procured from this plant, 

BARI-TONE. See Barytone. 

BAR'I-UM, 77. The metallic basis of barytes, which is an 
oxyA oi barium. Davy. 

BARK, 71. [Dan. bark.'\ 1. The rind or exterior covering of 

rge, conveymj 

a tree, correspondhig to the skin of an animal. 2. By 
■way of distinction, Peruvian bark. 

BARK, V. t. To peel ; to strip off bark. Also, to cover or 
inclose with bark. 

BARK, or BARaUE, n. [Ir. bare ; Fr. barque.] A small 
ship ; but appropriately, a ship wliich carries three masts 
without a mizzen top-sail. 

BARK, V. i. [Sax. beorcan.] 1. To make the noise of dogs, 
when they threaten or pursue. 2. To clamor at ; to pur- 
sue with umeasonable clamor or reproach. 

BARK'-BARED, a. Stripped of the bark. Mortimer. 

BARK'-BOUND, a. Having the bark too firm or close, as 
with trees. 

BARKED, pp. Stripped of the bark ; peeled ; also, covered 
with bark. 

BARK'ER, n. One who barks, or clamors unreasonably ; 
one who strips trees of their bark. 

BARK'-GALLED, a. Having the bark galled, as with 

BARK'ING, ppr. Stripping off bark ; making the noise of 
dogs ; clamoring ; covering with bark. 

BARK'Y, a. Consisting of bark ; containing bark. Shak. 

BAR'LEA'^j 77. [W. barlys.] A species of gi-ain, used espe 
cially for making malt, from which are distilled liquors of 
extensive use, as beer, ale and porter. 

BAR LEY-BRAKE, 71, A rural play ; a trial of swiftness. 

BAR'LEY-BROTH, n. A low word for strong beer. 

BAR'LEY-€ORN, n. A gram of barley ; the third part of 
an inch in length ; hence originated our measures of 

EAR'LEY-MOW, 77. A mow of bailey, or the place where 
barley is deposited. 

BAR'LEY-SUGAR, (barle-shu-gar) n. Sugar boiled tUl it 
is brittle, formerly with a decoction of barley. 

BAR'LEY^-WA'TER, 71. A decoction of barley. 

BARM, 71. [Sax. beorm.] Yeast ; the scum rising upon beer, 
or other malt liquors, when fermenting, and used as 

BARM'Y, a. Containing barm, or yeast, Shak. 

BARN,?!. [Sa.x. ber em.] A covered building for securing 
grain, hay, flax, and other productions of the earth. In 
the JSTortherii States of Jimerica, the farmers generally use 
barns for stabling their horses and cattle ; so that, among 
them, a bam is both a cornhouse, or grange, and a stable. 

t BARN, V. t. To lay up in a barn. Shak. 

BAR']^-€LE, 71. [Port. &e'/-7taca.] 1. A shell, which is 
often found on the bottoms of ships, rocks, and timber, 
below the surface of the sea. 2. A species of goose, found 
in the northern seas, but visiting more southern climates 
in whiter. 3. In the plural, an instrument to put upon a 
horse's nose, to confine him, for shoeing, bleeding, or 

BARN'-DoOR, 71. The door of a barn. Milton. 

BAR'O-LlTE, n. [Gr. 0apos and \idos.] Carbonate of 

BA-ROM'E-TER,77. [Gr. fiapos and perpov.] An instrument 
for measuring the weight or pressure of the atmosphere. 
Its uses are to indicate changes of weather, and to deter 
mine the altitude of mountains. 

BAR-0-MET'RI-€AL, a. Pertaining or relating to the ba- 
rometer ; made by a barometer. 

BAR-0-MET'RI-€AL-LY, adv. By means of a barometer. 

BAR'ON, n. [Fr. baron ; Sp. baron, or varon ; It. barcne.} 

1. In Great Britain, a title or degree of nobility ; a lord ; 
a peer ; one who holds the rank of nobility next below 
that of a viscount. 2. Baron is a title of certain oflicers, 
as, barons of the exchequer. Barons of the Cinque Ports 
are members of the house of commons, elected by the 
seven Cinque Ports. — 3. In law, a husband ; as, baron 
and feme, husband and wife. 

BAR'ON- AGE, n. 1. The whole body of barons or peers. 

2. The dignity of a baron. 3. The land which gives title 
to a baron. Johnson. 

BAR'ON-ESS, 77. A baron's wife or lady. 

BAR'ON-ET, 77. [Fr. ; dimin. of baron.] A dignity or degree 
of honor, next below a baron, and above a knight ; hav- 
ing precedency of all knights except those of the garter, 
and being the only knighthood that is hereditary. 

BA-Ro'NI-AL, a. Pertaining to a baron. Encyc. 

BAR'O-NY, 77. The lordship, honor, or fee of a baron 
whether spiritual or temporal. 

BAR'OS-€OPE, 71. [Gr. (iapoi; and cKoiredi.] An instrument 
to show the weight of the atmosphere ; superseded by the 

BAR-OS-€OPI€, a. Pertaining to, or determined by, the 

BAR-O-SEL'E-NTTE, 77. [Gr. ^apoi or jSapu?, and selenite.] 
A mineral ; sulphate of barytes ; heavy spar. 

BAR'RA, n. In Portugal and Spain, a long measure for 
cloths. Encyc. 

BAR-RA-€A'i)A, n. A fish, about fifteen inches in length, 
of a dusky color on the back, and a white belly, with 
small black spots. 

See Synopsis. A, JZ I, O, tj, ^, long.— FAR, FALL, WHAT ;— PREY ;— PIN, MARINE, BIRD :— t Obsolete. 




f!AR'RA-€AN, n. [It. baracane.] A thick, strong stuff, 
somelliiiig like cainelot ; used for clokes, &c 

BARRACK, n. [Sp. barraca ; Fr. baraque.] A hut or 
house for soldiers, especially in garrison. 

BAR RAt)K-ftlA.S''i'iJR, n. The oliicer who superintends 
llie barracks of soldiers. Swift. 

BAR-RA-€uDA, n. A species offish, of the pike kind. 

BAR'RA-TOR, 7t. [Old Fr. fiaraJ.] 1. One who frequently 
excites suits at law ; an encourager of litigation. 2. The 
master of a ship, who commits any fraud ui the manage- 
ment of the ship. 

BAR'RA-TRY, n. 1. Tlie practice of exciting and encour- 
aging lawsuits and quarrels. — 2. In coimnerce, any species 
of cheating or fraud, in a shipmaster, by which the own- 
ers or insurers are injured. 

BARRED, pp. Fastened with a bar ; hindered ; restrained ; 
excluded ; forbid •, striped ; checkered. 

BAR'ilEL, n. [W. Fr. baril ; Sp. barril.] 1. A vessel or 
cask, of more length than breadth, round, and bulging in 
the middle, made of staves and lieading, and bound with 
hoops. 2. The quantity wiiicli a barrel contains. 3. Any 
tiling hollow and long, as the barrel of a gun ; a tube. 
4. A cylinder. 5. A cavity behind the tympanum of the 
ear is called the barrel uftlie ear. 

BAR'REL, V. t. To put in a barrel ; to pack in a barrel. 

BAli'llEL-BEL'LiED, a. Having a large belly. 

BAR'RELED, pp. Put or packed in a barrel. 

BAR RELED, a. Having a barrel or tube. 

BAR'REL-ING, ppr. Putting or packing in a barrel. 

BARREN, a. 1. Not producing young, or offspring ; ap- 
plied tu animals. 2. Not producing plants ; unfruitful ; 
steril ; not fertile ; or producing little ; unproductive. 3. 
Not producing the usual fruit ; applied tu trees, Si^c. 4. 
Not copious ; scanty. 5. Not containing useful or enter- 
taining ideas. 6. Unmeaning; uninventive ; dull. 7. 
Unproductive ; not inventive. 

BAR REN, n. 1. In the states west of the .Alleghany Moun- 
tains, a word used to denote a tract of land, rising a i'aw 
feet above the level of a plain, and producing trees and 
grass. Mwater. 2. Any unproductive tract of land. 

BAR'REN-LY, adv. Unfruitflilly. 

BAR'REN-NESS, «. 1. The quality of not producing its 
kind ; want of the power of conception. 2. Unfruitful- 
ness ; sterility ; infertility. 3. Want of invention ; want 
of the power of producing any thing new. 4. Want of 
matter 5 scantiness. 5. Defect of emotion, sensibility, or 
fervency. Taylor. 

BARREN-SPIR'IT-ED, a. Of a poor spirit. Shall. 

BAR'REN-WoRT, n. A plant, constituting the genus epi- 

BARR'FUL, a. Full of obstructions. Shah. 

BAR-R1-€ADE', n. [Fr. barricade.] 1. A fortification made 
in haste, of trees and earth, in order to obstruct the prog- 
ress of an enemy. 2. Any bar or obstruction ; that 
which defends. 

BAR-R1-€aDE', v.t. 1. To stop up a passage ; to obstruct. 

2. To fortify with any slight work that prevents the ap- 
proach of an enemy. 

BAR-RI-Ca'DO. The same as barricade. 
BAR'RI-ER, M. [Yx. barrier e.] 1. In fortification, d.l&inA of 
fence made in a passage. Encyc. 2. A wall for defense. 

3. A fortress or fortified town on th* frontier of a country. 

4. Any obstruction ; any thing which confines, or which 
hinders approach, or attack. 5. A bar to mark the limits 
of a place ; any limit, or boundary ; a line of separation. 

BARR'ING, vpr. Making fast with a bar ; obstructing ; ex- 
cluding ; preventing ; prohibiting ; crossing with stripes. 

BARR'ING-OUT, n. Exclusion of a person from a place ; 
a boyish sport at Christmas. Swift. 

BAR'RIS-TER, n. A counselor, learned in the laws, qual- 
ified and admitted to plead at the bar. 

BAR'RoW, n. [Sax. bp.rejce.'] 1. A light, small carriage. 
A hand-harroto is a frame covered in the middle with 
boards, and borne by and between two men. A wheel- 
barroin is a frame with a box, supported by one wheel, 
and rolled by a single man. 2. A wicker case, in salt 
works, where the salt is put to drain. 

BAR'RoW, 71. [Fax. bcrcra, or beorgh.] 1. In England, a 
hog ; and, according to j^sh, obsolete. Barroio grease is 
hog's lard. — 2. In America, a male hog castrated ; award 
in co'rn mon use. 

BAR'EoW,Ti. [^^LT.. beara,ox bearewe.] In the names of 
places, barrow is used to signify a wood or grove. 

BAR'RoW, n. [Sax. beorg.] A hillock, or mound ot earth, 
intended as a repository of tlie dead. 

BAR.SE, n. An English name for the common percli. 

BaR'SHOT, n. Double-headed shot, consisting of a bar, 
with a half ball or round head at eacii end. 

BAR'TER,?; I. [Sp. /^amtar.] To traffick or trade, by ex- 
changing one commodity for another. 

BAR'TER, v. t. Togiveonethingforanother in commerce. 

BAR'TER, n. The act or practice of trafficking by exchange 
of commodities. 

BAR'TERED, pp. Given in exchange 

BAR'TER-ER, n One who trafficks ty exchange of rom- 

BAR'TER-ING,;.7;?-. Trafficking or trading by an exchange 
of commodities. 

t BAR'TER-Y, n. Exchange of commodities in trade. 

BAR-THOL'0-MEW-TIDE, n. The term near St. Barthol- 
omew's day. Shak. 

BAR'TON, ?t. [Sax.6ere-io7i.] The demain lands of a man- 
or ; the manor itself, and sometimes the out-houses. 

BAR'TRAM, n. [L. pyrethrum.] A plant ; pellitory. 

BAR-Y-STRON'TIAN-ITE, n. [Gr. /b'apuf, and strontian.] 
A mineral, called also stromnite, from Stromness, in Ork- 

BA-RY'TA, n. The earth of barytes in a purified state. 

BA-RY'TES, 71. [Gr. j8up?, heavy ; ^apvTijs, weight.] Pon 
derous earth ; the heaviest of earthy substances. It is an 
oxyd of a metallic substance called barium. 

BA-RYT'I€, a. Pertaining to barytes ; formed of barytes, 
or containing it. Kirwan. 

BAR'Y-TO-€AL'CITE, n. A mixture of carbonate of lime 
with sulphate of barytes, of a dark, or light-gray color, of 
various forms. 

BAR'Y-TONE, a. [Gr. /?aj3ii? and Tovog.] Pertaining to, or 
noting a grave, deep sound, or male voice. Walker. 

BAR'Y-TONE, n. 1. In music, a male voice, the compass 
of which partakes of the common base and the tenor. — 9. 
In Greek grammar, a verb which has no accent marked 
on the last syllable, the grave accent being understood. 

Ba'SAL, a. Pertaining to the base ; constituting the base. 

BA-SALT', n. A dark, grayish-black mineral or stone, 
sometimes bluish or brownish-black, and, when withered, 
the surface is grayish or reddish-brown. 

BA-SAL'TES, n. A kind of stoi.e, of the hardness and color 
of iron, which is found in perpendicular blocks. 

BA-SALT'ie, a. Pertaining to basalt ; formed of or con- 
taining basalt. 

BA-SALT' I- FORM, a. In the form of basalt ; columnar. 

BA-SA.LT'INE, 7). ]. Basaltic hornblend ; a variety of com- 
mon hornblend, so called from its being often found in 
basalt. 2. A column of basalt. 

BAS'A-NiTE, 77. [Gr. ^aaavoi.] Lydian stone, or black 
jasper ; a variety of siliceous or flinty slate. 

BASE, a. [Fr. bas, low ; W. bas ; It. basso.] 1. Low in 
place. [Ofc.] Spenser. 2. Mean ; vile ; worthless ; that is 
loio in value or estimation ; used of things. 3. Of low 
station ; of mean account ; without rank, dignity, or esti- 
mation among men ; used of persons. 4. Of mean spirit ; 
disingenuous ; illiberal ; low ; without dignity of senti- 
ment. 5. Of little comparative value ; applied to metals 
6. Deep ; grave ; applied to sounds. 7. Of illegitimate 
birth; born out of wedlock. Shak. 8. Not held by honor- 
able tenure. 

BASE, n. [Gr. ^aai(; ; L. basis.] 1. The bottom of any 
thing, considered as its support, or the part of a thing on 
which it stands or rests. — In architecture, the base of a 
pillar properly is that part which is between the top of a 
pedestal and the bottom of the shaft. Encyc. 2. The part 
of any ornament which hangs down, as housings. 3. 
The broad part of any thing, as the bottom of a cone. 4. 
The place from which racers or tillers start ; the bottom 
of the field ; the starting post. 5. The lowest or gravest 
part in inusic. 6. A rustic play, called also bajjs, or prison 
bars. — 7. In geometry, the lowest side of the perimeter 
of a figure.— 8. In chemistry, any body which is dis- 
solved by another body, which it receives and fixes. 9. 
Thorough base, in music, is the part performed with base 
viols or theorbos, while the voices sing, and other instiu- 
ments perform their parts. 

BASE, V. t. 1. To embase ; to reduce the value by the ad- 
mixture of meaner metals. {Little used.] Bacon. 2. To 
found ; to lay the base or foundation. Edinburgh Review. 

BaSE'-BORN, a. 1. Born out of wedlock. 2. Born of low 
parentage. 3. Vile ; mean. 

BaSE'-GcURT, 7/. [Fr. basse-cour.] The back yard, op- 
posed to the chief court in front of a house ; the farm yard. 

BASED, pp. Reduced in value ; founded. 

BaSE'LESS, a. Without a base ; having no foundation, ot 

BaSE'LY, adv. 1. In a base manner ; meanly ; dishonora- 
bly. 2. Illegitimately ; in bastardy. 

BaSE'MENT, 77. In architecture, the ground floor, on 
which the order, or columns which decorate the principal 
story, are placed. 

BaSE'-MIND-ED, a. Of a low spirit or mind ; mean. 

BaSE'-MTND'ED-NESS, n. Meanness of spirit. 

BaSE'NESS, 77. 1. Meanness; vileness ; -worthlessness. 
2. Vileness of metal ; the quality of being of little com- 
parative value. 3. Bastardy ; illegitimacy of birth. 4. 
Deepness of sound. 

BaSE'NET, 7?=, A helmet. Spenser. 

BaSE'-STRING, n. The lowest note. Shak 

See Synopsis. MOVE, BOOK, D6VE ;— BULL, UNITE.— € as K ; as J ; S as Z ; CH as SH ; TH as in tJiis. j Obsolete 




BaSE'-VI-OL, n. A musical instrument, used for playing 
the base, or gravest part. See Bass-Viol. 

BASH, V. i. [Heb. V\2-] To be ashamed 5 to be confounded 
with shame. Spenser. 

BA-SHAW', n. [Ar. baska ; Pers. pasha; Sp. baxa ; It. 
bascia ; Turlc. basch. — It sliould be written and pro- 
nounced pashaic] ]. A title of honor in the Turkish do- 
minions ; appropriately, the title of the prime vizier, but 
given to viceroys, or governors of provinces, and to gen- 
erals, and other men of distinction. 2. A proud, tyranni- 
cal, overbearing man. 

BASfi'FUL, a. 1. Properly, having a downcast look ; 
hence, very modest. 2. Modest to excess ; sheepish. 3. 
Exciting shame. 

BASHFUL-LY. adv. Very modestly ; in a timorous man- 

BASH'FUL-NESS, 71. 1. Excessive or extreme modesty •, a 
quality of mind often visible in external appearance, as 
in blushing, a downcast look, confusion, <Scc. 2. Vicious 
or rustic shame. 

BASFI'LESy, a. Shameless ; unblushing. Spenser. 

BAS'lL, n. The slope or angle of a tool or instrument, as of 
a chisel or plane. 

BAS'lL, V. t. To grind or form the edge of a tool to an an- 

BAS'IL, n. [Fr. basilic ; It. basilico.] A plant of the genus 

BAS'IL, n. The skin of a sheep tanned ; written also 

BA3'IL-WEED, n. Wild basil, a plant of the genus clino- 
podium. Muhlenburg. 

BAS'l-TiAR, )a. [See Basilic] Chief; an anatomical 

BAS'I-LA-RY, \ term applied to several bones, and to an 
artery of the brain. — Basilian monks, monks of the order 
of St. Basil. 

BAS'I-LI€, n. [Gr. ^aaiXiKr].] Anciently, a public hall, or 
court of judicature, where princes and magistrates sat to 
administer justice. 

BAS'I-LI€, n. The middle vein of the arm, or the interior 
branch of the axillary vein. 

BAS'I-Lie, )a 1. Belonging to the middle vein of the 

BA-S1L'I-€AL, \ arm 2. Noting a particular nut, the 
walnut. 3. Being ia the manner of a public edifice, or 

BA-SIL'I-eON, n. [Gr. /^ao-tXtKo?.] An ointment. 

BAS'I-LISK, n. [Gr. ^aaLKiaKus.] 1. A fabulous serpent, 
called a cockatrice. — 2. In military affairs, a large piece 
of ordnance, so called from its supposed resemblance to 
the serpent of that name, or from its size. 

BA'SIN, (ba'sn) n. [Fr. bassin.'] 1. A hollow vessel or 
dish, to hold water for washing, and for various other 
uses. — 2. In hydraulics, any reservoir of water. 3. That 
which resembles a basin in containing water, as a pond. 
— 4. Aniung trlass irrindcrs, a concave piece of metal, by 
which convex glasses are formed. — 5. Among hatters, a 
large shell or case, usually of iron, placed over a furnace, 
in which the hat is molded into due shape. — 6. In anato- 
tny, a round cavity between th'^ anterior ventricles of 
the brain. 7. The scale of a balance, when hollow and 

BA'SIiVED, a. Inclosed in a basin. Youncr. 

Ba'SIS, n. ; plu. Bases. [L.] 1. The foundation of any 
thing ; that on which a thing stands or lies •, the bottom 
or foot of the thing itself, or that on which it rests. [See 
Base.] 2. The ground-work, or first principle ; that 
which supports. 3. Foundation ; support. 4, Basis, in 
chemistry. See Base. 

BASK, V. i. To lie in warmth ; to be exposed to genial 
heat 5 to be at ease and thriving under benign influences. 

BaSK, v. t. To warm by continued exposure to heat ; to 
warm with genial heat. Dryden. 

BASKED, pp. Exposed to warmth, or genial heat. 

BAS'KET, n. [W. basged, or bas/awd.] 1. A domestic ves- 
sel made of twigs, rushes, splinters, or other flexible 
things interwoven. 2 The contents of a basket ; as 
n uch as a basket will contain. 

BAS'KET, V. t. To put in a basket. Cowper. 

BASKET-FISH, n. A species of sea-star, or star-fish. 

BAS'KET-HILT, n. A hilt which covers the hand, and 
defends it from injury, as of a sword. 

BASKET-HILT-ED, a. Having a hilt of basket-work. 

BAS'KET-SALT, n. Salt made from salt-springs. 

BAS'KET-WOM-AN, n. A woman who carries a basket to 
and from market. 

DASK'ING, ppr. Exposing or lying exposed to the continu- 
ed action of heat or genial warmth. 

BASK'ING-SHARK, n. The sun-fish of the Irish. 

BAS'aUISH, (b-as'kish) a. Pertaining to the people or lan- 
guage of Biscay. 

BASS, n. [It has no plural.] The name of several species 
of fish. 

BASS, n. 1. The linden, lime, ortiel tree ; called also bass- 
wood. 2. [pron. bas.] A mat to kneel on in churches. 

BaSS, 71. In music, the base ; the deepest or gravest part of 
a tune. This word is tlius written, in imitation of the 
Italian basso, which is the Eng. base, low ; yet with the 
pronunciation of base and plural bases ; a gross error that 
ouglit to be corrected ; as the word used in pronunciation 
is the English word base, 

BaSS, v. t. To sound in a deep tone. Shak. 

BaSS-RE-L1kF', n. In English, base-relief. [It. basso and 
relievo.'] Sculpture, whose figures do not stand out far 
from the ground or plane on wliich they are formed 
When figures do not protuberale so as to exhibit the en- 
tire body, they are said to be done in relief; ai.d when 
they are low, flat, or little raised from the plane, the work 
is said to be in low relief. When the figures are so raised 
as to be well distinguished, iJiey are said to be bold, 
strong,_ox high, alto relieco. See Relief. 

BaSS'-Vi-OL, ??. A musical instrument, used for playing 
the bass or gravest part. 

BAS'SA. See Bashaw. 

BAS'SET, 71. [Fr. bassette.] A game at cards. 

BAS'SET, V. i. Among coal diggers, to incline upwards. 

BAS'SET-ING, ppr. Having a direction upwards. 

BAS'SET-ING, n. The upward direction of a vein in a coal 

BAS'SO-€ON-CER-TAN'TE, in music, is the base of the lit- 
tle chorus, or that which plays throughout the whole piece. 

BAS'SO-€Ox^^-TIN'U-0. Thorough base, which see under 
Base, _ 

BAS'SO-RE-PIE'NO is the base of the grand chorus, which 
plays only occasionally, or in particular parts. 

BAS'SO-RE-LIE'VO, See Bass-relief. 

BAS'SO-VI-0-Li'NO is the base of the base-viol. 

BAS'SOCK, n. The same as bass, a mat. 

BAS-SOON', n. [Fr. basson.] A musical wind instrument, 
blown with a reed, and furnished with eleven holes, 
which are stopped as in other large flutes. 

BAS-SOON'IST, n. A performer on the bassoon. 

BAST, 71. A rope, or cord, made of the bark of the lime- 
tree or linden. 

BAS'TARD, 71. [Arm. bastard ; Ir. basdard ; Fr. b&tard.] 
A natural child •, a child begotten and born out of wed 
lock ; an illegitimate or spurious child. 

t BAS'TARD, 71. A kind of sweet wine. Shak. 

BAS'TARD, a. I. Begotten and born out of lawful matri- 
mony ; illegitimate. 2. Spurious ; not genuine ; false ; 
supposititious ; adulterate. 

BAS'TARD, V. t. To make or determine to be a bastard. 

BAS'TARD-ISM, 71. The state of a bastard. 

BA3'TARD-lZE, v. t. 1. To make or prove to be a bastard ; 
to convict of being a bastard ; to declare legally, or decide 
a person to be illegitimate. 2. To beget a bastard. Shak. 

BAS'TARD-LY, adv. In the manner of a bastard ; spuri- 
ously. Donne. 

BAS'TARD-LY, a. Spurious. Bp. Taylor. 

BAS'TARDS. An appellation given to a faction or troop of 
bandits, who ravaged Guienne, in France, in the 14th cen- 

BAS'TARD-Y, n. A state of being a bastard, which condi- 
tion disables the person from inheriting an estate. 

BAS-TARN'I€, a. Pertaining to the Eastarnce.—Bastarnic 
Alps, the Carpathian mountains, so called from the an- 
cient inhabitants, the Bastarnce. 

BASTE, V. t. [Arm. baz ; Fr. baton.] 1. To beat with a 
stick. 2. To drip butter or fat upon meat, as it turns upon 
tlie spit, in roasting ; to moisten with fat or other liquid. 

BASTE, ?'. t. [Sp. bastear.] To sew with long stitches ; to 
sew slightly. 

BASTED, pp. Beat with a stick ; moistened with fat or 
other matter in roasting ; sewed together with long 
stitches, or slightly. 

t BaST'ER, n. A blow with a stick or other weapon. Wag- 

BAS'TILE, w. [Fr. b&tir, bastir.] An old castle in Paris, 
built between 1369 and 1383, used as a state prison. It 
was demolished in 1789. 

t BAS-TtMENn^O, i ''• ^^^^ ^'^^ ^''^timent.] A rampart. 

BAS-TI-NaDE', orBAS-TI-NA'DO, 7?. [Fr. bastonnade.] A 
sound beating with a stick or cudgel ; the blows given 
witli a stick or staff. A punishment in use among the 
Turks, of beating an offender on the soles of his feet. 

BAS-TI-NA'DO' I '"' *" ^^ beat with a stick or cudgel. 

BaST'ING, ppr. Beating with a stick ; moistening with 
dripping ; sewing together with long stitches. 

BaST'ING, n. A beating with a stick ; a moistening with 
dripping ; a sewing together slightly, with long stitches. 

BAS'TION, (bas'chun) n. [Fr. and Sp. bastion.] A huge 
mass of earth , usually faced with sods, sometimes with 
brick or stones, standing ouj; from a rampart, of which it 
is a principal part ; formerly called a bulwark, 

BAS'TO, 7!. The ace of clubs at quadrille. 

BAS'TON, or BA-TOON', n. In architecture, a round mold- 
ing in the base of a column ; called also a tore 

* See Fiyvopsis. A, E, T, O, u, ^, long.— FAR, FALL, WHAT ;— PREY ;— PiN, MARINE, BIRD ;— f Obsolete. 




BAT, n. [Sax. bat.] 1. A heavy stick or club. 2. Bat or 
bate, a small copper coin of Germany. 3. A term giveoi 
by miners to sliiile, or bituminous slial*:;. 

BAT, u. i. To manage a bat, or play witn one. 

BAT, n, A race of quadrupeds, tecimically called vesper- 
tUiti, of the order primates, in Linne's system. The fore 
feet Jiave the toes connected by a membtane, expanded 
into a kind of wings, by means of which the animals fly. 
The species are numerous. 

BAT'-FOWL-ER, n. One who practices or is pleased 
with bat-fowling. Barrington. 

BAT-FOWL-ING, -ft, A mode of catching birds at night, 
by holding a torch or other light, and beating the bush or 
perch where they roost. 

Ba'TA-BLE, a. Disputable. 

BA-Ta'TAS, n. A species of tick or mite. 

BA-Ta'VI-AN, a. Pertaining to Holland, or the isle of 
Betaw in Holland. 

BA-Ta'VI-AN, n. A native of Betaw, or Holland. 

BATCH, 11. [D. bakzel.] 1. The quantity of bread baked 
at one time ; a baking of bread. 2. Any quantity of a 
thing made at once, or so united as to have like qualities. 

BATCH E-LOR. See Bachelor. 

BATE, n. [Sax. bate.] Strife ■, contention ; retained in 
make-bate. [Bate, with its derivatives, is little used.] 

BATE, V. t. [Fr. battre.] To lessen by retrenching, de- 
ducting or reducing. We now use abate. 

BATE, V. i. To grow or become less ; to remit or retrench 
a part. Dryden. 

t BaTE'-BREED-TNG, a. Breeding strife. Shak. 

BaTE'FUL, a. Contentitus ; given to strife. 

BaTE'LESS, a. Not to be abated. Shak. 

BaTE'MENT,?i. Abatement ; deduction ; diminution. 

BA-TEAU', (bat-to') n. [Fr.l A light boat, long in propor- 
tion to its breadth, and wider in the middle than at the 

sect of apostates from Mohammedism. 

tBATFUIi, a. Rich, fertile, as land. Mason. 

BATH, ?t. [Bax. bmth, batho.] 1. A place for bathing; a 
vat or receptacle of water for persons to plunge or wash 
their bodies in, and is either warm or cold. 2. A place in 
which heat is applied to a body immersed in some sub- 
stance. 3. A house for bathing. 4. A Hebrew meas- 
ure containing the tenth of a homer, or seven gallons and 
four pints, as a measure for liquids ; and three pecks and 
three pints, as a dry measure. 

BaTH'-ROOM, n. An apartment for bathing. 

BATHE, V. t. [Sax. bathian.] 1. To wash the body, or 
some part of it, by immersion, as in a bath. 2. To wash 
or moisten, for the purpose of making soft and supple, or 
for cleansing, as a wound. 3. To moisten or suffuse with 
a liquid. 

BATHE, V. i. To be or lie in a bath ; to be in water or in 
otiier liquid, or to be immersed in a fluid. 

BATHED, pp. Washed as in a bath ; moistened with a li- 
quid ; bedewed. 

BaTH'ER, n. One who bathes. 

BATfl'fNG, ppr. Washing by immersion, or by applying a 
liquid ; moistening ; fomenting. 

BATK'iNG, 71. The act of bathing, or washing the body in 
w'lter. Mason. 

BaTH'ING-TUB, n. A vessel for bathing. 

Ba'THOS, n. [Gr. iSadog.] The art of sinking in poetry. 

BaTT NG, ppr. Abating ; taking away ; deducting ; ex- 
cepting. Locke. 

BAT'fN-IST. See Batenites. 

BAT'IST, n. A fine linen cloth. 

BAT' LET, n. A small bat, or square piece of wood with a 
handle, for beating linen. 

BAT'MAN, n. A weight used in Smyrna. 

BA-TOON , or BAT'ON, n. [Fr. baton.] A staff or club ; a 
marshal's staff; a truncheon ; aljadge of military honors. 

BATRA-CHITE, n. [Gr. (Sar^axos-] A fossil or stone, in 
color resembling a frog. 

BATiRA-€HOM-Y-OM'A-€HY, n. [Gr. ^arpaxos, [xv?, 
and i^iaxv-] The battle between tlie frogs and mice ; a 
burlesque poem ascribed to Homer. 

BA-TRa'CIAN, a. [Gr. (Sarpaxos-] Pertaining to frogs ; 
an epithet designating an order of animals, including 
frogs, Jtoads, &c. 

BA-TRA'ClAN,n. An animal of the order above mentioned. 

t BAT'TA-BLE, a. Capable of cultivation. 

t BAT'TAI-LANT, n. A combatant. Shelton. 

BAT'TAI-LOUS, a. Warlike ; having the form or appear- 
ance of an army arrayed for battle. 

BAT-TaL'IA, (bal tale ya) n. [Sp. batalla.] 1. The or- 
der of battle ; troops arrayed in their proper brigades, 
regiments, battalions, &c., as for action. 2. The main 
body of <in armv in array, distinguished from the wings. 

BAT-TAL'fON, n. [Fr. bataillon.] A body of infantry, 
consisting of from 500 to 800 men. 

BAT-TAL'IONED, a. Formed into battalions. Barlow. 
BAT'TEL, ri. [See Battle.] In law, wager of battel, n 

species of trial for tlie decision of causes between parties 
BAT'TEL, ?;.i. 1. To grow fat. [06s.] 2. 'Jo stand indebted 

in the college books at Oxford, for provisions and drink. 

from the buttery. Hence, a batteler answers to a sizer at 

BAl'iTEL, II. An account of the expenses of a student at 

t BAT'TEL, a. Fertile ; fruitful. Hooker. 

BAT'TLER^*^' ( ''• ^ student at Oxford. 

t BAT'TE-MEJMT, n. [Fr.] A beating ; striking ; impulse. 

BAT'TEN, (bat'tn) v. t. 1. To fatten; to make fat; to 
make plump by plenteous feeding. 2. To fertilize or en- 
rich land. 

BAT'TEN, V. i. To grow or become fat ; to live in luxury, 
or to grow fat in ease and luxury. 

BAT'TEN, 71. Apiece of board or scantling, of a few inches 
in breadth, used in making doors and windows. 

BAT'TEN, V. t. To form with battens. 

BAT'TER, V. t. [Fr. battre.] 1. To beat with successive 
blows ; to beat with violence, so as to bruise, shake, or 
demolish. 2. To wear or impair with beating. 

BAT'TER, V. i. To swell, bulge, or stand out, as a timber 
or side of a wall from its foundation. 

BAT'TER, 71. A mixture of several ingredients, as flour, 
eggs, salt, &c., beaten together with some liquor, used in 

BAT'TERED, pp. Beaten ; bruised, broken, impaired by 
beating or wearing. 

BAT'TER-ER, n. One who batters or beats. 

BAT'TER-ING, ppr. Beating ; dashing against ; bruising 
or demolishing by beating. 

BAT'TER-iNG-RAM, n. In antiquity, a military engine 
used to beat down the walls of besieged places. 

BAT'TER-Y, 7?. [Fr. batterie.] 1. The act of battering or 
beating. 2. The instrument of battering. — 3. In the /»?/- 
itary art, a parapet thrown up to cover the gunners, and 
others employed about them, from the enemy's shot, with 
the guns employed. — 4. In law, the unlawful beating of 
another. — 5. Electrical battery, a number of coated jars 
placed in such a manner, that they may be charged at the 
same time, and discharged in the same manner. — 6. Oal- 
vanic battery, a pile or series of plates, of copper and 
zink, or of any substances susceptible of galvanic action. 

BAT'TING, n. The management of a bal play. 

BAT'TISH, a. Resembling a bat. Vernon. 

BAT'TLE, n. [Fr. bataille.] 1. A fight, or encounter be- 
tween enemies, or opposing armies ; an engagement. 2. 
A body of forces, or division of an army. — 9 pitchzd bat- 
tle is one in which the armies are previously drawn up in 

BAT'TLE, V. i. [Fr. batailler ; Sp. batallar.] To join in 
battle ; to contend in fight. 

BAT'TLE, V. t. To cover with armed force. 

BAT TLE-AR-RaY', n. Array or order of battle ; the dis- 
position of forces preparatory to a battle. 

BAT'TLE-AX, I n. An axe anciently used as a weapon 

BAT'TLE-AXE, \ of war. 

BAT'TLE-DoOR, (bat'tl-dore) n. 1. An instrument of 
play, with a handle and a flat board or palm, used to 
strike a ball or shuttle-cock ; a racket. 2. A child's horn- 
book. [J\,''ot in use in V. S.] 

BAT'TLE-MENT, n. A v/all raised on a building with 
openings or embrasures, or the embrasure itself. 

BA i TLE-MENT-ED, a. Secured by battlements. 

BA T'TLING, v. Conflict. Thomson. 

BAT-TOI.'0-6lST, n. One that repeats the same thing in 
speaking or writing. [Little used.] 

BAT-TOL'0-GlZE, v. t. To repeat needlessly the same 
thing. Herbert. [Little used.] 

BAT-T0L'0-6Y, 7t. [Gr. (^arroXoyia.] A needless repeti 
tion of words in speaking. 

BAT'TON, n. In commerce, pieces of wood or deal for floor- 
ing or other purposes. 

BAT'TO-RY, n. Among the Hanse-Towns, a factory or mag- 
azine in foreign countries. 

BAT'TU-LATE, v. t. To interdict commerce. 

BAT-TU-LaTION, n. A prohibition of commerce. 

BAT'TY, a. Belonging to a bat. Skak. 

BATZ, 77. A small copper coin with a mixture of silver. 

BAU-BEE', 7i. In Scotland and the JVorlh of England, a 

BAU'BLE. See Bawble. 

BAUGE, v. a drugget manufactured in Burgun<ly, viiih 
thread spun thick, and of cttarse wool. 

BAULK. See Balk. 

BAV'A-ROY, 77. A kind of cloke or surtout. 

BAVIN, 7(. A stick like those bound up in fagots ; a piece 
of waste wood. — In war, fagots. 

BAW'BLE, 71. [Fr. babiole.] A trifling piece nf finery ; a 
gewgaw ; that which is gay or showy without real 

» See Synopsis, MOVE, BOQK, D6VE ;— BULL, UNITE.— € as K ; G as J ; S as Z ; CH as SH ; TH as in this, f Obsolete 




t BAWB'LfNG, a Trifling ; contemptible. Shak. 

B,VVV'-€OCK, n. A fine fellow. Shak. 

VA.\WD,n. A procure.- or procuress. A person who keeps 
a house of prostitution, and conducts criminal intrigues. 

BAWu, v. i. ] To procure ; to provide women for lewd 
purposes. 2. To foul or dirty. [ ^^ut in iwe.] Skelton. 

BAWD'-BORN, a. Descended from a bawd. Shak. 

BAWD'I-LY. adv. Obscenely •, lewdly. 

BAWD'I-.NESS, n. Obscenity ; lewdness. 

BAWB'KICK, 71. [See Baldrick.] A belt. Chapman. 

BAWD'RY, n. 1. The practice of procuring women for the 
gratification of lust. 2. Obscenity ; filthVj unchaste lan- 

BAWD'Y, a. Obscene 5 filthy; unchaste. 

BAWD'Y-HOUSE, n. A house of prostitution. 

BAWL, V. i. [Sax. bellan.] To cry out with a loudj full 
sound ; to hoot ; to cry loud, as achild. 

BAWL, r. t. To proclaim by outcry, as a common crier. 

BA^VLED, pp. Proclaimed by outcry. 

BAWL-ER, n. One who bawls. Echard. 

BAWL iXG, p;?r. Crying aloud. 

BAWLING, n. The act of crying with a loud sound. 

g'^^^y"^-' I V. t. To adorn ; to dress. Westmoreland. Eng. 

t BAWJV, 71. An inclosure with mud or stone walls for 
keeoing cattle ; a fortification. 

BAW'REL, n. A kind of hawk. Todd. 

BA \V'Sr_X, 71. A badger. B. Jonson. 

BAX-Te'RLAX. a. Pertaining to Barter. 

BAY. a. [Fr. bai or bale.] Red, or reddish, inclining to a 
che&tnut color ; applied to the color of horses. 

BAY, n. [Fr. baie ; !?p. Port, bahia.] 1. An arm of the sea, 
extending into the land, not of any definite form, but 
smaller than a gulf, and larger than a creek. 2. A pond- 
head, or a pond formed by a dam, for the purpose of driv- 
ing mill-wheels. — 3. In a barn, a place between the floor 
and the end of the building, or a low, inclosed place, for 
depositing hay. — 4. In ships of isar, that part on each side 
between decks, which lies^between the bitts. 5. Any kind 
of opening in walls. 

BAY, n. l."'The laurel-tree. 2. Bays, In the plural, an hon- 
orary garland or crown, bestowed as a prize for victory, 
anciently made or consisting of branches of the laurel. — 
3. In some parts of the U. States, a tract of land covered 
with bay -trees. Drayton. 

BAY, n. [Goth, beidan.] A state of expectation, watching 
or looking for ; as, to keep a man at bay. 

BAY, V. i. [Fr. aboyer ; It. baiare.] 1. To bark, as a dog at 
his game. Spenser. 2. To encompass, or inclose, from 
^:ay. We now use embay. 

BAY, V. t. To bark at ; to follow with barking. 

BaY'-SALT is salt which crystalizes or receives its con- 
sistence from the heat of thesun or action of the air. 

BaY'- WIN-DOW, 71. A window jutting out from the wa41, 
as in shops. 

BaY'-YARX, 7?. A denomination sometimes used promis- 
cuously with woolen yarn. Chambers. 

BaY'ARD, 7!. 1. A bay horse. Philips. 2. An unmannerly 
beholder. B. Jonson. 

BaY'ARD-LY, a. Blind; stupid. Taylor. 

BaYED, a. Having baj^s, as a building. 

BaY'0-XET, n. [Fr. haionctte ; Sp. hayoneta ; It. baionct- 
ta : so called, it is said, because the first bayonets were 
made at Bayonne.] A short, pointed, broad dagger, fixed 
at the end of a musket. 

BaYO-XET, v. t. 1. To stab with a bayonet. 2. To com- 
pel or drive bv the bayonet. Burke. 

BAYS, or BAYZE. See Baize. 

BA-ZaR', ?i. [Pers. ; Russ. bazari.] Among the Turlts and 
Persians, an exchange, market-place, or place where 
goods are exposed to sale. 

BAZ'AT, or BAZ'A, n. A long, fine-spun cotton, from Jeru- 
salem, whence it is called Jerusalem cotton. 

BDELL'tUM, (del'yum) n. [L.] A gummy, resinous juice, 
produced by a tree in the East Indies. 

BE, V. i. substantive : ppr. beina- : pp. been. [Sax. beoii : G. 
bin, bist : D. ben.] 1. To be' fixed ; to exist; to have a 
real state or existence. 2. To be made to be ; to become. 
3. To remain. This verb is used as an auxiliary in form- 
ing the tenses of other verbs, and particularly in giving to 
tb.em the passive foim.— Let be is to omit, or to let alone. 

BE, a prefix, as in because, before, beset, bedeck, is the same 
word as by ; Sax. be, bia- ; Goth. bi. It denotes nearness, 
closeness, about, on, at, from some root signifying to pass 
; r to press. 

BEACH, 7i. The shore of the sea, or of a lake, which is 
washed by the '.:de and waves ; the strand. 

Be \CH ED, a. Exposed to the waves ; washed by the tide 
and waves Shak. 

PeACH'Y, a. Having a beach or beaches. Shak. 

BkA'COX, (be kn) 77. [Sax. beacen, becen.] 1. A signal 
erected on a long pole, upon an eminence, consisting of a 
pitch barrel, or some combustible matter, to be fired at 
night, or to cause a smoke by day, to make known the ap- 

proach of an enemy. 2. Alight-house. 3. Figuratively 
that which gives notice of danger. 

BeA€OX, v. t. To afi"c)rd light as a beacon ; to light up. 

BeA'€OX-AGE, i^bS kn-aje) n. Money paid for the mainte- 
nance of a beacon. Encyc. Ash. 

BEAD, n. [Ger. bethe ; Sax. bead.] 1. A little perforated 
ball, to be stning on a thread, and worn about the neck, 
for ornament. 2. Any small globular body. — 3. In archi- 
tecture, a round molding. 

BeAD'-MA-KER, 77. One who makes beads. 

BeAD'-PROOF, a. Spirit is bead-proof, when, after shak- 
mg, a crown of bubbles will stand on the surface. 

Bead -Roll, n. Among Catholics, a list or catalogue of 
persons, for the rest of whose souls they are to repeat a 
certain number of prayers, which they count by their 

BeAD'-TREE, n. The azedarach, a species of melia. 

BeADS'-MAX, 71. A man employed in praying, generally 
m praying for another. 

BeADS'-WOM'AX', 71. A praying woman ; a woman who 
resides in an alms-house. Ash. 

BeA'DLE, n. [Sax. bydel, or bcedel.] 1. A messenger or cri- 
er of a court ; a servitor ; one who cites persons to appear 
and answer. 2. An oflicer in a university, whose chief 
business is to walk with a mace, before the masters, in a 
public procession ; or, as in America, before the president, 
trustees, faculty and students of a college. 3. A parish 
oflicer, whose business is to punish petty ofienders. 

BeA'DLE-SHIP, n. The office of a beadle. 

BeA'GLE, n. [Fr. bia-le.] A small hound, or hunting dog. 

BEAK, n. [D. bek.] I. The bill or nib of a bird. 2. A 
pointed piece of wood, fortified with brass, resembling a 
beak, fastened to the end of ancient galleys, intended to 
pierce the vessels of an enemy. 3. -A^ny thing ending in 
a point, like a beak. This, in America, is more generally 
pronounced peak. 

BEAK, V. t. Among rock-fighters, to take hold with the beak, 

BeAK'ED, a. Having a beak ; ending in a point, like a 

BeAK'ER, 7!^ [Ger. becher.] A cup or glass. 

BEAK'l-ROX,"(beek'I-um) n. A bickern ; an iron tool, 
ending in a point, used by blacksmiths. 

BEAL, n. A pimple ; a whelk ; a small inflammatory tu- 
mor ; a pustule. 

BEAL, V. i. To gather matter ; to swell and come to a head, 
as a nimple. 

t BE-ALL, n. All that is to be done. Shak. 

BEAM, V. [Sax. beam.] 1. The largest, or a principal piece 
in a building, that lies across the walls, and serves to sup- 
port the principal rafters. 2. Any large piece of timber. 
3. The part of a balance, from the ends of which the 
scales are suspended. 4. The part on the head of a stag, 
which bears the antlers, royals and tops. 5. The pole of 
a carriage, which runs between the horses. 6. A cylinder 
of wood, making part of a loom, on which weavers wind 
the warp before weaving ; and this name is given also to 
the cylinder on which the cloth is rolled, as it is wove. 
7. The straight part or shank of an anchor. — 8. In ships, 
a great, main, cross timber, which holds the sides of a ship 
from falling together. 9. The main piece of a plow, in 
which the plow-tails are fixed, and by which it is drawn. 

BeAM'-BiRD, n. In Yorkshire, England, the petty chaps, 
a species of motacilla. The spotted fly-catcher, a species 
of muscicapa. Ed. Encyc. 

BeAM'-TREE, 71. A species of wild-service. The cratcegus 

BEAM, n. [Sax. beam.] A ray of light, emitted from the 
sun, or other luminous body. 

BEAM, V. t. To send forth ; to emit. 

BEAM, V. i. To emit rays of light, or beams ; to shine 

BeAM'IXG, ppr. Emitting rays of light, or beams. 

BeAM'IXG, n. 1 . Radiation ;" the emission or darting of 
Ught in rays. 2. The issumg of intellectual light. 

Be AIMLESS, a. Emitting no rays of light. 

BeAM'Y, a. 1. Emitting rays of light ; radiant ; shining. 
2. Resembling a beam in "size and weight ; massy. 3. 
Having horns, or antlers, 

BEAX, n. [Sax. bean.] A name given to several kinds of 
pulse. The varieties most usually cultivated are, the 
horse bean, the mazagan, the kidney bean, the cranberry 
bean, the lima bean, the frost bean, &c. 

BeAN'-€A-PER, 7!. A plant, a species of zygophyllum, a 
native of warm climates. 

BeAX'-€0D, n. A small fishing vessel or pilot boat. 

Bi5AX'-FED, a. Fed with beans. Shak. 

BeAX^'-FLY, 71. A beautiful fly, of a pale purple color 

Be AX'-GOOSE, 7! A species of anas, a bird. 

Be IX'-TRE-FOIL The cytisus. Fam. of Plants. 

BeAX'-TRES-SEL, n. An herb. 

BEAR, v.t. pret. bore ; pp. born, borne. [Sax. bceran, beran, 
beoran.] 1. To support ; to sustain. 2. To carry ; to con- 
vey ; to support and remove from place to place. 3. To 
wear ; to bear as a mark of authority or distinction ; as, 
to bear a sword. 4. To keep afloat. 5. To support or 

* See Syriops^s. a, E, T, O, U, Y, /on^-.— FaR, FAI L, WH^T ;— PREY ;— PrX, MARINE, BIRD ;— f Obsolete. 



sustain without sinking or yielding ; to endure. 6. To 
entertain ; to carry in the mind. 7. To suffer ; to under- 
go. 8. To suffer without resentment, or interference to 
prevent ; to have patience. 9. To admit or be capable of. 
10. To bring forth or produce, as the fruit of plants, or the 
young of animals. 11. To give birth to, or be the native 
place of. 12. To possess and use as power ; to exercise. 
13. To gain or win. 14. To carry on, or maintain ; *o 

- have. 15. To show or exhibit J to relate. 16. To sustain 
the effect, or be answerable for. 17. To sustain, as ex- 
pense ; to supply the means of paying. 18. To be the ob- 
ject of. 19. To behave 5 to act in any character. Shak. 
20. To remove, or to endure the effects of; and, hence, to 
give satisfaction for. 

To bear off, is to restrain ; to keep from approach ; and, in 
seamanship, to remove to a distance. — To bear dcnn, is to 
impel or urge ; to overthrow or crush by force. — 7> bear 
do/on upon, to press to overtake ; to make all sail to come 
up with. — T'o bear hard, is to press or urge. — To bear on, 
is to press against ; also, to carry forward, to press, incite 
or animate. — To bear through, is to conduct or manage ; 
to support. — To bear out, is to maintain and support to 
the end ; to defend to the last. — To bear up, to support ; 
to keep from falling. — To bear up, to keep afloat. — To bear 
date, is to have the mark of time when written or exe- 
cuted. — To bear a price, is to have a certain price. — To 
bear a hand, in seamanship, is to make haste, be quick. 

BEAR, V. i. 1. To suffer, as with pain. 2. To be patient ; 
to endure. Dryden. 3. To produce, as fruit ; to be fruit- 
ful. 4. To take effect ; to succeed. 5. To act in any 
character. 6. To be situated as to the point of com- 

To bear away, in navigation, is to change the course of a 
ship, when close hauled, or sailing with a side wind, and 
make her run before the wind. To bear up, is used in a 
like sense, from the act of bearing up the helm to the 
windward. — To bear down, is to drive or tend to. — To 
bear in, is to run or tend towards. — To bear up, is to tend 
or move towards ; to be supported ; to have fortitude. — 
To bear upon, or against, is to lean upon or against. — To 
bear against, to for attack or seizure. — To bear 
upon, to act upon ; to be pointed or situated so as to affect. 
To bear with, to endure what is unpleasing ; to be indul- 

BEJiR'-€LOTH, or BEaR'ING-€LOTH, n. A cloth in 
which a new-born cliild is covered when carried to 
church to be baptized. 

BEAR, n. [Sax. bera ; Ger. bar.] 1. A wild quadruped, of 
the genus ursiis. 2. The name of two constellations in 
the northern hemisphere, called the greater and lesser 
bear. In the tail of the lesser bear is tlie pole-star. 

BEaR-BaIT-ING, n. The sport of baiting bears with dogs. 

BEaR'-BER-RY, n. A plant, a species of arbutus. 

BEaR'-BiND, n. A species of bind-weed. 

BEaR'S'-BREECH, n. Brank-ursine, or acanthus, a genus 
of plants. 

BEaR'S'-EAR, 71. A name of primula auricula. 

BEaR'S-EAR SAN'I-€LE, n. A species of cortusa. 

BEaR'-FLY, n. An insect. Bacon. 

BEaR'S'-FOOT, n. A plant, a species of hellebore. 

BEaR'-GAR-DEN^, ?!. A place where bears are kept. 

BEaR'-GAR-DEN, a. Rude ; turbulent. Todd. 

BEaR'-WHELP, n. The whelp of a bear. Shak. 

BEaR'S'-WoRT, 71. A plant. Shak. 

* BEARD, (herd) n. [Sax. beard : D. baard.] 1. The hair 
that grows on the chin, lips and adjacent parts of the face. 
A graij beard, and reverend beard, are terms for old age. 
2. ''Beard is sometimes used for the face. 3. The awn, or 
sharp prickles on the ears of corn. 4. A barb, or sharp 
point of an arrow, or other instrument, bent backward 
from the end, to prevent its being easily drawn out. 5. 
The beard or chuck of a horse, is that part which bears 
the curb of a bridle, underneath the lower mandible and 
above the chin. 6. The rays of a comet, emitted towards 
that part of the heaven to which its proper motion seems 
to direct it. 

* BEARD, (herd) v. t. 1. To take by the beard ; to seize, 
pluck or pull the beard. 2. To oppose to the face ; to set 
at defiance. 

*BEARD'ED, (berd'ed) a. 1. Having a beard. 2. Barbed 
or jagsred, as an arrow. 

* BEARD'ED, (berd'ed) pp. Taken by the beard ; opposed 
to the face. 

* BEARD'-GRASS, n. A plant, the andropogon. 

* BEARD'ING, (berd'ing) ppr. Taking by the beard ; oppos- 
ing to the face. 

* BEARD'LESS, (berd'less) a. Without a beard ; young ; 
not having arrived to manhood. 

*BEARD'LESS-NESS, n. The state or quality of being des- 
titute of beard. 

BEaR'ER, n. [See Bear.] 1, One who bears, sustains, or 
carries •, a carrier. 2. One who wears any thing, as a 
badge or sword. 3. A tree or plant that yields its fruit.— 
4. In architecture, a post or brick wall between the ends 



of a piece of timber, to support it. — 5. In heraldry, a.&g\ire 
in an achievement, placed hv the side of a shield, and 
seeming to support it. 

BEaR'HERD, n. A man that tends bears. 

BEaR'ING, j>pr. Supporting ; carrying ; producing. 

BEAR'ING, n. 1. Gesture ; mien ; behavior ShaK. 2 The 
situation of an object, with respect to anoliier object. — 3. 
In architecture,\.\\e space between the two fixed exlreuies 
of a piece of timber.-— 4. )n na.vigatiun, Ihe situation of a 
distant object, with regard to a ship's position, as on the 
bow, on the lee quarter, &.c. — 5. In heraldry, coats of 
arms or figures of armories. 

BEAR'ISH, a. Partaking of the qualities of a bear. 

BEAR'LlKE, a. Resembling a bear. Shak. 

BEARN,n. [Sax. beam ; Goth, barn.] A child. In Scot- 
land, bairn. Shak. 

BEAR' WARD, n. A keeper of bears. Shak. 

BEAST, 71. [Tr. Mast,piasd ; Corn, bist ; D. beest ; L. bes- 
tia ; Er. bite.] 1. Any four-footed animal, which may be 
used for labor, food or sport ; distinguished from fowls, 
insects, fishes and man. 2. An irrational animal.—^. 
Figuratively, a brutal man. 4. A game at cards. Hence 
to beast. 

BEAST, v.t A term at cards. 

BkAST'INGS. See Biestings. 

BeAST'ISH, a. Like a beast ; brutal. 

BeAST'LiKE, a. Like a beast ; brutal. 

BeAST'LI-NESS, n. Brutality ; coarseness ; vulgarity •, 
filthiness ; a practice contrary to the rules of humanity. 

BeAST'LY, a. 1. Like a beast •, brutal ; coarse ; filthy. 2. 
Having the form or nature of a beast. 

t BeAST'LY, ndv. In the manner of a beast. 

BEAT, V. t. pret. beat ; pp. beat, beaten. [Sax. beatan.] 1. 
To strike repeatedly ; to lay on repeated blows. 2. To 
strike an instrument of music ; to play on. 3. To break, 
bruise, comminute, or pulverize by beating or pounding. 
4. To extend by beating, as gold or other malleable sub- 
stance ; or to hammer into any form ; to forge. 5. To 
strike bushes ; to shake by beating, 01 to make a noise to 
rouse game. 6. To thresh ; to force out corn from the 
husk by blows. 7. To break, mix or agitate by beating. 
8. To dash or strike, as water ; to strike or brush, as 
wind. 9. To tread, as a path. 10. To overcome in a bat- 
tle, contest or strife 5 to vanquish or conquer. 11. To har- 
ass ; to exercise severely 5 to overlabor. 

To beat down, to break, destroy, throw down 5 to press 
down. Shak. To lower the price ; to depress or crush.— 
To beat back, to compel to retire or return. — To beat into, 
to teach or instill.— T'o beat up, to attack suddenly ; to 
alarm or disturb. — To beat the wing, to flutter ; to move 
with fluttering agitation.— T'o beat off, to repel or drive 
back.— T'o beat the hoof, to walk ; to go on foot.— To beat 
time, to measure or regulate tune in music by the motion 
of the hand or Toot. — To beat out, to extend by hammer- 
ing. In popular use, to be beat out, is to be extremely fa- 

BEAT, V. i. 1. To move with pulsation. 2. To dash with 
force, as a storm, flood, passion, &c. 3. To knock at a 
door. 4. To fluctuate ; ,0 be in agitation. 

T'o beat about, to try to find ; to search by various means or 
ways. — To beat upon, to act upon with violence. — T'o beat 
up for soldiers, is to go about to enlist men into the army. 
— In seamanship, to beat is to make progress against the 
direction of the wind by sailing in a zigzag line or trav- 
erse. — With hunters, a stag beats up and down, when he 
runs first one way and then another. 

BEAT, n. 1. A stroke ; a striking •, a blow, whether with 
the hand, or with a weapon. 2. A pulsation. 3. The 
rise or fall of the hand or foot, in regulating the divisions 
of time in music. 4. A transient grace-note in music, 
struck immediately before the note it is intended to orna- 

BEAT, ) pp. Struck ; dashed against ; pressed or laid 

BeAT'EN, \ down ; hammered ; pounded ; vanquished ; 
made smooth by treading ; worn by use ; tracked. 

BeAT'ER, 71. l.One who beats, or strikes ; one whose oc- 
cupation is to hammer metals. 2. An instrument for 
pounding, or comminuting substances. 

BeAT'ER-UP, 7?. One who beats for game. 

t BEATH, V. t. To bathe. Spenser. 

BE-A-TIF'I€, ) a. [L. beatusandfacio.] That has the 

BE-A-TIF'T-€AL, \ power to bless or make happy ; used 
only of heavenly fruition after death ; as, beatific vision. 

BE-A-TIF'I-€AL-LY, adv. In such a manner as to com- 
plete happiness. 

BE-AT-1-FI-€A'TI0N, 71. In the Romish church, an act of 
the pope, by which he declares a person beatified or bless 
ed after death. 

BE-AT'I-FY, v.t. [L.beatiLSKnAfacio.] 1. To make hap 
py ; to bless with the completion of celestial enjoyment. 
2. In the Romish church, to declare, by a decree or public 
act, that a person is rece-ved into heaven, and is to be 
reverenced as blessed, though not canonized. 

BeAT'ING, ppr. Laying on blows ; striking ; dashing 

* See Synopsis. MoVE.BOQK. D6VE-— BTJLL, UNITE easK; 6as J ; S asZ ; CHasSH ; THasintAis. f Obsolete 




against ; conquering ; pounding ; sailing against the di- 
rection of tpe wind, <fcc. 

BeAT'LNG, n. The act of striking or giving blows , pun- 
isiinieMl or chastisement by blows. 

rSE-ATI-TlinE, H. IL bfatUudu.] 1 Blessedness; felicity 
of the highest kind ; consummate bliss ; iised of the juys 
of lieucev.. 2. The declaration of blessedness made by 
our Savior to particular virtues. 

BEAU, ibo) n. plu. Beaux. [Fr. beau.] A man of dress ; a 
fine, gay man ; one whose great care is to deck his per- 
son. In familiar languaire, a man who attends a lady. 

BEALT•l^^il, (bo'ish'' a. Like a beau ; foppish; fine. 

REAU-MONDE, (bo-mond') n. [Fr. beau and muiide.] The 
fashionable world ; people of fashion and gayety. Prior. 

BEAU'TE-OUS, (bu'tt-us) a. Very fair ; elegant inform; 
pleasing to the sight ; beautiful ; very handsome. It ex- 
pre'ises a greater degree of beauty than handsome, and is 
chiefly used in poetry. 

BEAuTE-OUS-LY, adv. In a beauteous manner; in a 
manner pleasing to the sight ; beautifully. 

BEAuTE-OUS-NESS, n. The state or quality of being 
beauteouaj beauty. 

BEAU Tl-Fi-ER, ji. He or that which makes beautiful. 

BEAuTI-FUL, a. 1. Elegant in form; fair; having the 
form that pleases the eye. it expresses more than hand- 
some. 2. Having the qualities which constitute beauty, 
or that which pleases the senses other than the sjght ; as, 
a beautiful sound. 

BEAU'Tl-FUL-LY, (bu'te-ful-ly) adv In a beautiful man- 

BEAU'TI-FUL-NESS, (bu'te-fuJ-nes) n. Elegance of form ; 
beauty ; the quality of being beautiful. 

BEAO'TI-FY, (bu'te-fl) v. t. [beauty, and L. faclo.] To 
make or render beautiful ; to adorn ; to deck ; to grace ; 
to add beauty to ; to embellish. 

BEAtJ'TI-FY, (bu te-fl) v. i. To become beautiful ; to ad- 
vance in beauty. .Addison. 

BEAU'TI-FY-liNG, n. The act of rendering beautiful. Bp. 

jBEAU'TI-LESS, a Without beauty. Hammond 

BEAU'TY, (buty) n. [Fr. beaute.] 1. An assemblage of 
graces, or an assemblage of properties in the form of the 
person or any other object, which pleases the eye. 2. A 
particul:;r grace, feature or ornament ; any particular 
thing which is beautiful and pleasing. 3. A particular 
excellence, or a part which surpasses in excellence that 
witn which it is united. 4. \ beautifui person. 5. In 
the arts, symmetry of parts ; hbrmony ; justness of com- 
position, 6. Joy and gladness. Is. Ixi. Order, prosperity, 
peace, holiness. Eiek. xvi. 

t BEAU TY, (bu'ty) v. t. To adorn ; to beautify or embel- 
lish. Shak. 

BEAU'TY-S^POT, (bu'te-spot) n. A patch ; a foil; a spot 
placed on the face to heighten beauty. 

BEAU TY-WaN-ING, a. DecjMiing in beauty. Shak. 

BeA'VER, ?(. [Sax. befor.] 1. An amphibious quadruped, 
of the genus cantor, valuable for its fur, and remarkable 
for its ingenuity in constructing its lodges or habitations. 
2. The fiir of the beaver, ana a hat made of the lur ; also, 
a part of a helmet that covers the face. 

BkA'VERED, a. Covered with or wearing a beaver. 

fBE-BLEED', w. J. To make bloody, Chaucer. 

t BE-BL60d'V I ^- *• '^^ "'^"^^ bloody. Sheldon. 
t BE-BLOT', v.\. To blot ; to stain. Chaucer. 
BE-BLITB'BERED, a. Foul or swelled with weeping. 
BEG-A-BUN'GA, n. Brooklime speedwell ; veronica beca- 

hunn-a : a plant. 
BEe-A-Fi'eO, n. A fig-pecker ; a bird like a nightingale, 

which feeds on figs. 
BE-CAEM', (be-cam) v. t. 1. To still ; to make quiet ; to 

appense ; to stop, or repress motion in a body. 2. To in- 
tercept the current of wind, so as to prevent motion. 
BE-€ALM'ED, (be-camd) pp. 1. auieted ; appeased. 2. 

a. Hindered from motion or progress by a calm. 
BE-eALM'ING, (be-cam'ing) -ppr. Appeasing ; keeping 

from motion or progress. 
BE-€ALiVriNG, (be-cam'ing) n. A calm at sea. 
BE-CaME', pret. o^ become. See Become. 
BE-€AUSE', [Sax. be. for by. and cause.] By cause, or 

by the cause ; on this account ; for the cause which 

is explained in the next proposition ; for the reason 

next explained. 
BE-CHAllM', V. t. To charm ; to captivate, 
BE-CflAIVCE', V. I. To befall ; to happen to. Shak. 
BE'eHl€, n. [Gr. l3iT)(iKa.] A medicine for relieving coughs, 

synonymous with pectoral. 
* BECK, n. [Sax. becc] A small brook. Gray. 
BECK, 77, rsax beacn.] A nod of the head ; a significant 

nod, intended to be understood by some person, especially 

as a sign of command. 
BECK, V. i. To nod or m?ke a sign with the head. 
BECK, V. t. To call by a nod ; to intimate a command to ; 

to notify by a motion of the head . 

BECKED, pp. Called or notified by a nod. 

BECK ET, 71. A thing used in ships to confine loose ropes, 
•;ackles or spars, , 

BEC'K'IKG, ppr. Nodding significantly ; directing by a nod 

BECKON, (beK'kn) v. i. [See Beck.] To make a sign to 
another, by nodding, winking, or a motion of the hand oi 
finger, &l.c. 

BECKON, (bekkn) v. t To make a significant sign to 

BECKON, 71. A sign without words, bolingbroke. 

BECKONED, pp. Having a sign made to, 

BECK'ON-L\G, ppr. Making a significant sign, as a hint 

t BE-CLIP', V. t. [Sax. beclyppan.] To embrace. 

BE-CLOUD', V. t. To cloud ; to obscure ; to dim. 

BE-COME', (be-cum') v.i. pret. became, pp. become. [Sax. 
becuman ,• D. bekoomen ; G. bekommen,] 1. To pass from 
one state to another ; to enter into some state or condi- 
tion. 2. To become of, usnnWy with what preceding ; to 
be the fate of ; to be the end of. 

BE-€;oME', 7'. t. In ifencrai, to suit or be suitable to ; to be 
congruous to ; to befit ; to accord with, in character or 
circumstances ; to be worthy of, decent or proper. 

BE-€6M'1.NG, ppr., but used rarely or never except as an 
adjective. Fit ; suitable ; congruous ; propei ; graceful ; 
belonging to the character, or adapted to circu:nstances. 

tBE-€oM'lNG, n. Ornament. Shak. 

BE-CoM'lNG-IiY, adv. After a becoming or proper man- 

BE-€oM'ING-NESS, n. Fitness ; cnngruity ; propriety ; 
decency ; gracefulness arising from fitness. 

BE-CRIP'PLE, V. t. To make lame ; to cripple. \L. m.I 

tBE-€URL', v.t. To curl. 

BED, n. rSax. bed.] 1. A place or an article of furniture to 
sleep and take rest on, 2. Lodging ; a convenient place 
for sleep. 3. Marriage ; matrimonial connection. 4. A 
plat or level piece of ground in a garden, usually a little 
raised above the adjoining ground. 5. The channel of a 
river, or that part in which the water usually flows. 6. 
Any hollow place, especially in the arts ; a hollow place, 
in which any thing rests. 7. A layer ; a stratum ; an 
extended mass of any thing, whether upon the earth or 
within it. — To make a bed, is to put it in order. — To bring- 
to bed, to deliver of a child, is rarely used ; but, in the 
passive form, to be brought to bed, that is, to be delivered 
of a child, is common. — To put to bed, in midwifery, is to 
deliver of a child. — From bed and board. In laxc, a separa- 
tion of man and wife, without dissolving the bands of 
matrimony, is called a separation from bed and board, a 
viensa et thoro. 

BED, V. t. 1. To place in a bed. Bacon. 2. To go to bed 
with. [Unus^^aL] Sfiak. 3. To make partaker of the bed. 
Bacon. 4, To plant and inclose or cover ; to set or lay 
and inclose. 5. To lay in any hollow place, surrounded or 
inclosed. G. To lay in a place of rest or security, cover- 
ed, surrounded or inclosed. 7. To lay in a stratum; to 
stratify ; to lay in order, or flat. 

BED, V. i. To cohabit ; to use the same bed. 

BE-DAB'BLE, v.. t. To wet ; to sprinkle. Shak. 

BE-DAB'BLED, pp. Wet ; sprinkled. 

BE-DAB'BLING, ppr. Wetting ; sprinkling. 

t BE-DAFF', v. t. To make a fool of. Chaucer. 

BE-DAG GLE, v. t. To soil, as clothes, by drawing the 
ends in the mud, or spattering them with dirty water. 

BE-DAG'GLED, pp. Soiled by reaching the mud in walk- 
ing ; bespattering. 

fBE-DARE', v.t. To dare; to defy. Peele. 

t BE-DARK-', V. t. To darken. Oower. 

t BE-DARK'EN, r. t. To obscure ; to darken. 

BE-DASH', v. t. To wet, by throwing water or other liquor 
upon ; to bespatter with water or mud. 

BE-DASH'ED, (be-dashf) pp. Bespattered with water or 
other liquid. 

BEDASHING, ppr. Bespattering; dashing water upon, or 
other liquid. 

BE-DAUB', v. t. To daub over ; to besmear with viscous 
slimy matter ; to soil with any thing thick and dirtj'. 

BE-DAUB'ED. (be daubd') pp. Daubed over ; besmeared 

BE-DAUB'TNG, ppr. Daubing over ; besmearing. 

BE-DAZ'ZLE, v. t. To confound the sight by too strong a 
light ; to make dim by lustre. 

BE-DAZ'ZLED, pp. Having the sight confounded by too 
strong a light. 

BE-DAZ'Z LING, ppr. Confounding or making dim by a too 
brilliant lustre 

BEDCHAMBER, -n. An apartment or chamber for a bed 
or for sleep and repose. 

BED'-CLoTRES, 7i. plu. Blankets, or coverlets, &c,, for 
beds. See Clothes. 

BEDDED, pp. Laid in a bed ; inclosed as in a bed. 

BED'DER, or BE-DET'TER, n. The nether stone of an 
oil mill. Todd. 

BED'DING, ppr. Laying in a bed ; inclosing as in a bed 

BED'DING, V. A bed and its furniture ; a bed ; the mate- 
rials of a bed, whether for man or beast. 

BE-DEAD', V. t. To deaden. Hallywell. 

* See Synopsis I, E, I, o, tj, Y, long.—¥kR, FALL, WH^T ;— ^^RfiY ;— HN, MARINE, BtRD ;— t Obiolete. 

BEE 79 

BE-l)ECK' V. t. To deck ; to adcni ; to grace. Shak. 

BE-DECK ED, (be-dekf) pp. Adorned ; ornamented. 

BE-IJECK'ING, ppr. Adorning ; decking. 

\ BeDE'HOUSE, n. Formerly, a hospital or alms-house. 

BE'DEL, 71. An officer in the universities of England. [A 
peculiar orthography oibeadLe.] 

BE'DEL-R5f, n. The extent of u bedel's office. Blount. 

BE-DEW, V. t. To moisten, as with dew 5 to moisten in a 
gentle manner with any liquid. 

BE-DEVV'ED, (be-dewd') pp. Moistened, as if with dew ; 
gently moistened. 

BE-I)EW'ER, n. That which bedews. Sherwood. 

BE-DEW'ING, ppr. Moistening gently, as with dew ; wet- 

BE-DEW'Y,_a. Moist with dew. {Little used.] 

BED'FEL-LoW, n. One who lies in the same bed. Shak. 

BED HANG-lx^GS, 71. Curtains. Shak. 

BE-DIGHT', (be-dite') v. t. To adorn ; to dress ; to set off 
with ornaments. [Little used.} 

BE-DIGHT' ED, pp. Adorned ; set off with ornaments. 

BE-DIGHT'ING, ppr. Adorning. 

BEDIM', V. t. To make dim ; to obscure or darken. 

BE-DIM'MED, (be-dmid') pp Made dim ; obscured. 

BE-DIM'MING, ppr. Making dim ; obscuring ; darkening. 

fBE-DJS'MAL, V. t. To make dismal. Student. 

BE-DIZ'EN, (be-diz'zn) v. t. To adorn ; to deck ; a loic word. 

BE-DIZ'ENED, pp. Bedecked; adorned. 

BE-DLZ'EN-ING, ppr. Adorning. 

BED'LAM, n. [corrupted from Bethlehem, the name of a 
religious house in London, afterward converted into a 
hospital for lunatics.] 1. A mad-house ; a place appropri- 
ated for lunatics. 2. A madman ; a lunatic ; one who 
lives in Bedlam. 3. A place of uproar. 

BED'LAM, a. Belonging to a mad-house. Shak. 

BED'LAM-lTE, n. An inhabitant of a mad-house ; a mad- 

BED'Ma-KER, n. One whose occupation is to make beds, 
as in a college or university. 

BED'MATE, n. A bed-fellow. Shak. 

BED-MoLD-ING, n. In architecture, the members of a 
cornice, which are placed below the coronet. 

t BE-DoTE', V. t. To make to dote. Chaucer. 

BED'FoST, 71. The post of a bedstead. 

BEDPRES-SER, n. A lazy fellow ; one who loves his bed. 

BE-DRAG'GLE, v. t. To soil, as garments which are suf- 
fered, in walking, to reach the dirt. 

BE-DRAG'GLED, pp. Soiled by reaching the dirt in walk- 

BE-DRAG'GLING, ppr. Soiling by drawing along in dirt or 

BE-DRENCH , v. t. To drench ; to soak ; to saturate with 
moisture. Shak. 

BE-DRENCH'ED, (be-drenchf) pp. Drenched ; soaked. 

BE-DRENCH'ING, i}pr. Soaking ; drenching. 

BED RID, ) a. Confined to the bed by age or infirm- 

BED'RID-DEN, ] ily- Shak. 

BED'RlTE, n. The privilege of the marriage bed. 

BED'ROOM, n. 1. A room or apartment intended or used for 
a bed ; a lodging room. 2. Room in a bed. [JVot in use.] 

BE-DROP', V. t. To sprinkle, as with drops. 

BE-DROP'PED, (be-dropf) pp. Sprinkled as with drops ; 
speckled ; variegated with spots. 

BED'SIDE, 71. The side of the bed. Middleton. 

BED STAFF, n. A wooden pin anciently inserted on the 
sides of bedsteads, to keep the clothes from slipping on 
either side. 

BED STEAD, (bed'sted) n. A frame for supporting a bed. 

BED'STRAW, n. Straw laid under a bed to make it soft ; 
also, the name of a plant. 

BED'SWERV-ER, n. One that swerves from his bed ; that 
is, one who is unfaithful to tlie marriage vow. Shak. 

BED'TlME, n. The time to go to rest ; the usual hour of 
going to bed. Shak. 

BE-DUCK', V. t. To duck ; to put the head under water ; 
to immei-se. Spenser. 

f BE-DUNG', V. t. To manure with dung. Bp. Hall. 

t BE-DUSK', V. t. To smutch. Cotgrave. 

BE-DUST', V. t. To sprinkle, soil, or cover with dust. 

BED'WARD, ado. Toward bed. Shak. 

BE-DWARF', V. t. To make little 5 to stunt, or hinder 
growth. Donne. 

BED'WoRK, n. Work done in bed, without toil of the 
hands, or with ease. Shak- 

BE-DyE', (be-dl') v. t. To dye ; to stain. Spenser. 

BE-DY'ED, (be-dide') pp. Dyed ; stained. 

BEE, n. [Sax. beo ; D. bye.] An insect of the genus apis. 
The species are numerous, of which the honey-bee is the 
most interesting to man. 

BEE'-BREAD, n. The pollen of flowers collected by bees, 
as food for their young. 

BEE'-kAT-ER, 71. A bird that feeds on bees. 

BEE'-FLOW-ER, n. A plant ; a species oC ophrys. 


BEE'-GAR-DEN, n. A garden, or iii»'osure to set be© 
hives in. 

BEE'-GLUE, 71. A soft, unctuous matter, with which bees 
cement the combs to the hives, and close up the cells ; 
calledalso propolis. 

BEE'-HlVE, n. A case, box, or othei hollow vessel, which 
serves as a habitation for bees. 

BEE'-MaS-TER, n. One who keeps bees. 

BEECH, n. [Sax. bece, boc] A tree arranged by Linne un 
der the geiiusfagus, 

BEECH'-CoAL, n. Charcoal from beech wood. 

BEECH'EN, (bee'chn) a. Consisting of the wood or bark 
of the beech ; belonging to the beech. 

BEECH'MAST, 71. Ihe fruit or nuts of the beech. 

BEECH'-OIL, n. Oil expressed from the mast or nuts of the 

BEECH'-TREE, n. The beech. 

BEEF, 71. [Fr. boeuf, beuf.] 1. An animal of the boviuB 
genus, whether ox, bull, or cow. In this, which is tht 
original sense, the word has a plural, beeves. 2. 'llie 
flesh of an ox, bull, or cow, when killed. 

BEEF, a. Consisting of the flesh of the ox, or bovine kind. 

BEEF'-eAT-ER, 7(. I. One that eats beef. 2. A yeuinun 
of the guards, in England. 3. The buphaga, an African bird 

BEEF'-STEaK, 71. A steak or slice of beef for broiling. 

BEEF'-VVIT-TED, a. Dull in intellects ; stupid ; heavy- 
headed. Shak. 

t BEELD, 71. [Sax. behlydan.] Protection -, refuge. Fairfax 

BEE'MOL, n. In music, a half note. Bacon. 

BEEN, (bin) [Sax beon.] Part. perf. of 6c. In eld authoi-s 
it is also the present tense plural of be. 

BEEN, 71. A fritted stringed instrument of music, having 
nineteen frets ; used in India. 

BEER, n. [W. bir : Fr. biere.] 1. A spirituous liquor made 
from any ferinaceous grain ; but generally from barley, 
with the addition of hoi)s. 2. Berr is a name given in 
America to feimenting liquors made of various other ma- 

BEER'-BAR-REL, n. A barrel for holding beer. 

BEER'-HOUSE, 71. A house where malt liquors are sold ; 
an ale-house. 

BEEST INGS. See Biestings. 

BEET, n. [D. Met ; Ger. beete.] A plant of the genus beta. 

BEE'TLE, 71. [Sax. bill or bytl, a mallet ; betel, the insect, 
beetle.] 1. A heavy mallet or wooden hammer, used to 
drive wedges, &;c. — 2. In zoology, a genus of insects, the 
scarahcBus, of many species. 

BEE'TLE, V. i. To jut ; to be prominent ; to hang or ex- 
tend out. 

BEE'TLE-BROVV, n. A prominent brow. 

BEE'TLE-BROWED, a. Having prominent brows. 

BEE'TLE-HEAD, n. A stupid fellow. Scot. 

BEE'TLE-HE^JDED, a. Having a head like a beetle j dull ; 
stupid. Shak. 

BEETLE-STOCK, n. The handle of a beetle. 

BEE'TLMG, ppr. Jutting ; being prominent. 

BEET'-RAVE, or BEET'-RAD-iSH, n. A kind of beet, 
used for salad, .dsh. 

BEEVES, 74. plu. of beef. Cattle ; quadrupeds of the bovine 
genus, called, in England, black cattle. 

BE-FALL', V. t. pret. befell ; part, befallen. [Sax. befml- 
lan'.] To happen to ; to occur to. Jt usually denotes ill. 

BE-FALL', V. i. To happen •, to come to pass. 

BE-FALL'ING, ppr. Happening to 5 occurruig to ; coming 
to pass. 

BE-FELL', pret. of befall. 

BE-FIT', V. t. To suit ; to be suitable to ; to become. 

BE-FIT'TING, ppr. or a. Suiting ; becoming. 

BE-FoAM', V. t. To cover with foam. [Little used.] 

BE-FOOL', V. t. To fool ; to infatuate ; to delude. 

BE-FOOL'ED, (be-foold') pp. Fooled ; deceived ; led into 

BE-FOOIi'ING, ppr. Fooling ; making a fool of ; deceiving ; 

BE-FoRE', prep. [Sax. before, or bcforan.] 1. In front ; on 
the side with the face, at any distance ; used of persons. 
2. In presence of, with the idea of power, authority, re- 
spect. 3. In sight of ; as, before tlie face. 4. In the 
presence of, noting cognizance or jurisdiction. 5. In the 
power of, noting the right or ability to choose or possess ; 
free to the choice. 0. In front of any object. 7. Preced- 
ing in time. 8. In preference to. 9 Superior 5 preceding 
in dignity. 10. Prior to 5 having prior right ; preceding in 
order. 11. Previous to ; in previous order ; in order to. 
12. Before the wind, is to move in the direction of the 
wind by its impulse. 

BE-FoRE', adv. 1. In time preceding. 2. In time preced- 
ing, to the present, or to this t:me ; hitheito. 3. Further 
onward in pla je, in progress, or in front. 4. In front; on 
t he fore part. 

BE FoRE'HA^^D, adv. 1. In a state of anticipation or 
preoccupati' n ; often followed by with. 2. Antecedent- 
ly -, by war of preparation or preliminary ; aforetime. 3. 
In a state of accumulation, so as that more has been 

♦ Sec Synapsis. MOVE, BOOK, D6VE •,— BIJI>L, UNITE — C as K ; 6 as J ; S as Z ; CH as SII ; TH as in tMs. t Obsolete 




received than expended . 4. At first ; before any thing is 
{•BE-FoRE-TIME, adv. Formerly ; of old time. 
BE-FUR TUNt, v. t. To happen to ; to betide. 

B.i-FU[JL', V. t. [Sax. befylan.] To make foul ; to soil. 

Bh;-FRIENU', (be-fr-ud') ?;. t. To favor ; to act as a friend 
to ; to countenance, aid, or benefit. 

BE-FRlEiNUED, p/). Favored •, countenanced. 

BE-FRlEiND'lNG, ppr. Favoring; assisting as a friend; 
sliowuig kindness to. 

BE-FRi^OE', (be-frinj') v. t. To furnish with a fringe ; to 
adorn as with fringe. 

BE FRiiXG ED, ('be-frinjd') pp. Adorned as with a fringe. 

B;OJ, or BEY, n. [the Turks write this word begh^ or bek, 
but pronounce it beij (ba.)] In the Turkish dominions, a 
governor of a town or country ; more particularly, the 
lord of a sangiac or banrer. — in Tunis, the beg, or bey, is 
tiie prince or king, answering to the dey of Algiers. 

BEG, V. t. 1. To ask earnestly ; to beseech ; to entreat cr 
supplicate with humility. 2. To ask or supplicate in char- 
ity. 3. To take for granted ; to assume without proof. 

BEG, V. i. To ask alms or charity ; to practice begging ; to 
live by asking alms. 

BE-GET', V. t. pret. begot, begat ; pp. begot, begotten. [Sax. 
btgetan.] 1. To procreate, as a father or sire ; to generate. 
2. To produce, as an efiect ; to cause to exist ; to gen- 

BE-GET'TER, n. One who begets or procreates ; a father. 

BEG'GA-BLE, a. That may be begged. Butler. 

BEG'GAR, 71. 1. One that lives by asking alms, or makes 
it his business to beg for charity. 2. One who supplicates 
witJi humility ; a petitioner. 3. One who Eissumes in ar- 
gument what he does not prove. 

BEG'GAR, V. t. 1. To reduce to beggary ; to impoverish. 
2. To deprive or make destitute ; to exhaust. 

BEG'GAR ED, pp. Reduced to extreme poverty. 

BEG'GAR-ING, ppr. Reducing to indigence or a state of 

BEG GAR-LI-NESS, n. The state of being beggarly ; mean- 
n*^ss ; extreme poverty. Barret. 

BEG'GAR-LY, a. Mean; poor; in the condition of a beg- 
gar • extremely indigent. Shak. 

BW-'GAR-LiY, adv. Meanly; indigently; despicably. 

BEG'GAR MAID, n. A maid that is a beggar. Shak. 

BEGGAR-MAN, n. A man tliat is a beggar. Shak. 

BEG'GAR-WOM-AN, n. A female beggar. Shak. 

BEG'GAR- Y, n. A state of extreme indigence. 

BEGGED, ;>;>. Entreated ; supplitated ; asked in charity. 

BEG'GING, ppr. Asking alms ; supplicating ; assuming 
without proof. 

BEG GliVG, n. The act of soliciting alms ; the practice of 
asking alms. 

BE-G HARDS', or BE-GUARDS', n. A religious order of St. 

BE-GILT', a. Gilded. B. Jonson. 

BE-GIN', V. i. pret. began ; pp. begun. [Sax. gynnan, agin- 
nan, and beirinnan.] 1. To have an original or first exist- 
ence ; to take rise ; to commence. 2. To do the first 
act ; to enter upon something new ; to take the first step. 

BE-GIN', V. t. 1. To do the first act of any thing ; to enter 
on ; to commence. 2. To trace from any thing, as the 
first ground , to lay the foundation. 

t BE-GIN', «. For beginnincr. Spenser. 

BE-GIN'NER, 71. 1. The person who begins. 2 One who 
first enters upon any art, science, or business ; one who 
is in his rudiments ; a young practitioner. 

BE-GIN'NING, ppr. First entering upon ; commencing ; 
giving rise or original ; taking rise or origin. 

BE-GIN'NING, n. 1. The first cause; origin. 2. That 
which is first ; the first state ; commencement ; entrance 
into being. 3. The rudiments, first ground, or materials. 

t BE-GIN NING-LESS, a. That hath no beginning. 

BE-GiRD , V. t. pret. begirt, bcgirded ; pp. begirt. [Sax. be- 
gyrdan.] 1. To bind with a band or girdle. 2. To sur- 
round; to inclose; to encompass. 3. To besiege. — To 
begirt, used by B. Jonson, is a corrupt orthography. 

BE-GiRD ED, or BE-GiRT', pp. Bound with a girdle ; sur- 
rounded ; inclosed ; besieged. 

BE-GiRD'lNG, ppr. Binding with a girdle; surrounding; 

BEG'LER-BEG, n. [See Beg.] The governor of a province 
in the Turkish emp're, next In dignity to the grand vizier. 
His province is called beglerbeglik. 

t BE-G LOOM', v.t. To cast a gloom over; to darken. 

BE-GNAW, (be-naw') v. t. [Sax, begnagan.] To bite or 
gnaw'; to eat away ; to corrode ; to nibble. 

t BE-GOD' V. t. To deify ; to treat as a god. More. 

BE-GONE'. {pron. nearly, be-gawn') Go away ; depart. 
These two words have been improperly united. Be re- 
tains the sense of a verb, and gone that of a participle. 

BE-GoR'ED, a. Besmeared with grve. 

BE-GOt'tEN \pP-^^i^^- Procreated ; generated. 

t BE-GRaVE', v. t. 1. To deposit in the grave ; to bury. 

2. Toengrave. Qower. 

BE-GReA»E', v. t. To soil or daub with grease, or other 
oily matter. 

BE-GRlME', V. t. To soil with din deep impressed, so that 
the natural hue cannot easily be recovered. Shak. 

BE-GRlM'ED, (be-grimd'j pp. Deeply soiled. 

BE-GRUDGE', (be-grudj') v. t. To grudge ; to envy the 
possession of. 

BE-GUlLE', (be-glle') v.t. 1. To delude ; to deceive ; to 
impose on by artifice or craft. 2. I'o elude by craft. 3 
To elude any thing disagreeable by amusement, or other 
means ; to pass pleasingly ; to amuse. 

BE-GUiL'ED, (be-glld') pp. Deluded ; imposed on ; misled 
by craft ; eluded by stratagem ; passed pleasingly. 

BE-GUiL'ER, (be-gl'ler) n. He or that which beguiles or 

BE-GUiL'ING,jp;?r. Deluding; deceiving by craft ; eluding 
by artifice ; amusing. 

BE-GUILT'Y, (be-gil'te) v. t. To render guilty. [A barba- 
rous ivord.'] Sanderson. 

BE'GUIN, 71. One of a congregation of nuns in Flanders. 

BE-GUN',^p. of 6eo-irt. Commenced; originated. 

BE-HALF', (be-haP) n. [Sax. behefe.] 1. Favor ; advantage ; 
convenience; profit; support; defense; vindication. 2. 
Part, side ; noting substitution, or the act of taking the 
part of another. 

BE-HAP'PEN, v. i. To happen to. Spenser. 

BE-HaVE', v. t. [G. gehaben.] 1. To restrain ; to govern ; 
to subdue. This sense is obsolete. 2. To carry ; to con- 
duct ; used with the reciprocal pronoun ; as, he behaves 
himself rmnfuWy . 

BE-HaVE', v. i. To act ; to conduct ; generally applied to 
manners, or to conduct in any particular business ; and in 
a good or bad sense. He behaves well or ill. 

BE-HaV'ED, (be liavd') pp. Conducted. 

BE-HaV'ING, ppr. Carrying ; conducting. 

BE-HaV'IOR, (be-hav'yur) n. Mannerof behaving, whether 
good or bad; conduct; manners; carriage of one's self, 
v.'ith respect to propriety, or morals ; deportment. — To be 
upon one''s behavior, is to be in a state of trial, in which 
something important depends on propriety of conduct. 
The modern phrase is, to be, or to be put, upon one^s good 

BEHEAD', (be-hed') v. t. To cut off the head ; to sever 
the head from the body with a cutting instrument. 

BE-HEAD'ED, (be-hed'ed) pp. Having the head cut off. 

BE-HEAD'ING, (be-hed'ing) ppr. Severing the head from 
the body. 

BE-HEAD'ING, (be-hed'ing) n. The act of separating tlie 
head from the body by a cutting instrument ; decollation. 

BE-HELD', pret. and pp. of behold, which see. 

t BE-HEL', v. t. To torture as with the pains of hell. Heiryt. 

Be'HE-MOTH, 71. [Heb. nicna] Authors are divided in 
opinion as to the animal intended in Scripture by tliis 
name ; some supposing it to be an ox, others an elephant ; 
and Bochart labors to prove it the hippopotamus, or river 
horse. The latter opinion is the most probable, 

Bk'HEN, BEx\,or BEK'EN, 7). A plant. The ieAen of the 
shops, or white heben, is spatling poppy. Red behen is 
sea lavender. 

BE-HEST', 71. [be, and Sax. hcese.] Command ; precept , 
mandate, [Antiquated, except in poetry .^ 

fBE-HIGHT', (be-hite') v.t. pret. behot. [^&x. behetan.'] 
To promise ; to intrust ; to call, or name ; to command ; 
to adjudge ; to address ; to inform ; to mean ; to reckon. 

BE-HiND', prep. [Sax. behindan.] 1. At the back of anoth- 
er. 2. On the back part, at any distance ; in tlie rear. 

3. Remaining ; left after the departure of another, whether 
by removing to a distance, or by death. 4. Left at a dis- 
tance, in progress or improvement. 5. Inferior to another 
in dignity and excellence. 6. On the side opposite the 
front or nearest part, or opposite to that which fronts a 
person ; on the other side. Behind the back., in Scripture, 
signifies, out of notice, or regard ; overlooked ; disre- 

BE-HiND', atfTJ. 1. Out of sight ; not produced, or exhibited 
to view ; remaining. 2. Backwards ; on the back part. 
3. Past in the progress of time. 4. Future, or remaining 
to be endured. 5. Remaining after a payment ; unpaid. 
6. Remaining after the departure of. 

BE-HlND'HAND, a. In arrear ; in an exhausted state ; in 
a state in which rent or profit has been anticipated, and 
expenditures precede the receipt of funds to supply them 
In popular use, a state of poverty. 

BE-HoLD', V. t. pret. and pp. beheld. [Sax. behealdan, be 
heoldaji.] 1. To fix the eyes upon ; to see with attention 
to observe with care. 2. To 'ook upon ; to see. 

BE-HoLD', V. i. 1. To look ; to direct the eyes to an ob 
ject. 2. To fix the attention upon an object ; to attend , 
to direct or fix the mind. 

BE-HoLD'EN, (be-h51'dn) pp. or a. Obliged ; bound in 
gratitude ; indebted. 

See Synopsis S, E, I, 5, ^j^, long.— FA.R, FALL, WH,^T ;— PREY ;— PXN, MARINE, BIRD ;— f Obsolete. 




BE-H6LD'ER, n. One who beholds ; a spectator ; one who 
looks upon, or sees. 

BE-HoLI"ii\G, ppr. 1. Fixing tlie eyes upon ; looking on ; 
seeing. 2. Fixing the attention ; regarding with atten- 
tion. 3. Obliged. A mistaken use of the word for be- 
holden. — '1. 71. Obligation. [JV'ot used.] Carew. 

t BE-KoLD'ING-NESS, n. The state of being obliged. 

BE-HoN'EY, V. t. To sweeten with honey. Sherwood. 

BE-HOOF', n. [Sax. behofian.} 1. Need, necessity. 2. 
Inpresent usage, that which is advantageous ; advantage ; 

, profit; benefit. 

BE-HOOV'A-BLE, a. Needful •, profitable. 

BE-HOOVE', (be-hoov ) w. t. [Sax behofian.] Tobe necessa- 
ry for ; to be fit for ; to be meet for, with respect to necessi- 
ty, duty, or convenience. Jt may, perhaps, be sometimes 
used intransitively ; as, let him behave as it behooveth. 

BE-HOOVE'FUL, vbe-hoov'ful) a. Needful ; useful -, profit- 
able 5 advantageous. 

t BE-HOOV E'FUL-LY, (be-hoov'ful-ly) adv. Usefully ; 

t BE-HOOVE'LY, a. Profitable. Gower. 

t BE-HOT', pret. of behight. 

BE-HOVE', (be-hoov') and its derivatives. See Behoove. 

t BE-HOWL', V. i. To howl at. Shak. 

Be'ING, ppr. [See Be.] Existing in a certain state. 

Bk'ING, n. I. Existence ; a particular state or condition. 
2. A person existing. 3. An immaterial, intelligent ex- 
istence, or spirit. 4. An animal ; any living creature. 

f Be'ING-PLACE, n. An existence. Spenser. 

BE IT SO. A phrase of anticipation, suppose it be so ; or of 
permission, let it be so. Shak. 

t BE-JaDE', v. t. To tire. Milton. 

t BE-J aPE', v. t. To laugh at ; to deceive. Chaucer. 

•(■ BE-KISS', V. t. To kiss or salute. Jonson. 

tBE-KJ>JAVE', V. t. To call knave. Pope. 

(• BE-KNoW, (be-no') v. t. To acknowledge. Chaucer. 

BE-La'BOR, v. t. To beat soundly ; to thump. Dnjden. 

BE-LaCE', v. t. 1. To fasten, as with a lacs or cord. 2. 
To beat ; to whip. 

BE-La'CED, a. Adorned with lace. Beaumont. 

t BE-LAM', V. t. To beat ; to bang. 

+ BEL'A-MOUR, n. [Fr. bel-amour.] A gallant ; a consort. 

t BEL'A-MY, n. [Fr. bel-ami.] A good friend ; an intimate. 

■f BE-LATE , V. t. To retard or make too late. 

BE-LaT'ED, a. 1. Benighted 5 abroad late at night. 2. 
Too late for the hour appointed or intended; later than 
the proper time. 

BE-LAT'fiD'NESS, n. A being too late. Milton. 

fBE-LlVE', V. t. To wash. 

tBE-LAW'GIVE, v. t. To give a law to. Milton. 

BE-LaY', v. t. 1. To block up, or obstruct. 2. To place 
in ambush. 3. To adorn, surround, or cover. 4. In sea- 
manship, to fasten, or make fast, by windmg a rope round 
a cleat, kevil, or Jrelaying-pin. 

BE-LaY'ED, (be-lade') pp. Obstmcted ; ambushed ; made 

BE-LaY'ING, ppr. Blocking up ; laying an ambush ; mak- 
ing fast. 

BELCH, v.t. [Sax. bealcan.] 1. To throw or eject wind 
from the stomach with violence. 2. To eject violently 
from a deep, hollow place. 

BELCH, V. i. [Sax. bealcan.] 1 To eject wind from the 
stomach. 2. To issue out, as by eructation. 

BELCH, n. 1. The act of throwing out from the stomach, 
or from a hollow place ; eructation. 2. A cant name for 
malt liquor. 

BELCH'ED, (belcht) pp. Ejected from the stomach, or 
from a hollow place. 

BELCH'ING, ppr. Ejecting from the stomach, or any deep, 
hollow place. 

BELCH'ING, n. Eructation. Barret. 

BEL'DAM, n. [Fr. belle, and dame. It seems to be used in 
contempt, or as a cant term.] 1. An old woman. Shak. 
2. A hag. Drijden. 

BE-LeA'GUER, (be-le'ger) v. t. [Ger. belagern.] To be- 
siege ; to block up ; to surround with an army, so as to 
preclude escape. 

BE-LkA'GUERED, pp. Besieged. 

BE-LkA'GUER-ER, n. One who besieges. 

BE-LkA'GUER-ING, ppr. Besieging; blocking up. 

t BE-LeA VE', v. t. To leave. May. 

t BE-LEE'. v. t. To place on the lee. Shak. 

BE-LEM'NITE, 71. [Gr. (S^Ujxvov.] Arrow-head, or finger- 
stone ; vulgarly called thunder-bolt, or thunder-stone. 

t RE-LEP'ER, v. t. To infect with leprosy. 
BEL'FLOW-ER, n. A plant. 

BEL'FOUND-ER, 71. He who founds 01 casts bells Bacon. 
BEL'FRY, 71 [Fr. befroy.] 1. Among military writers of 
the middle age, a tower erected by besiegers to over- 
look the place hesieg"='d, in which sentinels were placed. 
2. That part of a steeple, or other building, in which a 
bell is hung. 

t EEL-GARD', n. [Fr. bel and egard.] A soft look or glance 

BEL'GI-AN, a. Belonging to Belgica. 

BEL'GI-ANj n. A native of Belgica, or the Low Countries. 

BEL'GIC, a. [L. Belgicus.] Pertaining to the Belgas, or to 
the Netherlands. 

Be'LI-AL, n. [Keb. 7J,"73] Jls a noun, unprofitableness ; 
wickedness. As an adjective, worthless ; wicked. In a 
collective sense, wicked men. Parkhurst. 

t BE-Ll'BEL, v.t. To libel or traduce. Fuller. 

BE-LlE', (be-li') v. t. [be and lie. t-ax. belecgan.] 1. To 
give the lie to ; to show to be false ; to charge with false- 
hood. 2. To counterfeit ; tomunick ; tofeign resemblance. 
3. To give a false representation. 4. To tell lie? concern- 
ing ; to calumniate by false reports. 5. To fill with lies 

BE-LiEiy, (be-lide') pp. Falsely represented, either by word 
or obvious evidence and indication ; counterfeited ; mim- 

BE-LIeF', (be-leef ) n. [Sax. geleaf, geleafan, gelefan, 
geliefan, gelyfan, to believe.] 1 A persuasion of the 
truth, or an assent of mind to the truth, of a declaration, 
proposition, or alledged fact, on the ground of evidence. — 
2. in theology, faith, or a firm persuasion of the truths of 
religion. 3. Religion. 4. Persuasion or opinion. 5. The 
thmg believed ; the object of belief. 6. A creed ; a form 
or summary of articles of faith. 

BE-LIeV'A-BLE, (be-le'va-bl) a. That may be believed ; 

BE-LIeVE', (be-leev') v. t. 1. To credit upon the authority 
or testimony of another ; to be persuaded of the tmth of 
something. 2. To expect or hope with confidence ; to 

BE-LIeVE', v. i. To have a fmn persuasion of any thing ; 
to think, or suppose.— In theology, to believe sometimes 
expresses a mere assent of the understanding ; and some- 
times it implies, witii this assent of the mmd, a yielding 
of the will and affections. 

BE-LIeV'ED, (be-leevd') pp. Credited ; assented to, as 

BE-LIeV'ER, n. 1. One who believes ; one who gives 
credit to other evidence than that of personal knowledge. 
— 2. In theology, one who gives credit to the truth of the 
Scriptures, as a revelation from God. In a more restricted 
sense_, a professor of Christianity. 

BE-LIeVING, ppr. Giving credit to testimony, or to other 
evidence than personal knov.^ledge. 

BE-LIeV'ING-LY, adv. In a believing manner. 

BE-LiKE', adv. [be and like.] Probably ; likely ; perhaps. 
[JVearly antiquated.] 

fBELlKE'LY, at^y. Probably. Hall. 

fBE-LlME', V. t. To besmear with lime ; losoil. Bp. Hall. 

BE-LIT'TLE, v.t. To make smaller, or less in size. Jef 

t BE -LIVE', atZf. Speedily; quickly. Spenser. 

BELL, n. [Sax. bell, bella, belle.] 1. A vessel or hollow 
body of cast metal, used for making sounds. Its constit- 
uent parts are a barrel or hollow body enlarged or expand- 
ed at one end, an ear or cannon by which it is hung to a 
beam, and a clapper on the inside. 2. A hollow body of 
metal, perforated, and containing a solid ball, to give sounds 
when shaken ; used on animals. 3. Any thing in form 
of a hell, as the cup or calix of a flower.- To bear the bell, 
is to be the first, or leader, in allusion to the bell-wether of 
a flock. 

BELL, V. i. To grow in the form of bells, as buds or flow- 

BELL'-FASH-IONED, a. Having the form of a bell. 

BELL'-FLOW-ER, n. A genus of plants, so named from 
the shape of the flower. 

BELL'-FOUND-ER, n. A man whose occupation is to found 
or cast bells. 

BELL-MAN, n. A man who rings a bell, especially to give 
notice of any thing in the streets. 

BELL'-MET-AL, (bel'-met-tl) n. A mixt ure of copper and 
tin, in the proportion of about ten parts of copper to one 
of tin, and usually a small portion of brass or zink ; used 
for making bells. 

BELL'-PEP-PER, n. A name of the Guinea pepper, a spe- 
cies of capsicum. 

BELL'-RING-ER, n. One whose business is to ring a church 
or other bell. 

BELL'-SHAPED, a. Having the form of a bell. 

BELL'-WETH-ER, n. A wether or sh^ep which leadu the 
flock with a bell on his neck. 

BELL'-WoRT, n. A plant, the uvularia. 

BEL'LA-DON-NA, v. A plant, a species of atropa. 

BEL'LA-TRIX, n. [L.] A ruddy, glittering star, of the sec- 
ond magnitude, in the left shoulder of Orion. 

BELLE, (bel) 7i. [Fr.] A young lady. In popula.r us:c,a. 
lady of superior beauty, and much admired. 

BELL'El), a. Hung with bells. 

* EELLES-LET-TRES, (bel'let-ter) n. pH. anglicized 
bell letters. [Fr.] Polite literature ; a word of very vague 
signification. It includes poetry and ; but authors 

See SifRopsis. MOVE, BOQK, D6VE ;— BULL, UNITE 5— €asK ; Gas J j SasZ ^CHasSH- THasintto 





are not agreed to what particular branches of learning the 
term should be restricted. 

BELL'1-BONE, n. [Fr. belle and ionne.'] A woman excel- 
ling both in beauty and goodness. 

1 BEL-LI6'EIl-ATE, v. i. To make war. Cockeram. 

BEL-LI6'ER-ENT, a. [L. belliger, belligero.'] Waging 
war ; carrying on war. 

BEL-LI6'ER-ENT, n. A nation, power or state carrying 
on war. 

f BEL-LIG'EROUS, a. The same, ^s belligerent. 

BELL'ING, n. [Sax. bellan.'] 1. The noise of a roe in rutting 
time. 2. a. Growing or forming like a bell ; growing full 

, and ripe 5 used of hops ; from bell. 

BEL-LIP'O-TENT, a. [L. bellipotens.] Powerful or mighty 
in war. {Little used.\ 

t BEL'Ll-TUDE, n. [L. bellitudo.] Beauty. Cockeram. 

t BEL-LiaUE', (bel-leek') a. [Old Fr.] Warlike. 

BELi'LON, 71. A disease, attended with languor and intol- 
erable griping of the b-^wels. 

BEL-LoNA, 71. The goddess of war. 

BEL Low, V. i. [Sax. bellan.] 1. To make a hollow, 
loud noise, as a bull ; to make a loud outcry ; to roar. 
In contempt, to vociferatft or clamor. 2. To roar, as 
the sea in a tempest, or as the wind when violent ; to 
make_a loud, hollow, continued somid. 

BEL'LoW, n. A loud outcry ; roar. 

BEL'LoW-ING, ppr. Making a loud, hollow sound, as a 
bull, or as the roaring of billows. 

BEL'LoW-ING, n. A loud, hollow sound, or roar. 

*BEL'L6WS, n. sing, and plu, [Sax. bilig, or bylig ; Goth. 
balgs.] An instrument, utensil or machine for blowing 

BEL'LoWS-FISH, n. The trumpet-fish. 

BEL'LU-INE, a. [L. belluinus.] Beastly ; pertaining to or 
like a beast ; brutal. [Little used.] 

BEL'LY, n. [Ir. bolg ; W. boly.] 1. That part of the human 
body which extends from the breast to the thighs, con- 
taining the bowels. 2 The part of a beast corresponding 
to the human belly. 3. The womb. Jer. i. 5. 4. The 
receptacle of food ; that which requires food. 5. The part 
of any thing which resembles the human belly in protu- 
berance or cavity, as of a harp or a bottle. 6. Any hollow, 
inclosed place. 

BEL'LY, 7;. t. To fill ; to swell out. Shak. 

BEL'LY, V. i. 1. To swell and become protuberant, like the 
belly. 2. To strut. 

BEL'LY-a€HE, 71. Pain in the bowels 5 the colic. [ Vul- 

BEL'LY-a€HE BIJSH or WEED, n. A species of jatro- 

BEL'LY-BAND, n. A band that encompasses the belly of a 

horse, and fastens the saddle ; a girth. 
BEL'LY -BOUND, a. Diseased in the belly ; costive, 
t BEL'LY-CHEER, n. Good cheer. Chaucer. 
BEL'LY-FRET-TING, n. The chafing of a horse ^s belly 

with a fore girt. 2. A violent pain in a horse's belly, 

caused by wonns. 
BEL'LY-FUL, n. As much as fills the belly, or satisfies the 

BEL'LY-GOD, n. A glutton ; one who makes a god of his 

BEL'LY-ING, fpr. Enlarging capacity ; swelling out, like 

the belly. 
BELLY-PINCHED, a. Starred ; pinched with hunger. 

BEL'LY-RoLL, n. A roller protuberant in the middle, to 

roll land between ridges, or in hollows. 
BEL'LY-SLAVE, n. A slave to the appetite. 
BEL'LY-TIM-BER, n. Food; that which supports the 

belly. Prior. [Vulgar.'] 
BEL'LY-WoRM, n. A worm that breeds in the belly or 

stomach. Johnson. 
BE-LOCK', V. t. [Sax. belman.] To lock, or fasten as with 

a lock. Shak. 
BEL'0-MAN-CY, n. [Gr. (SeXog and jjiavreia.] A kind of 

divination by aiTows, practiced by the ancient Scythians, 

Babylonians and other nations. 
BE-LoNE', 71. [Gr (SeXovrj.] The gar, garfish, or sea-needle, 

a species of esoz. 
BE-LONG', V. i. [D. belangen.] I. To be the property of. 

2. To be the concern or proper business of ; to appertain. 

3. To be appendant to. 4. To be a part of, or connected 
with, though detached in place. 5. To have relation to. 
6. To be the quality or attribute of. 7. To be suitable for. 
8. To relate to, or be referred to. 9. To have a legal 
residence, settlement, or inhabitancy. 10. To be the na- 
tive of; to have original residence.— 11. In common lan- 
guage, to have a settled residence ; to be domiciliated. 

BE-LONG'ING, ppr. Pertaining ; appertaining ; being the 
property of; being a quality of; being the concern of; 
being appendant to ; being a native of, or having a legal 
or permanent settlement in. 

I BE-LONG'ING, 71. A quality. Shak. 
BE-LOVE', V. t. To love. 

BE-L6V'ED, pp. [be and loved, from love. Belove, aa a 
verb, is not used.] Loved ; greatly loved ; dear to the 

BE-LoW, prep. 1. Under in place -, beneath ; not so high 
2. Inferior in rank, excellence or dignity. 3. Unworthy 
of ; unbefitting. 

BE-LoW', adv. 1. In a lower place, with respect to any ob- 
ject. 2. On the earth, as opposed to the heavens. 3. In 
hell, or the region of the dead. 4. In a court of inferior 

fBE-LOWT', V. t. To treat with contemptuous language. 

BEL'SWAG-GER, n. A lewd man. Drydon. 

BELT, n. [Sax. belt.] 1. A girdle ; a band, usually of leath- 
er, in which a sword or other weapon is hung. 2. A nar- 
row passage at the entrance of the Baltic. 3. A bandage 
or band used by surgeons for various purposes. — 4. In 
astronomy, certain girdles or nngs which surround the 
planet Jupiter are called belts. 5. A disease among 
sheep, cured by cutting off the tail, laying the sore bare, 
then casting mold on it, and applying tar and goose- 

BELT, v. t. To encircle. Warton. 

BE-Ltl'GA, 71. A fish of the cetaceous order. 

BEL'VI-DERE, n. [L. bellus and video.] 1. A plant, a spe- 
cies c\f chenopodium, goosefoot or wild orach. — 2. In Italian 
architecture, a pavilion on the top of an edifice ; an arti- 
ficial eminence in a garden. 

BE-LYE. See Belie. 

fBE'MA, 7!. [Gr. /3?7|ua.] 1. A chancel. 2. In ancient Greece, 
a stage or kind of pulpit. 

jBE-MAD', V. t. To make mad. Shak. 

BE-MAN'GLE, v. t. To mangle ; to tear asunder. Beau- 
mont. [Little used.] 

BE-MaSK', v. t. To mask ; to conceal. Shelton. 

BE-MaZE', v. t. To bewilder. [Little used.] 

t BE-MeTE', 7;. t. To measure. Shak. 

BE-MIN'GLE, 7;. i. To mingle; to mix. [Little used.] 

BE-MIRE', v. t. To drag or incumber in the mire. 

t BE- MIST', 7'. t. To cover or involve in mist. 

BE-MoAN', V. t. To lament ; to bewail ; to express sorrow 

t BE-MoAN'A-BLE, a. That may be lamented, 

BE-MoANED, pp. Lamented ; bewailed. 

BE-]MoAN'ER, n. One who laments. 

BE-MoAN'ING, j3j5r. Lamenting; bewailing. 

BE-MO€K', V. t. To treat with mockery. [Lmle used.] 

BE-MOCK', V. i. To laugh at. 

jBE-MOIL', V. t. To bedraggle ; to bemire ; to soil or m- 
cumber with mire and dirt. Shak. 

BE-MoL', 71. In music, a half note. Bacon. 

t BE-MON'STER, v. t. To make monstrous. Shak. 

BE-MoURN', V. t. To weep or mourn over. [Little used.] 

BE-MUS'ED, (be-muzd') a. Overcome with musing ; dream- 
ing ; a word of contempt. Pope. 

t BEN. [Sax.] Used for are, been, and to be. 

BEN, or BEN'-NUT, n. A pmgative fruit or nut. 

BENCH, 71. [Sax. Je;ic.] 1. A long seat, usually of board or 
plank. 2. The seat where judges sit in court ; the seat 
of justice. 3. The persons who sit as judges ; the court. 

BENCH, v.t. 1. To furnish with benches. 2. To seat on a 
bench. 3. v. i. To sit on a seat of justice. Shak. 

BENCH'ER, n. I. In England, the benchers, in the inns of 
court, are the senior members of the society who have the 
government of it, and have been readers. 2. The alder- 
ihan of a corporation. 3. A judge. Shak. 

BEND, V. t. ; pret. bended, or bent : pp. bended, or bent. [Sax- 
bevdan.] 1. To strain or to crook by straining. 2. To crook ; 
to make crooked ; to curve ; to inflect. 3. To direct to a 
certain point. 4. To exert ; to apply closely ; to exercise 
laboriously ; to intend or stretch. 5. To prepare or put 
in order for use ; to stretch or strain. 6. To incline ; to 
be determined ; that is, to stretch towards, or cause to 
tend. 7. To subdue ; to cause to yield ; to make sub- 
missive. — 8. In seamanship, to fasten, as one rope to 
another, or to an anchor ; to fasten, as a sail to its yard or 
stay ; to fasten, as a cable to the ring of an anchor. 
— 9. To bend the brow, is to knit the brow ; to scowl ; to 

BEND, V. i. 1. To be crooked ; to crook, or be curbing. 

2. To incline ; to lean or turn. 3. To jut over. 4. To 
resolve, or determine. 5. To bow, or be submissive. 

BEND, n. 1. A curve ; a crook ; a turn in a road or river ; 
flexure ; incurvation. — 2. In marine language, that part 
of a rope which is fastened to another, or to an anchor. 

3. Bends of a ship are the thickest and strongest planks 
in her sides, more generally called wales. — 4. In herald- 
ry, one of the nine honorable ordinaries, containing a 
third part of the field, wherr charged, and a fifth, when 

t BEND, 77. A band. Spenser. 
BEND'A-BLE, a. That maj be bent or incurvated. 
BEND'ED, or BENT, pp.' Strained ; incurvated ; made 
crooked ; inclined ; subdued. 

*See Synopsis. A, E, I, O, tr, Y, long.— FAR, FALL, WHAT ;— PREY ;—HN, MARmE, BIRD ;- 

t Obsolete 




BEND'ER, n. The person who bends, or makes crooked ; 
also, an instrument for bending other things. 

BEND'ING, ppr. Incurvating ; forming into a curve ; 
stooping ; subduing ; turning, as a road or river ; inclin- 
ing ; leaning 5 applying closely, as the mind ; fastening. 

BEND LET, «. In heraldry^ a little bend, which occupies 
a sixth part of a shield. Bailey. 

BEND'-WITH, n. A plant. Diet. 

BENDY, 71. In heraldry, the field divided into four, six or 
more parts, diagonally, and varying in metal and color. 

BEN E, n. The popular name of the sesamum orien- 
tale, called in the West Indies vangloe, an African 

BE-NeAP'ED, (be-neept ) a. Among seamen, a ship is be- 
neaped, when the water does not flow high enough to 
float_her from a dock or over a bar. 

BE-NeATH', prep. [Sax. beneath.] 1. Under; lower in 
place, with something directly over or on. 2. Under, in 
a figurative sense; bearing heavy impositions, as taxes, 
or oppressive government. 3. Lower in rank, dignity or 
excellence. 4. Unworthy of ; unbecoming ; not equal to. 

BE-NeATH', adv. 1. In a lower place. jMortimer. 2. Be- 
low, as opposed to heaven, or to any superior region. 

t BEN'E-D1€T, a. [L. benedictus.] Having mild and salu- 
brious qualities. Bacon. 

BEN-E-DI€'TiNE, a. Pertaining to the order or monks of 
St. Benedict, or St. Benet. 

BEN-E-DI€'TiNES, n. An order of monks, who profess to 
follow the rules of St. Benedict. In the canon law, they 
are called black friars. 

BEN-E-Dl€'TION, n. [L. benedictio.] 1. The act of bless- 
ing ; a giving praise to God, or rendering thanks for his 
favors ; a blessing pronounced. 2. Blessing, prayer, or 
kind wishes, uttered in favor of any person or thing ; a 
solemn or affectionate invocation of happiness ; thanks ; 
expression of gratitude. 3. The advantage conferred by 
blessing. 4. The form of instituting an abbot, answering 
to the consecration of a bishop. 

t BEN-E-DI€'TIVE, a. Of power to draw down a blessing ; 
giving a blessing. Oauden. 

BEN-E-FAe'TION, n. [L. benefacio.] 1. The act of con- 
ferring a benefit. 2. A benefit conferred, especially a 
charitable donation. 

BEN-E-FA€'TOR, n. He who confers a benefit. 

BEN-E-FA€'TRESS, n. A female who confers a benefit. 

BEN'E-FlCE, a. [L. beneficium.] 1. Literally, a benefit, 
advantage or kindness. But, in present usage, an eccle- 
siastical living. 2. In the middle ages, benefice was used 
for a fee, or an estate in lands. 

BEN'E-FiCED, a. Possessed of a benefice or church prefer- 
ment. .Riiliffe. 

t BEN'E-FlCE-LESS, a. Having no benefice. 

BE-NEPI-CENCE, n. [L. bene fie entia.] The practice of 
doing good ; active goodness, kindness, or charity. 

BE-NEF'I-CENT, a. Doing good ; performing acts of kind- 
ness and charity. 

BE-NEF'I-CENT-LY, adv. In. a beneficent manner. 

BEN-E-Fl"CIAL, a. I. Advantageous ; conferring benefits ; 
useful ; profitable ; helpful ; contributing to a valuable 
end. 2. Receiving or entitled to have or receive advan- 
tage, use or benefit. 

tBEN-E-Fi"CIAL, 71. A benefice. Spenser. 

BEN-E-Fi"CIAL-LY, adv. Advantageously ; profitably •, 

BEN-E-Fl"CIAL-NESS, n. Usefulness ; profitableness. 

BEN-E-Fi"CIA-RY, a. [L. beneficiarius.] Holding some 
oflice or valuable possession, in subordination to another. 

BEN-E-Fl"CIA-RY, n. 1. One who holds a benefice. 2. One 
who receives any thing as a gift, or is maintained by 

BEN-E-Fi"CIEN-CY, 71. Kindness or favor bestowed. 

BEN-E-FI"CIENT, a. Doing good. Adam Smith. 

BEN'E-FIT, n. [L. beneficium ; Fr. bicnfait.] 1. An act of 
kindness ; a favor conferred. 2. Advantage ; profit -, a 
word of extensive use, and expressing whatever con- 
tributes to promote prosperity and happiness. — 3. In law, 
benefit of clergy. See Clergy. 

BEN'E-FiT, V. t. To do good to ; to advantage ; to advance 
in health or prosperity. 

BEN'E-FIT, V i. To gain advantage ; to make improve- 

BEN'E-FIT-ED, pp. Profited ; having received benefit. 

BEN'E-FIT-ING, ppr. Doing good to ; profiting ; gaining 
advantage ._ 

t BE-Ne'GRoE, v. t. To make extremely dark. Hewvt. 

t BE-NeME', v. t. 1. To name. 2. To promise : to give. 

t BE-NEMP'NE, v. t. To name. Spenser. 

t BEN-E-PLAC'I-TURE, n. [L. bene_ 
choice. Olanville 

t BE-NET', V. t. To catch in a net ; to insnare. 

BE-NEV'O-LENCE, n. {!-,. henevolentia.] 1. The disposi- 
tion to do good •, good will ; kindness ; charitableness ; 
the love of mankind, accompanied with a desire to pro- 
mote tlieir happiness. 2. An act of kindness ; good 

beneplaci'tum.] Will ; 

done charity given. 3. A species of contribution or tax 
illegally exacted by arbitrary kings of England. 

BE-NEV'0-LENT, a. [L. benevolens.] Having a disposition 
to do good ; possessing love to mankind, and a desire to 
promote their prosperity and happiness : kind. 

t BE-NEV'O-LENT-NESS, n. Benevolence. 

t BE-NEV'0-LOUS, a. Kind, friendly. Puller. 

BE-NEV'0-LENT-LY, adv. In a kind manner ; with good 

BEN-GAL', n. A thin stuff, made of silk and hair, for 
women's apparel, so called from Bengal. 

BEN-GA-LEE , n. The language or dialect spoken in Ben- 

BEN-GA-I.eSE', n. sing, and plu A native, or the natives 
of Bengal. j3s. Res. vii. 171. 

BE-NlGHT', V. t. 1. To mvolve in darkness •, to shroud 
with the shades of night. 2. To overtake with night 
3. To involve in moral darkness, or ignorance ; to debar 
from intellectual light. 

BE-NlGHT'ED, pp. Involved in darkness, physical or 
moral ; overtaken by the night. 

BE-NiGN', (be-nlne') a. [L. henignus.] 1. Kind ; of a kind 
dispositioa ; gracious ; favorable. 2. Generous ; liberal 
3. Favorable ; having a salutary influence. 4. Whole- 
some ; not pernicious. 5, Favorable •, not malignant. 

BE-NIG'NANT, a. Kind ; gracious ; favorable. 

BE-NIG'NI-TY, n. 1. Goodness of disposition or heart; 
kindness of nature ; graciousness. 2. Actual goodness ; 
beneficence. 3. Salubrity ; wholesome quality ; or that 
which tends to promote health. Wiseman. 

BE-NiGN'LY, (be-nlne'ly) adv. Favorably ; kindly ; gra- 

BEN'I-SON, (ben'-e-zn) n. [Fr. benir, benissant.] Blessing 
benediction. \_J^rearly antiquated.'] 

BEN'JA-MIN, n. 1. A tree, the laurus benzoin, called also 
spice-bush. 2. A gum or resin, or rather a balsam. See 

BEN'NET, n. The herb bennet, or avens, known in botany 
bv the generic term geum. 

BEN'NET-FISH, n. A fish of two feet in length. 

BENT, pp. of bend. Incurvated ; inflected ; inclined ; prone 
to, or having a fixed propensity ; determined. — Bent on, 
having a fixed inclination. 

BENT, n. 1. The state of being curving, or crooked ; flexure ; 
curvity. 2. Declivity; as, the Jerif of a hiU. [Unusual.] 
Dryden. 3. Inclination ; disposition ; a leaning or bias 
of mind; propensity. 4. Flexion; tendency; particular 
direction. 5. Application of the mind. 

BENT, I n. A kind of grass, called, in botany, 

BENT'-GRASS, i agrostis. 

BENT'ING-TIME, n. The time when pigeons feed on 
bents, before peas are ripe. 

BE-NUM', corruptly BE-NUMB', v. t. [Sax. beniman, beny- 
man ; pp. bemiryien.] 1. To make torpid ; to deprive of 
sensation. 2. To stupify ; to render inactive. 

BE-NUM'MED, (be-numd') pp. Rendered torpid ; deprived 
of sensation ; stupified. 

EE-NUM'MED-NESS, n. The state of being benummed 

BE-NUM'MING, ppr. Depriving of sensation ; stupifying, 

BEN'ZO-ATE, n. A salt formed by the union of the ben- 
zoic a^id with any salifiable base. 

BEN-Zo'IC, a. Pertaining to benzoin. — Benzoic acid, or 
finwers of benzoin, is a peculiar vegetable acid, obtained 
from benzoin and other balsams, by sublimation or de- 

BEN-ZOIN', or BEN'JA-MIN, n. Gum benjamin ; a con- 
crete resinous juice, flowing from the styrax benzoin, a 
tree of Sumatra, &c. 

BE-PaINT', v. t. To paint ; to cover with paint. Shak. 
[Little used.] 

t BE-PaLP', v. t. To make pale. Carew. 

BE-PINCH', V. t. To mark with pinches. 

BE-PINCHT'^' I 'P^- ^'^^^^^^ ^^**^ pinches. Chapman. 
BE-POW'DER, 11. t. To powder ; to sprinkle or cover with 

BE-PRaISE', v. t. To praise greatly or extravagantly. 

BE-PUR'PLE, ■y. t. To tinge or dye with a purple color. 
BE-aUEATH', V. t. [Sax. becwasthan.] To give or leave by 

will ; to devise some species of property by testament. 
BE-QUeATH'ED, (be-kweethd') pp. Given or left by wUl 
BE-aUEATH'ER,n. A testator. Huloet. 
BE-QUeATH ING, -ppr. Giving or devising by testament 
BE-aUEATH'MENT, n. The act of bequeathing ; a be 

BE-QUEST', n. Something left by will ; a legacy. 
t BE-RaTN', v. t. To rain upon. Chaucer. 
BE-RaTE', v.t. To chide vehemently ; to scold. 
BE-RAT'TLE, v.t. To fill with rattling sounds or noiie 

Shak. t 

t BE-RaY , V. t. To make foul ; to soil. Milton. 
BERBER-RY. n. fL. berberis.] See Barberry. 

* See Synopsis. MOVE , BOOK D6VE ;~BULL, UNITE — € as K ; 6 as J ; S as Z ; CH as SH 5 TH as in this, f OhsoUte 




BSSE, n The name of a species of barley in Scotland. 

D£-ReAVE', v. t. pret. bereaved^ lereft ,• pp. bereaved, be- 
reft. [Sax. bereajian.] 1. To deprive; to strip ; to make 
destitute ; with of before the tiling taken away. 2. To 
takeaway from. Shale. 

BE ReAV'ED, (be-reevd ) pp. Deprived ; stripped, and left 

BE-ReAVE'MENT, n. Deprivation, particularly by the loss 
of ajriend by death 

BE-ReAV'1NG, ppr. Stripping bare ; depriving. 

BE-REFT', pp. of bereave. Deprived ; made destitute. 

BER-EN-GaRI-AN-ISM, n. The doctrines of Berengarius, 

fBERG, n [Sax. beorg.] A borough; a town that sends 
burgesses to parliament ; a castle. [See Burg.] .Ssh. 

3ERG'A-MOT, 7i. [Fr. bergamotte.] 1. A species of pear. 
2. A species of citron. 3. An essence or perfume from 
the citron. 4. A species of snuff perfumed with berga- 
mot 5. A coarse tapestry. 

BERG'AN-DER, n. A burrow duck ; a duck that breeds in 
holes under cliffs. 

t BER'GE-RET, n. [Fr. berger.] A song. Chaucer. 

BERG'MAN-lTE, n. A min-ral. 

BERG MAS-TER, n. [Sax. bsorg, and master.'] The bai- 
liff or chief officer among the Derbyshire miners. 

BERG'MOTE, n. [Sax. beorg, and mote.] A court held 
on a hill in Derbyshire, in England, for deciding contro- 
versies between the miners. 

BE-RH yME', v. t. To mention in rhyme or verse ; used in 
contempt. Shak. 

* BERLIN, n. A vehicle of the chariot kind. 

BER-LUC'CIO, n. A small bird, somewhat like the yellow- 
hammer, but less, and more slender. 

BERME, 11. In fortification, a space of ground of three, 
four, or five feet in width, left between the rampart and 
tlie moat or foss. 

BER'NA-€LE. See Barnacle. 

BER'NAR-DlNE, a. Pertaining to St. Bernard, and the 
monks of the order. 

BER'NAR-DINES, n. An order of monks, founded by Rob- 
ert, abbot of Moleme, and reformed by St. Bernard. 

t BE-ROB', v t. To rob. Spenser. 

BE-RoE', 71. A marine animal of an oval form. 

BERRIED, a. Furnished with berries. 

BERRY, M. [Sax. beria.] 1. A succulent or pulpy frait, 
containing naked seeds, including many varieties. 2. A 
mound, [for barrow.] 

BER'RY, V. i. To bear or produce berries. 

BERRY- BE aR-ING, a. Producing berries. 

BERT, [Sax. beorht, berht ; Eng. bright.] This word en- 
ters into the names of many Saxon princes and noblemen ; 
as Egbert, Sigbert. See Bright. 

BERTH, n. 1. A station in which a ship rides at anchor, 
comprehending the space in which she ranges. 2. A 
room or apartment in a ship, where a number of officers 
or men mess and reside. 3. The box or place for sleep- 
ing, at the sides of a cabin ; the place for a hammoc, or a 
repository for chests, &c. 

BER'TRAM, n. Bastard pellitory, a plant. 

BER'YL, n. [L. beryUus.l A mineral, considered by Cleave- 
land as a sub-species of emerald. 

BER'YL-€RYS'TAL, n. A species of imperfect crystal. 

BER'YL-LINE, a. Like a beryl ; of a light or bluish green. 

t BE-SaINT', v. t. To make a saint. 

JBE-SAYLE', n. [Norm, ayle ; Fr. a'ieul.] A great grand- 

/BE-S€AT'TER, v. t. To scatter over. Spenser. 

t BE-S€ORN', v.t.To treat with scorn ; to mock at. Chaucer. 

\ BE-S€RATCH', v. t. To scratch ; to tear with the nails. 

BE-S€RAWL', v. t. To scrawl ; to scribble over. 

BE-S€REEN', v. t. To cover with a screen ; to shelter ; to 
conceal. Shak. 

BE-S€REENED, (be-screend') pp. Covered ; sheltered ; 

BE-f^CRfB'BLE, v. t. To scribble over. Milton. 
+ BE-SerTM'BER, v. t. To encumber. B. Jonson. 
t BE-SEE', v. i. To look ; to mind. Wickliffe. 
BE-SEECH', V. t. pret. and pp. besought. [Sax. be and 

secan.] To intreat ; to supplicate ; to implore •, to ask 

or pray with urgency. 
BE-SEECH', n. Request. 
BE-SEECH'ER, v. One who beseeches. 
BE-SEECH'ING, ppr. Entreating, 
t BE-SEEK', V. t. To beseech. Chaucer. 
BE-SEEMi, V. t. To become ; to be fit for, or worthy of; to 

be decent for. 
BE-SEEM'ING, ppr. or a. Becoming ; fit ; worthy of. 
BE-SEEM'ING, n. Comeliness. Barret. 
BE-SEEM'LY, a. Becoming ; fit ; suitable, 
t BE-SEEN', a. Adapted ; adjusted. Spenser. 
BE-SET', v. t. pret. and pp. beset. [Sax. besettan.] I. To 

surround ; to inclose ; to hem in ; to besiege. 2. To press 

on all sides, so as to perplex ; to entangle, so as to render 

escape ditlicult or impossible. 3. To waylay. 4. To fall 

BE-SET'T'^^G, ppr. Surrounding ; besieging ; waylaying. 

BE-SET'TING, a. Habitually attending, or pressmg. 

t BE-SHTNE', V. t. To shine upon. 

BE-SHRE W, V. t. 1. To wish a curse to ; to execrate. ?. 
To happen ill to. {JSTot in use.] Shak. 

fBE-SHUT', V. t. To shut up. C/iaucer. 

BE-SlDE', prep. 1. At the side of a person or thing , neai. 
2. Over and above ; distinct from. 3. On one side ; out 
of the regular course or order ; not according to, but not 
contrary. 4. Out of; in a state deviating from. 5. With 
the reciprocal pronoun, beside one^s self is out of the wits 
or senses. 

BE-SIDE', or BE-SlDES', adv. Moreover ; more than that ; 
over and above ; distinct from ; not included in the num- 
ber, or in what has been mentioned. 

BE-SlD'ER-Y, 7i. A species of pear. Johnson. 

BE-SlDES', prep. Over and above; separate or distinct 

BE-SIeGE', V. f. [be and siege ;Fi-. siege.] 1. To lay siege 
to ; to beleaguer ; to beset, or surround with armed forces, 
for the purpose of compelling to surrender, either by fam 
ine or by violent attacks. 2. To beset ; to throng round 

BE-SIeG'ED, (be-seejd') pp. Surrounded or beset with hos- 
tile ti'oops. 

BE-SIeG'£R, n. One who lays siege, or is employed in a 

BE-S1eG'ING, ^;>r. Laying siege; surrounding with armed 

BESIeG'ING, a. Surrounding in a hostile manner ; em« 
ployed in a siege. 

fBE-SIT', ?;. t. To suit; to become. Spenser. 

t BE-SLaVE', «. i. To subjugate ; to enslave. 

f BE-SLiME', V. t. To daub with slime; to soil. 

BE-SLUBBER, V. t. To soil or smear with spittle, or any 
thingjunning from the mouth or nose. [ Vulgar.] 

BE-SMeAR', v. t. To bedaub ; to overspread witli any 
viscous, glutinous matter, or with any soft substance that 
adheres. Hence, to foul ; to soil. 

BE-SMeAR'ED, (be-smeerd') pp. Bedaubed ; overspread 
with any thing soft, viscous, or adhesive ; soiled. 

BE-SMeAR'ER, n. One that besmears. 

BE-SMeAR'ING, ppr. Bedaubing ; soiling. 

BE-SMiRCH', V. t. To soil ; to foul ; to discolor. Shak. [Lit- 
tle used.] 

BE-SM6KE', V. t. To foul with smoke ; to harden or dry in 
smoke. [Little used.] 

BE-SMoK'ED, (be-smokf) pp. Fouled or soiled with 
smoke ; dried in smoke. 

BE-SMUT', V. t. To blacken with smut ; to foul with soot 

BE-SMUT'TED, pp. Blackened with smut or soot. 

BE-SNoW, V. t. To scatter like snow. [Little used.] 

BE-SNoW'ED, (be-snode') a. or pp. Covered or sprinkled 
with snow, or with white blossoms. Hanbury. 

BE-SNUFF', V. t. To befoul with snuff. 

BE-SNUF'-FED, (be-snuff) pp. Foul with snuff. Young. 

Be'SOM, n. [Sax. besm.] A broom ; a brush of twigs for 

Besom, v. t. To sweep, as with a besom. Barlow. 

BE-SORT', V. t. To suit ; to fit ; to become. Shak. 

jBE-SORT', «. Company; attendance; train. Shak. 

BE-SOT', V. t. 1. To make sottish ; to infatuate ; tostupify , 
to make dull or senseless 2. To make to dote. 

BE-SOT'TED, pp. Made sottish or stupid.— Besotted on, in- 
fatuated with foolish affection. 

BE-SOT'TED-LY, adi). In a foolish manner. 

BE-SOT'TED-NESS, n. Stupidity ; arraut folly ; infatua- 

BE-SOT'TING, ppr. Infatuating ; making sottish or foolish. 

BE-SOUGHT', (besawf) pp. of beseech. Entreated ; im- 
plored ; sought by entreaty. 

BE-SPAN'GLE, v. t. To adorn with spangles; to dot or 
sprinkle with something brilliant. 

BE-SPAN'GLED, pp. Adorned with spangles or something 

BE-SPAN'GLING, ppr. Adorning with spangles or glitter- 
ing objects. 

BE-SPAT'TER, v. t. 1. To soil by spattering ; to sprinkle 
with water, or with dirt and water. 2. To asperse with 
calumny or reproach. Swift. 

BE-SPAT'TERED, pp. Spattered over ; soiled with dirt and 
water ; aspersed ; calumniated. 

BE-SPAT'TER-ING, ppr. Spattering with water; soiling 
with dirt and water ; aspersing. 

BE-SPAWL', V. t. To soil or make foul with spittle. Mil- 

BE-SPeAK', V. t. pret. bespoke ; pp. bespoke, bespoken. 1. 
To speak for beforehand ; to order or engage against a fu- 
ture time. 2. To forebode ; to foretell. 3. To speak to ; 
to address. This sense is mostly poetical. 4 To beto- 
ken ; to show ; to indicate by external marks or appear- 

BE-SPeAK'ER, 71. One who bespeaks. 

* See Synopsis. A, E, T, O, tj, Y, long.—FAR, F^LL, WH^T j— PREY ;— PIN, MARiNE, BiRD ; 




BE-SPeAK'TNG, ppr. Speaking for or ordering beforehand ; 
foreboding ; addressing ; showing •, indicating. 

BFi-SPEAK'[NG, n. A previous speaking or discourse, by 
way of apology, or to engage favor. 

BE-SPE€'KLE, v. t. To mark with speckles or spots. 

BE-SPlCE', V. t. To season with spices. Shak. 

\ BE-SPiRT', or f BE-SPURT', v. t. To spurt out, or over ; 
to throw out in a stream or streams. 

BE-SPIT', V. t. pret. bespit ; pp. bespit, bespitten. To daub 
or soil with spittle. 

BE-SPoKE', pret. and pp. of bespeak. 

BE-SPOT', V. t. To mark with spots. Mortimer. 

BE-SPOT'TED, pp. Marked with spots. 

BE-SPOT'TING, ppr. Marking with spots. 

BE-SPREAD', (be-spred') v. t. pret. and pp. bespread. To 
spread over •, to cover over. 

fBE-SPRENT', part. Ber;prinlded. 

BE-SPRIN'KLE, v. t. To sprinkle over ; to scatter over ; 
as, to besprinkle with dust. 

BE-SPRIN'KLED, pp. Sprinkled over. 

BE-SPRIN KLER, n. One that sprinkles over. 

BE-SPRIN'KLING, ppr. Sprinkling over. 

t BE-SPUT TER, v. t. To sputter over. 

BEST, a. superlative. [Sax. 6est.] Lit eralhj, most advanced. 
Hence, 1. Most good ; having good qualities in the high- 
est degree. 2. Most advanced ; most accurate ; as, the 
best scholar. 3. Most correct or complete. 4. The best. 
This phrase is elliptical, and may be variously interpret- 
ed ; as, the utmost power ; the strongest endeavor ; the 
most, the highest perfection ; as, let a man do his best. 
5. At best, in the best manner ; in the utmost degree or 
extent. — To make the best of, to carry to its greatest per- 

BEST, adv. 1. In the highest degree ; beyond all others ; as, 
to love one best. 2. To the most advantage ; with the 
most ease. 3, With most profit or success. 4. Most inti- 
mately or particularly ; most correctly. 

BEST-TEM'PERED, a. Having the most kind or mild tem- 

BE-STAIN', V. t. To mark with stains ; to discolor, either 
the whole surface of a thing, or in spots. 

BE-STEAD', (be-sted') v. t. pret. and pp. bested. 1. To 
profit. Milton. 2. To accommodate. 3. To dispose. 

* BES'TIAL, a. 1. Belonging to a beast, or to the class of 
beasts. 2. Having the qualities of a beast •, brutal ; below 
the dignitv of reason or humanity ; carnal. 

BES-TIAL i-TY, n. 1. The quality of beasts. 2. Unnatural 
connection with a beast. 

BES'TIAL-rZE, v. t. To make like a beast. 

BES TIAL-LY, adv. Brutally ; in a manner below hu- 

t BES'TIATE, V. t. To make like a beast 5 to bestialize. 

BE-STICK', v. t. pret. and pp. bestuck. To stick over, as 
with sharp points. 

BE-STiR', V. t. To put into brisk or vigorous action ; to 
move with life and vigor. 

BE-STiR'RED, (be-sturd') pp. Roused Into vigorous action ; 
quickened in action. 

BE-STiR'RING, ppr. Moving briskly ; putting into vigor- 
ous action. 

t BEST'NESS, n. The state of being best. Morton. 

t BE-STORM', V. i. To storm 5 to rage. Yoiing. 

BE-SToW, V. t. 1. To give ; to confer ; to impart. 2. To 
give in marriage ; to dispose of. 3. To apply ; to place 
for the purpose of exertion, or use. 4. To lay out, or dis- 
pose of 5 to give in payment for. 5. To lay up in store ; 
to deposit for safe-keeping ; to stow ; to place. 

BE-SToWAL, 71. A conferring ; disposal. [Little used.] 

BE-SToW'ED, (be-stode') pp. Given gratuitously ; confer- 
red ; laid out ; applied ; deposited for safe-keeping. 

BE-SToW'ER, 71. One who bestows ; a giver ; a dis- 

BE-SToW'ING, ppr. Conferring gratuitously ; laying out ; 
applying ; deoositing in store. 

RE-SToW'MENT, n. 1, The act of giving gratuitously ; a 
conferring. Edwards. 2. That which is conferred, or 
piven ; donation. Thodey. 

BE-STRAD'DLE, v. t. To bestride. 

fBE-STR AUGHT', a. Distracted ; mad Shak. 

* BE-STREW, V. t. pret. bestrewed ; pp. bestrewed, be- 
strown. To scatter over ; to besprinkle : to strow. 

BE-STREW'ED, pp. of bestrew. 

BE-STRlDE', V. t. pret. bestrid ; pp. bestrid, bestridden. 1. 

To stride over ; to stand or sit with any thing b'-tween 

the legs, or with the legs extended across. 2. To step 

BE-STRID'TNG, jypr. Extending the legs over any thing, so 

as to include it between them. 
BE-STRoWN', pp. of bestrew. Sprinkled over. 
BE-STUCK', pp. ofbestick. Pierced in various places with 

sharp points. 
BE-STUD', V. t. To set with studs ; to adorn with bosses. 
BE-STUD'DED,^;;. Adorned with studs. 

BE-STUD'DING, ppr. Setting with studs ; adorning as 
with bosses. 

BE-SURE', adv. Certainly. Lothrop. \A vulgarism.'] 

t BE-SWIKE', (be-swik') V. t. [Sax. ieswican.] To allure 

BET, n. [Sax. bad.] A wager ; that which is laid, staked 
or pledged in a contest. 

BET, V. t. To lay a bet ; to lay a wager. 

BET, the old participle of beat, is obsolete or vulgar. 

BE-TaKE', v.t. pret. betook j pp. betaken. [Sax. betcecan.] 
1. To take to ; to have recourse to j to apply ; to resort ; 
with the reciprocal pronoun. 2. Formerly, to take or 
seize. [Obs.] Spenser. 

BE-TaK'EN, part, of betake. 

BE-TAK'lNG,ppr. Having recourse to ; applying ; resorting 

tBE-TAUGHT', jpre^ of betake. Chancer. 

t BE-TEEM', V. t. To bring forth ; to produce : to shed ; to 
bestow Shak. 

Be'TEL, or Be'TLE, n. A species of pepper, the leaves of 
which are chewed by the inhabitants of the East Indies. 

BE-THINK', v. t. pret. and pp. bethought. To call to mind 5 
to recall or bring to recollection, reflection, or considera- 
tion . 

BE-THINK', V. i. To have in recollection ;' to consider. 

BETH'LE-HEM, n. [Heb. the house of food or bread.] 1. A 
town in Judea, about six miles south-east of Jerusalem, 
famous for its being the place of Clirist's nativity. 2. A 
hospital for lunatics ; corrupted into bedlam. 

BETH'LEM-lTE, n. 1. An inhabitant of Bethlehem ; a lu- 
natic— 2. In church history, the Bethlemites were a sort 
of monks. 

BE-THOUGHT', (be-thawf) pret. and pp. of bethink. 

BE-THRALL', v. t. To enslave ; to reduce to bondage ; t© 
bring iiito subjection. [Little used.] 

BE-THUMP', V. t. To beat soundly. [Little used.] 

BE-TlDE', V. t. pret. betid, or betided ; pp. betid, [be and 
tide J Sax. tidan.] To happen •, to befall ; to come to. 

BE-TlDE', V. i. To come to pass ; to happen. 

BE-TjME', ) adv. [be and time, that is, by the time.] 1. 

BE-TiMES', \ Seasonably ; in good season or time ; be- 
fore it is late^ 2. Soon ; in a short time. 

BE'TLE, or Be'TRE, n. A plant, called water-pepper. See 

BE-To'KEN, ^be-to'kn) v. t. [Sax. betcecan.] 1. To signify 
by some visible object ; to show by signs. 2. To foreshow 
by pjesent signs. 

BE-To'KENED, 2?;7. Foreshown ; previously indicated. 

BE-To'KEN-ING , ppr. Indicating by previous signs. 

BET'O-NY, 71. [li. betonica.] A genus of plants, of several 

BE-TOOK', pret. of betake. 

BE-t6rN', a. Torn in pieces. 

BE-TOSS', V. t. To toss ; to agitate ; to disturb ; to put in 
violent motion. Shak. 

f BE-TRAP', v. t. To entrap ; to ensnare. Occleve. 

JbE-TRaY', v. t. [Betray seems to be a compound of 6e and 
dragan, to draw.] 1. To deliver into the hands of an en- 
emy by treachery or fraud. 2. To violate by fraud or 
unfaithfulne'^s. 3. To violate confidence by disclosing a 
secret. 4. To disclose, or permit to appear, what is in- 
tended to be kept secret, or what prudence would con- 
ceal. 5. To mislead or expose to inconvenience net fore- 
seen. G. To show ; to discover ; to indicate what is not 
obvious at first view, or would otherwise be concealed. 
7. To fail, or deceive. 

BE-TRaY'ED, (be-trade') pp. Delivered up in breach of 
trust; violated by unfaithfulness ; exposed by breach of 
confidence ; disclosed contrary to expectation or inten- 
tion ; made knovi^n ; discovered. 

BE-TRaY'ER, n. One who betrays ; a traitor. 

BE-TRaY'ING, ppr. Delivering up treacherously ; violat- 
ing confidence ; disclosing contrary to iritention ; expos- 
ing ; discovering. 

BE-TRIM', v. t. To deck ; to dress ; to adorn ; to grace ; to 
embellish ; to beautify ; to decorate. 

BE-TRIM'MED, (be-trimd ) pp. Adorned ; decorated. 

BE-TRIM'MING, ppr. Decking; adorning; embellishing. 

BE-TROTH', v.t. 1. To contract to any one, in order to a 
future marriage ; to promise or pledge one to be the future 
spouse of another ; to affiance. 2. To contract with one 
for a future spouse ; to espouse. 3. To nominate to a bislj- 
opric, in order to consecration. 

BE-TROTH'ED, (be-trothf) pp. Contracted for future mar- 

BE-TROTH'ING, ppr. Contracting to any one, in order to a 
future marriage, as the father or guardian ; contracting 
with one for a future wife, as the intended husband ; 

BE-TIIOTH'MENT, n. A mutual promise or contract be- 
tween two parties, for a future marriage between the per 
sons betrothed ; espousals. 

BE-TRUST', v. t. To intrust ; to commit to another in con 
fidence of fidelity ; to confide. 

BE-TRUST'EDjPjP. Intrusted; confided ; committed in trust . 

■■ Sfif Synovsis M<^VE, BOOK, DoVE ;— BULL, UNITE ~€ as K ; (^ d« J : f« as Z ; CH as SH ; THas in this t Obsolete 




BE-TRUST'INGjppr. Intrusting • committing in trust. 

BE-TRUST'MENT, n. The act of intmsting •, the thing in- 

BET'SO, 71. The smallest Venetian coin. Mason. 

fBETT, adv. [Sax. bet.] Tlie old English word for better. 

BET'TER, a. comp. [Sax. het, more, better ; beterc, betera, 
better.] 1. Having good qualities in a greater degree 
than another : applied to physical, acquired or moral 
qualities. 2. More advantageous. 3. More acceptable. 
4. More safe. 5. Improved in health ; less affected with 
disease. — 6. To be better off, to be in a better condition. — 
7. To have the better, is to have tlie advantage or superi- 
ority. — 8. To get or gain the better, is to obtoin the ad- 
vantage, superiority or victory. — 9. For the better, is for 
the advantage or irsiprovement. 

BET'TER, adv. 1. In a more excellent manner •, with more 
skill and wisdom, virtue, advantage or success. 2. More 
correctly, or fully. 3. With superior excellence. 4. Vv^ith 
more affection ; in a higher degree. 

BET'TER, V. t. [Sax. beterian, betrian.] I. To improve ; 
to meliorate ; to increase the good qualities of. 2. To 
surpass ; to exceed. 3. To advance ; to support ; to give 
advantage to. 

BETTER, n. A superior ; one who has a claim to prece- 
dence on account of his rank, age, or office. 

BETTERED, pp. Improved ; meliorated ; made better. 

BET'TER-ING, ppr. Making better ; improving. 

BET'TER-ING-HOUSE, n. A house for the reformation of 

BET'TER-MENT, n. Improvement. TV. Montague. 

BET'TER-NESS, n. Superiority. Tooker. 

BET'TING, n. Proposing a wager. Sherwood. 

BET'TOR, n. One who bets or lays a wager. 

BET'TY, n. An instrument to break open doors. 

BE-TUM BLED, a. Rolled about ; tumbled ; disordered. 

BE-TWAT'TLED, a. Confounded ; overpowered ; stupe- 

BE-TWEEN', prep. [Sax. betweonan, beticynan.] 1. In the 
intermediate space, without regard to distance. 2. From 
one to another ; passing from one to another, noting ex- 
change of actions or intercourse. 3. Belonging to two or 
more, in common or partnership. 4. Having mutual re- 
lation to two or more. 5. Noting difference, or discrimina- 
tion of one from another. 

BE-TWIXT', prep. [Sax. betwyx, betwyxt.} 1. Between •, 
in the space that separates two persons or things. 2. 
Passing between ; from one to another, noting inter- 

BEVEL, n. [Fr. Miveau.'] 1. Among masons, carpenters, 
joiners. Sec, an instrument, or kind of square, one leg of 
which is frequently crooked, according to the sweep of an 
arcli or vault. It is movable on a point or centre, and so 
may be set to any angle. An angle that is not square 
is called a bevel angle, whether obtuse or acute. 2. A 
curve, or inclination of a surface from a right line. 

BEV'EL, a. Crooked ; awry ; oblique. Bailey. 

BEVEL, V. t. To cut to a bevel angle. Mozon. 

BEVEL, v.i. To curve ; to incline towards a point, or from 
a direct line. 

BEVELED, pp. Formed to a bevel angle. Kirioan. 

BEVEL-ING, ppr. Forming to a bevel angle. 

BEVEL-ING, a. Curving ; bending from a right line. 

BEVEL-ING, n. 1. A hewing of timber with a proper and 
regular curve, according to a mold laid on one side of its 
surface. 2. The curve or bevel of timber. 

BEVEL-MENT, n. In mineralop-y, bevelment supposes the 
removal of two contiguous segments from the edges, an- 
gles or terminal faces of the predominant form, thereby 
producing two new faces, inclined to each other at a cer- 
tain angle, and forming an edge. Cleaveland. 

Be'VER. See Beaver. 

fBEVER, 71. [It. bevere.] A small repast between meals. 

JBEVER, V. i. To take a small repast between meals. 

BEVER-A6E, n. [It. beveraggio.] 1. Drink ; liquor for 
drinking. It is generally used of a mixed liquor. 2. A 
treat on wearing a new suit of clothes ; a treat on first 
coming into prison •, a garnish.— 3. In England, water- 
cider, a mixture of cider and water. 

BEVILE, 71. In heraldry, a thing broken or opening, like a 
carpenter's bevel. 

BEVY, 71. A flock of birds ; hence, a company ; an assem- 
bly or collection of persons ; usually applied to females. 

BE-WaIL , V. t. To bemoan ■, to lament ; to express sorrow 

BE-WaIL', V. i. To express grief. Shak. 

BE-WaIL'A-BLE, a. That may be lamented. 

BE-WaILED, (be-wald') pp. Lamented; bemoaned. 

BE-WaIL ER, n. One who laments or bewails. Ward. 

BE-WaILING, ppr. Lamenting; bemoaning; expressing 
grief for. 

BE-WaILTNG, 7?. Lamentation. Raleigh. 

t BE-WaKE', V. t. To keep awake. Ooioer. 

BE-WaRE', v.i. [Sax. beicerian, beujuriav, gemarian.] Lit- 

erally, to restrain or guard one's self from. Hence, to re- 
gard with caution ; to avoid ; to take care. 

BE-WEEP', V. t. To weep over ; to bedew with tears. Shah. 
{Little used.'] 

BE- WEEP', V. i. To make lamentation. [Little used,] 

BE- WEPT', pp. Wept over ; bedewed with tears. ILittle 

t BE-WET', v. t. To wet ; to moisten. 

BE-WHoRE', v. t. To corrupt with regard to chastity. 
Beaiuii. and Fletcher. To pronounce a whore. Shak. 

BE-WIL'DER, v.t. [Dan.forvilder, vilder ; D. verwilderen.] 
To lead into perplexity or confusion ; to lose in pathless 
places ; to perplex with mazes. 

BE-WIL'DERED, pp. Lost in mazes ; perplexed with dis- 
order, confusion, or intricacy. 

BE-WIL'DER-ING, ppr. Losing in a pathless place ; per- 
plexing with confusion or intricacy. 

t BE-WIN'TER, v. t. To make like winter. 

BE-WITCH', v. t. 1. To fascinate ; to gain an ascendancy 
over by charms or incantation. 2. To charm ; to fasci- 
nate ; to please to such a degree as to take away the pow- 
er of resistance. 3. To deceive and mislead by juggling 
tricks or imposture. 

BE-W[TCH'ED, (be-wichf) pp. Fascinated; charmed. 

BE-W^ITCH'ED-NESS, n. State of being bewitciied. Bp 

BE-WITCH'ER, n. One that bewitches or fascinates. 

BE-WITCH'ER-Y, n. Fascination ; charm ; resistless pow 
er of any thing that pleases. 

BE-W^ITCH'FUL, a. Alluring ; fascinating. 

BE-WITCH'ING, ppr. Fascinating ; charming. 

BE-WITCH'ING, a. That has power to bewitch or las 
cinate ; that has power to control by the arts of pleasing 

BE-WITCH'ING-LY, adv. In a fascinating manner. 

BE-WITCH'MENT, 7!. Fascination ; power of charming 

t BE-W6N'DERED, a. Amazed. Fairfax. 

BE-WRAP', (be-rap') v. t. To wrap up. 

BE-WRaY', (be-ra') v. t. [Sax. wrecan, to tell ; awreon 
onwreon, to reveal.] To disclose perfidiously ; to betray 
to show or make visible. [T?iis word is nearly anti- 

BE-WRaY'ED, (be-rade') pp. Disclosed ; indicated ; be 
trayed ; exposed to view. 

BE-WRaY'ER, n. A divulger of secrets ; a discoverer. 

BE-WR A r'ING, ppr. Disclosing; making known or visi 

t BE- WRECK', (be-rek') v.t. To ruin ; to destroy. 

t BE-WROUGHT', (be-rawf) a. Worked. Ben Jonson. 

BEY, (ba) 71. In the Turkish dnminions, a governor of a. 
town or particular district of country ; also, in some 
places, a prince ; the same as the Arabic beg. See Beg. 

BE-YOND', prep. [Sax. begeond, begeovdan.] I. On the 
further side of; on the side most distant, at any indefinite 
distance from that side. 2. Before ; at a place not yet 
reached. Pope. 3. Past; out of reach of; further than 
any given limit. 4. Above ; in a degree exceeding or 
surpassing ; proceeding to a greater degree. — To go be- 
yond is a phrase which expresses an excess in some action 
or scheme ; to exceed in ingenuity, in research, or in any 
thing else ; hence, in a bad sense, to deceive or circum- 

BE-YOND', adv. At a distance ; yonder. Spenser. 

BEZ'AN, 71. A cotton cloth from Bengal, white or striped 

BE-ZANT', 7i. A gold coin of Byzantium. See Btzant 

BE-ZANT'LER, 7?. [from an^Zer.] The branch of a deer's 
horn, next above the brow antler. 

BEZ'EL, 7?,. [Sw. betzel, a rein.] The upper part of the coJ- 
let of a ring, which encompasses and fastens the stone. 

BE'ZoAR, 7(. [Pers.] T. An antidote ; a general name for 
certain animal substances supposed to be efiicacious in 
preventing the fatal effects of poison. Bezoar is a calca- 
rious concretion found in the stomach of certain ruminan 
animals. — 2. In a mare general sense, Rny substance form- 
ed, stratum upon stratum, in the stomach or intestines of 
animals. — Fossil-bezoar is a figured stone, formed, like the 
animal bezoar, with several coats round some extraneous 
body, which serves as a nucleus ; found chiefly in Sicily, 
in sand and clay pits. — Bezoar-mineral. An oxyd of anti- 

BEZ-0-aR'D1C, a. Pertaining to or compounded of bezoar 

BEZ-O-AR'DIC, n. A medicine compounded with bezoar. 

BEZ-0-AR'TI-CAL, a. Having the qualities of an antidote 

BEZ'O-LA, 7^. A fish of the truttaceous kind. 

t BEZ'ZLE, V. t. To waste in riot. 

BHU-CHAMP'AC, n. A beautiful plant of India 

BI'A, n. In commerce, a small shell called a coivri', much 
valued in the East Indies. 

BT-AN'GU-LATE, ^ a. [L. bis and angulus.] Having 

Bl-AN'GU-LA-TED, > two angles or corners. [Little 

Bl-AN'GU-LOUS, > iised.] - 

BI-ARM'I-AN, a. Noting a race of Finns in Perme 

Bl'AS, 71. [Arm. bihays, or vies ; Fr. biais.] 1. A weight on 
the side of a bowl, which turns it from a straight line. 
9. A leaning of the mind ; inclination ; prepossession ; 

* See Synop^s. A, E, T, O, tJ, Y, long.— FAR, FALL, WHAT ;— PREY ;— FiN, P.IARiNE, BiRD ; 

t Obsolete 




propensity towards an object. 3. That which causes the 
mind to lean or incline from a state of indifference to a 
particular object or course. 
Bl AS, V. t To incline to one side ; to warp ; to give a par- 
ticular direction to the mind •, to prejudice ; to prepos- 

tBi'AS-DRAW-ING, 71. Partiality. Shak. 

Bl'ASED, pp. Inclined from a right line ; warped ; preju- 

Bi'AS-ING, ppr. Giving a bias, particular direction, or pro- 
pensity ; warping ; prejudicing. 

t BI' AS-NESS, n. Inclination to some side 

BIB, n. 1. A small piece of linen, or other cloth, worn by 
children over the breast. 2. A fish about a foot in length, 
the back of a light olive, the sides yellow, and the belly 

BIB, V. i [L. bibo.] To sip ; to tipple ; to drink frequently. 
JLittle used.] Locke. 

Bi-Ba€IOUS, a. [L. bibax.] Addicted to drinking ; dis- 
posed to imbibe. 

t Bi-BAC'I-TY, 71. The quality of drinking much. 

BIBBER, 11. A tippler ; a man given to drinking ; chiefly 
used in composition ; as, winebibber. 

BIB BLE-BAB'BLE, n. Idle talk ; prating to no purpose. 
Shak. [A low word, and not used ] 

BIB'T-O, n. A name of the wine fly, a small insect. 

BIBLE, n. [Gr. ^i(3\iov, j3i(3Xog, a book.] THE BOOK, by 
way of eminence ; the sacred volume, in which are con- 
tained the revelations of God. 

BIB LER, 71. A tipler ; a great drinker. 

BIBLI-€AL, a. Pertaining to tlie Bible. 

BIB-LI-OG'RA-PHER, n. [Gr. /3t/3Xof and ypa(pu).] One 
who composes or compiles the history of books ; one 
skilled in literary history ; a transcriber. 

BIB-LI-0-GRAPH'I€, / a. Pertaining to the history of 

BIB-LI-0-GRAPH'I-€AL, ^ books. 

BIB-LI-OG'RA-PHY, n. A history or description of books ; 
the perusal of books, and manuscripts, with notices of the 
different editions, the times when they were printed, and 
other infoiTOation tending to illustrate the history of liter- 

BIB'LI-0-LITE, n. [Gr. ^i^Xiov and \tdos.] Bookstone. 

BIB-LI-OM'AN-CY, n. [Gr. ^i^Xos and ixavreta.] A kind 
of divination, performed by means of the Bible, consist- 
ing in selecting passages of Scripture at hazard, and 
drawing from them indications concerning things future. 

BIB-LI-o-Ma'NI-A, n. [Gr. (3i0\iov and ixavia.] Book-mad- 
ness ; a rage for possessing rare and curious books. 

BIB-LI-0-Ma'NI-A€, n. One who has a rage for books. 

BIB-LI-OP'0-L_S'x'. 7i. [Gr. j3i(i\iov and ttwXew.] A book- 

BIB-LI-0-THe'-€AL, a. [L. bibliotheca.] Belonging to a 

BIB-LI-0TH'E-€A-RY, n. A librarian. Hall. 

BIB-LI-0-TIlEKE', n. A library. Bale. 

BIB'LIST, n. 1. With the Romanists, one who makes the 
Scriptures the sole rule of faith. 2. One who is conver- 
sant with the Bible. 

BI-BRA€'TE-ATE, a. Doubly bracteate. Eaton. 

BIB'Q-LOUS, a. [L. bibulus.] Spungy ; that has the quahty 
of imbibing fluids or moisture. 

Bl-€AP'SU-LAR, a. [L. bis and capsida.] In botany, hav- 
ing two capsules containing seeds, to eacli flower. 

Bi-€aR'BO-NATE, n. Supercarbonate ; a carbonate con- 
taining two primes of carbonic acid. 

Bl-€AU'DA, n. A fish of the sword-fish kind. 

BICE, or BISE, n. Among painters, a blue color. 

Bl-CIP'I-TAL, ) a. [L. biceps and caput.] Having two 

Bl-CIP'I-TOUS, ^ heads, Applied to the muscles, it signi- 
fies having two heads or origins ; and any such muscle i.« 
denominated biceps. 

BieiC'ER, V. i. [W. bicra ; Scot, bicker.] 1. To skirrr<ish ; 
to fight off and on. [But in this sense rarely u-':<:d.] 2. 
To quarrel ; to contend in words ; to scold ; to contend in 
petuiant altercation. 3. To move quickly •. co quiver; to 
be tremulous, like flame or water. Milton 

BI€K'ER-ER, n. One who bickers, or engages m a petty 

BI€K'ER-ING, ppr. Q,uaneling : contending : quivering. 

t BI€K'ER-MENT, 71. Contention. Spenser. 

BICK'ERN, n. An iron ending in a beak or point. 

Bl'CORN, 71. [L. bicornis.] A plant whose anthers have 
the appearance of two horns. 

Bl'CORN, \ -a ■ . ^ 

BI-€ORN'OUS \ °" J^^"^^iig two horns. Browne. 
Bl-€OR'PO-RAL, a. [L. bicorpor.] Having two bodies. 

BID, V. t. pret. bid, or bade ; pp. Ud, bidden. |Sax. biddan.] 
1. To ask ; to request ; to invite. 2. To command ; to 
order, or direct. 3. To offer ; to propose. 4. To pro- 
claim ; to make known by a public voice. [Ois.] Shak. 
5. To pronounce or declare. 6. To denounce, or threaten. 
7. To wish, or pray.— 7*0 bid beads, is to pray with beads, 

as the Catholics. — To bid fair, is to open or offer a good 
prospect ; to appear fair. 

BID, or BID'DEN, pp. of bid. Invited ; offered ; com- 

BID, 71. An offer of a price ; a Tjoord much used at auctions. 

BID'ALE, n. In Eiigland, an invitation of friends to drink 
ale at some poor man's house, and there to contribute in 

BID'DER, 71. One who offers a price. Burke. 

BID'DING, ppr. Inviting ; offering ; commanding. 

BID'DING, 71. Invitation ; command ; order ; a proclama- 
tion or notifying. Shak. 

BIDE, t;.i. [Sd^x. bidan.] 1. To dwell ; to mhabit. 2. To 
remain ; to continue, or be permanent, in a place or state 
[JVearly antiqiiated.] Shak. 

BIDE, V. t. To endure ; to suffer. Shak. 

BI'DENS, 71. A plant, bur marigold. Muhlenberg. 

Bl-DENT'AL, a. [Ju. bidens.] Having two teeth. 

BI-DET', 7t. [Fr.] A small horse. 

BiD'ING, ppr. Dwelling ; continuing ; remaining 

BiD'ING, 71, Residence ; habitation. Rowe. 

BID'ON, 77. A measure of liquids. 

Bl-EN'IN'I-AL, c. [lu. biennis.] 1. Continuing for two years ; 
or happening, or'" taking place, once in two years. 2. In 
botany, continuing for two years, and then perishing. 

BI-EN'NI-AL-LY, adv. Once in two years ; at the return 
of two years. 

BIeR, 7(. [Sax. beer.] A carriage or frame of wood for con- 
veying dead human bodies to the grave. 

BIeR'-BALK, 7i. Tlie church road for burials. [JVot used 
inAjnerica.] Homilies. 

BIeST'IJSGS, 71. plu. [Sax. bijst, or bijsting ; Ger, biest- 
milch.] The first mUk given by a cow after calving. 

Bi-Fa-RI-OUS, a. [L. bifarius.] Two-fold. In botany, 
pointing two ways. 

BT-Fa'RI-OUS-LY, adv. In a bifarious manner. 

BIF'ER-OUS, a. [L. Infer, biferus.] Bearing fruit twice a 

Bl'FID, I a. [L. bifidus, Mfidatus.] In botany, two- 

BIF'I-DATE, \ cleft ; divided ; opening with a cleft. 

BIF'LO-ROUS, fl. [h.bisajiAfloreo.] Bearing two flowers. 
Marty n. 

Bl'FoLD, a. [L. 6is, and /oZtZ.] Two fold 5 double; of two 
kinds, degrees, &c. 

Bl'FORM, a. [L. biformis.] Having two forms, bodies, or 

Bl'FORMED, a. Compounded of two forms. 

Bl-FORM'I-TY, n. A double form. More. 

Bl'FUR-€ATE, )a. \Ia. bifurcus.] Forked; divided into 

BT'FUR-€A-TED, \ two branches. 

Bi-FUR-€a'TION, 71. A forking, or division into two 

Bl-FUR'€OUS, a. Two-forked. Coles. 

BIG, a. 1. Bulky ; protuberant ; pregnant. 2. Great ; 
large. 3. Full ; fraught, and about to have vent, or be 
brought forth. 4. Distended ; full, as with grief or pas- 
sion. Shak. 5. Swelled ; tumid ; inflated, as with pride ; 
hence, haughty in air or mien, or indicating haughtiness ; 
proud. 6. Great in spirit ; lofty ; brave. 

BIG, n. A kind of barley. 

\B\G,v.t. \&d.-x. by^gan.] To build. 

I BIG'AM, 7i. A bigamist. Bp. Peacock. 

BIG'A-MIST, 71. One who has committed bigamy, or had 
two wives at once. 

BIG'A-MY, n. [L. bis, and Gr. yanoq.] The crime of having 
two wives at once, or a plurality of wives. 

BIG'BEL-LIED, a. Having a great belly ; advanced in 

BIG-BoN'ED, a. Having large bones. Herbert. 

BIG'eORNED, a. Having large grains. Dryden. 

BT-OEM'I-NATE, a. [L. bis and geminv^.l Twin-forked. 

BIG'GEL, n. A quadruped of the East Indies. 

BIG'GEN, V. i. To recover after l5'ing in. Brockett. 

BIG'GIN, 71. [Tr.beguin.] 1. A child's cap, or something 
worn about the head. 2. A building. 0&5. [Sax. 6?/^^a7!.] 

BIGHT, (bite) n. [D. bogt.] 1. A bend, or small bay be- 
tween two points of land. 2. The double part of a rope 
when folded, in distinction from the end ; that is, a round, 
bend, or coil, any where except at the ends. 3. The in- 
ward bent of a horse's chambrel, and the bent of the fore 

BIG'LY, adv. In a tumid, swelling, blustering manner ; 

BIG'NAMED, a. Having a great or famous name. 

BIG'NESS, 7i. Bulk ; size ; largeness ; dimensions. 

BIG'OT, 71. [Fr. bigot.] 1. A person who is obstinately and 
unreasonably wedded to a particular religious creed, opin- 
ion, practice, or ritual. 2. A Venetian liquid measure. 

BIG'OT, I a. Obstinately and blindly attached to some 

BIG'OT-ED, ( creed, opinion, practice, or ritual, 

BIG'OT-ED-LY, adv. In the manner of a bigot ; pertina- 

BIG'OT-RY, n. 1. Obstinate or blind attachment to a 

* See Synopsis. M5VE, BOQK, DOVE ;— BULL, UNITE — C as K ; G as J ; S as Z ; CH as SH • TH as in this, f ObsoleU 




particular creed ; unreasonable zeal or waimth in favor of 
a party, sect, or opinion ; excessive prejudice. 2. The 
]iractice or tenet of a bigot. Pupe. 

-BTG'SOUND-ING, a. Having a pompous sound. 

BlG'SWoLN, a. Swelled to a large size ; turgid ; greatly 
swelled •, ready to burst, 

JBIG'-[JD-DERED, a. Having large udders, or udders 
swelled with milk. Pope, 

B7-HY-DR0G U-RET, n. A double bydroguret, or with two 
atoms of hydrogen. 

Bl-Ju'GOUS, a. [L lis a.n&. jugum.'] Having two pairs of 

Bi-La'BI-ATE, a. [L. lis and lalium.'] Having two lips, as 
the corols of flowers. 

Ei-LAM EL-LATE, a. [L. bis and lamella.} Having the 
form of a flatted sphere, longitudinally bifid. 

BI'L/iND-ER, n. [D. bylandcr.] A small merchant vessel 
with two masts. It is a kind of hoy, manageable by four 
or five men and used chiefly in the canals of the Low 

Bl-LAT'ER-AL, a. [L. bis and latus.} Having two sides. 

BEL'BER-RY, n. The name of a shrub and its fruit ; a spe- 
cies o( vaccinium, or whortle-berry. 

BIL'BO, n. A rapier ; a sword ; so named, it is said, from 
Bilboa, in Spain, where the best are made. 

BIL'BoES, n. phi. On board of ships, long bars or bolts of 
iron, used to confine the feet of prisoners or offenders. 

BIL'BO-aUET, ?,. [Pr.] The toy called a cup and ball. 

BILD, V. t. ; pret. bilded, bill ; pp. bilded, bill. [G. bilden ; 
Dan. bilder.] To construct ; to erect ; to set up and finish. 
[This is tlie true orthography. See Build.] 

BILD'STEiN, n. Agalmatolite, or figure-stone. 

BILE, n. [L. bilis ; Fr. bile.'] A yellow, bitter liquor, sep- 
arated from the blood in the liver, collected in the pori 
biliarii, and gall bladder, and thence discharged by the 
common duct into the duodenum. 

BILE, 71. An inflamed tumor. [See Boil, the correct or- 

BlLE'DUCT, n. {bile, and L. ductus.] A vessel or canal to 
convey bile. Darwin. 

BILE'STONE, n. A concretion of viscid bile. 

BILGE, w. [a different orthography of &iiZg-e.] 1. The pro- 
tuberant part of a cask. 2. Tlie breadth of a ship's 

BILGE, V. i. To suffer a fracture in the bilge ; to spring a 
leak by a fracture in the bilge. 

BILGED, pp. or a. Having a fracture in the bilge. This 
participle is often used, as if the verb were transitive. 

BILGE'-FUMP, n. A burr-pump ; a pump to draw the 
bilge- water from a ship. 

B1L6E'-WA-TER, n. Water which enters a ship, and lies 
upon her bilge, or bottom. 

BIL'IA-RY", a. [1,. bills.] Belonging to the bile ; conveying 
the bile. 

BIL'INGS-GATE, n. [from a place of this name in London, 
frequented by low people, who use foul language.] Foul 
language ; ribaldry. 

Bl-LIN'GUOUS, a. [L. bis and lingua.] Having two 
tongues, or speaking two languages. 

BIL'IOUS, a. [li.bilinsus.] Pertaining to bile ; consisting or 
partakingof bile 5 caused by a redundancy, or bad state 
of the bile. 

Bl-LIT'ER-AL, a. [L. bis and litera.] Consisting of two 

BT-LlVE', adv. The same as belive. 

BILK, V. t. [Goth, bilaikan.] To frustrate or disappoint ; to 
deceive or defraud by non-fulfillment of engagement. 

BILK'ED, j>jj. Disappointed; deceived; defrauded. 

BILK'ING, ppr. Frustrating ; defrauding. 

BILL, n. [Sax. bile.] 1. The beak of a fowl. 2. An in- 
strument used by plumbers, basket-makere, and garden- 
ers, made in the form of a crescent, and fitted with a 

BILL, n. [Sax. bil.] A pick-axe, or mattock ; a battle-axe. 

BILL, ?i. [Norm. ftiZZe.] 1. In Za?fl, a declaration, in writing, 
expressing some wrong or fault.— 2. In law, and in covi- 
rnerce, in England, an obligation or security given for 
money, but without forfeiture for non-payment. 3, A 
form or draft of a law, presented to a legislature, but not 
enacted. 4. An advertisement posted. 5. Any written 
paper, containing a statement of particulars, or amount of 
goods sold. 6. A bill of exchange is an order drawn on a 
person, requesting him to pay money to some person 
assigned by the drawer. 7. A bill of entry is a written 
account of goods entered at the custom house. 8. A bill 
of Lading is a written account of goods shipped by any 
person . 9. A bill of mortality is an account of the num- 
ber of deaths in a place, in a given time. 10. Bank-hill. 
[See Baxsk.] 11. A bill ef rights is a nummary of rights 
and privileges claimed by a peopiC. 12. A bill of di- 
vorce, in the Jewish law, was a writing <riven by the hus- 
b;uul to tlie wife, by which the marriage relation was 

RILL, 0. i. To join bills, as doves ; to caress in fondness. 

BILL, v.t. To advertise oy a bill or public notice ; a cant 

word. L^Estrange. 

BlLIi'ARD, n. A bastard or imperfect capon ; also, a fish of 
the cod kind. .Ash. 

BILL^ET, n. [Fr. billet.] A small paper or note in writing, 
used for various purposes ; sometimes it is a short letter, 
addressed to some person ; sometimes a ticket directing 
soldiers at what house to lodge. 

BILL'ET, 7t. [Fi. billot.] A small stick of wood. 

BILL'ET, V. t. To direct a soldier by a ticket or note where 
to lodge ; to quarter, or place in lodgings. 

BILL E'T-D(JUX, (bil'le-doo) n. [Fr.] A love billet. 

BILLET-ING, ppr. Uuartering, as soldiers in private 

BILL'IARD, (bil'yaid) a. Pertaining to the game of billiards. 

BILL'IARDS, (bib'yardz) n. phi. [Fr. billard.] A game 
played on a rectangular table, covered with a green cloth, 
with small ivory balls, which the players aim to drive into 
hazard-nets, or pockets, at the sides and corners of the 
tables, by impelling one ball against another, with maces 
or cues. 

BILL'iON, (bil'yun) n. [L. bis, and million.] A million of 
millions ; as many millions as there are units in a million. 

BIL'LoW, n. [Dan. biilge ; Sw. bblja.] A great wave or 
surge of the sea, occasioned usually by violent wind. 

BIL'LoW, V. i. To swell ; to rise and roll in large waves, 
or surges. Prior. 

BIL'LoW-BEAT-EN, a. Tossed by billows. 

BIL'LoW-ING, jjpr. Swelled into large waves or surges. 

BIL'LoW-Y, a. Swelling, or swelled into large waves ; 
wavy ; full of billows, or surges. 

t BIL'MAN, 71. He who uses a bill. 

Bl-LOB'ED, or Bl-Lo'BATE, a. [L. bis, and Gr. \o^os.'] 
Divided into two lobes, 

Bl-LO€'U-LAR, a. [L. bis and loculus.] Divided into two 
cells, or containing two cells internally. 

BIL'VA, 71. The Hindu name of a plant. 

Bi-Ma'NOUS, a. [L. bis and 7nanus.] Having two hands 
Ma.n is bimanous. Lawrence. 

BI-Me'DI-AL, a. [L. bis and medial.] 1. In mathematics 
if tvvo medial lines, A B and B C, commensurable only in 
power, and containing a rational rectangle, are com- 
pounded, the whole line A C will be irrational, and is 
called a first bimedial line, 2. Belonging to a quantity 
arising from a particular combination of two other quanti- 

BIN, n. [Sax. binn, or binne.] A wooden box or chest, used 
as a repository of corn or other commodities, 

t BIN. The old word for be and been. 

BIN'A-€LE, 7). [Formerly, bittacle.] A wooden case, or 
box, in which the compass and lights are kept on board a 

Bl'NA-RY, a. [L. binus.] Two ; dual. — Binary number ia 
that which is composed of two units. 

Bl'NA-RY, 7?. The constitution of two. Fotherby. 

Bl'NATE, a. [L. binus.] Being double, or in couples ; grow- 
ing in pairs. 

BIND, V. t. pret, bound ; pp, bound, and obs. bounden. 
[Sax. hindan.] 1. To tie together, or confine with a cord, 
or any thing that is flexible ; to fasten, as with a band, 
fillet, or ligature. 2. To gird, inwrap, or involve ; to 
confine by a wrapper, cover, or bandage. 3. To confine, 
or restrain, as with a chain, fetters, or cord. 4. To re- 
strain in any manner. 5. To oblige by a promise, vow, 
stipulation, covenant, law, duty, or any other moral tie ; 
to engage. 6. To confirm or ratify, 7. To distress, 
trouble, or confine by infirmity. 8. To constrain by a 
powerful influence or persuasion. 9. To restrain the nat 
ural discharges of the bowels ; to make costive. 10, To 
form a border ; to fasten with a band, ribin, or any thing 
that strengthens the edges, 11. To cover with leather, or 
any thing firm ; to sew together and cover. 12. To cover 
or secure by a band. 13. To oblige to serve, by contract 
lA. To make hard or firm, — To bind to, is to contract, — 
_To bind over, is to oblige by bond to appear at a court 

Bind, v.i. 1. To contract; to grow hard or stiflf. 2. To 
grow or become costive, 3. To be obligatory. 

BIND, 71. A stalk of hops, so called from its winding round 
a pole, or tree, or being bound to it. 

BINDER, n. 1. A person who binds ; one whose occupa- 
tion is to bind books ; one who binds sheaves. 2. Any 
_thing that binds, as a fillet, or band. 

BiND'ER-Y, n. A place where books are bound, 

BlND'lNG, ppr. Fastening with a band ; confining j re- 
straining ; covering or wrapping ; obliging by a promise 
or other moral tie ; making costive ; contracting; making 
hard or stiff. 

BIND'ING, a. That obliges ; obligatory. 

BIND'ING, 7!. The act of fastening with a band, or obliging ; 
a bandage ; the cover of a book, with the sewing and ac- 
companying work ; any thing that binds ; something that 
secures the edge of cloth. 

BIND'-WEED, n. A genus of plants, called convolvulus. 

* See Synopsis. A, E, T, O. V, 1% lo7ig.—FKR, FALL, WHAT ;— PREY ;,— PIN, MARINE, BiRD;— f Obsolete 



BING, n. In alum works, a heap of alum thrown together 

in order to drain. 
BIiN'0-€LE, /I. [L. binus and oculus.] A dioptric telescope, 

fitted with two tubes joining, so as to enable a person to 

view an object with both eyes at once. 
lJl-NO€'U-LAR, a. Having two eyes ; also, having two 

apertures, or tubes. 
Bl-iXoMI-AL, a. [L. bis and nnmen.] In aZo-cJra, a root 

consisting of two members, connected by the signpZits or 

Bl-NOM'l-NOUS, a. [L. bis and nomen.] Having two 

Bl-NOT'O-NOUS, a. Consisting of two notes. 
Bl-OG'RA-PHER, n. One who writes an account or history 

of the life and actions of a particular person ; a writer of 

Bl-O-GRAPH'ie, ) a. Pertaining to biography, or the 
BI-0-GRAPHI-€AL, \ history of the life of a person ; 

containing biography. 
Bl-OG'RA-PHY, n. [Gr. (Siog and Yp(z<}ju).] The history of 

the life and character of a particular person. 
BI-0-Tl'NA, n. A Vesuvian mineral. 
BIOVA€, or BIHOVAC. See Bivouac. 
BIPA-ROUS, a. [L. bis and pario.] Bringing forth two at a 

EI-PaRT'I-BLE, or BIP'AR-TILE, a. [L. bis aiidpartio.] 

That may be divided into two parts. 
Bl-PAR'TIENT, a. [L. bis and partio, partiens.] Dividing 

into two parts. 
BIP'AR-TITE, a. {li.bis axiApartitus.] 1. Having two cor- 
respondent parts. — 2. In botany, divided into two parts to 

the base, as a leaf. 
Br-PAR-Tl''TION, 71. The act of dividing into two parts, 

or of making two correspondent parts. 
BIPED, n. [L. bipes.} An animal having two feet, as man. 
BIP'E-DAL, a. Having two feet, or the length of two feet. 
Bl-PEN'NATE, a. [L. bis and penna.] 1. Having two 

wings. — 2. In botany, having pinnate leaves. 
Bl-PET'A-LOUS, a. [L. bis, and Gr. ireraXov.] Consisting 

of two flower leaves ; having two petals. 
BI-PIX'NA-Tf-FID, I a. [1.. bis, pinna, and findo.] DouWy- 
Bl-PEX'.V A-TI-FID, \ pinnatifid ; having pinnatifid leaves 

on each side of the petiole. 
Bl-QUAD'RATE, n. [L. bis and quadratus.'] In mathemat- 
ics, tlie fourth power, arising from the multiplication of a 
_square by itself. 
BT-aUAD-RAT'I€, n. The sam.e as biguadrate. 
Bi-QUAD-RAT'I€, a. Pertaining to the biquadratic, or 

fourth power. 
Bl-Q,b IN'TILE, n. [L. bis and quintus.] An aspect of the 

planets, when they are distant from each other, by twice 

the fifth part of a great circle. 
BI-Ra'DI-ATE, fa. [L. bis and radiatus.] Haviiig two 
Bi-Ra'DI-A-TED, \ rays. 
BiRCH, n [Sax. birce.] A genus of trees, the betula, of 

which there are several species. 

BiRCH 'en ["" Made of birch; cons'sting of birch. 

BiRCH WiNE, n. Wine made of the vernal juice of 

BtRD, 71. [Sax. bird, or bridd, a chicken.] 1. Properly, a 
chicken, the young of fowls, and hence, a small fowl. 2. 
In modern use, any fowl, or flying animal. 

BiRD, V. t. To catch birds. Shak. 

Bird of paradise. A g"nus of birds, found in the Oriental 
isles, some of them remarkably beautiful. 

BtRD'BoLT, 71. An arrow for shooting birds. 

BiRD'-€A6E, 7). A box or case for keeping birds. 

BtRD'CALL, 71. A little stick, cleft at one end, in which is 
put a leaf of some plant, for imitating the cry of birds. 

BiRD'€ATCH-ER, n. One whose employment is to catch 
birds ; a fowler. 

BiRD'-CATCH-ING, n. The art of taking birds. 

BiRD'-CHER-RY, n. A tree, a species of prunus. 

BiRD'ER, 7). A bird catcher. 

BtRD'-E-YE, or BtRDS'-EYE, a. Seen from above, as if by 
a flving bird. Burke. 

BiRD'EYED, a. Of quick sight. 

BlRO'-FAN-CI-ER, n. One who delights in buds. 

BiRD'ING-PlECE, n. A fowling-piece. 

BtRD'-LIKE, a. Resembling a bird. 

BiRD'-LIME, 71. A viscous substance, used to catch birds. 

BiRD'-LIMED, a. Smeared with bird-lime ; spread to en- 
snare. Hoirell. 

BtRD'-MAN, V. A fowler, or bird-catcher. 

BiRTj'-PEP-PER, 7!. A species of Guinea-pepper. 

BlRDS'EYE, n. A genus of plants, called also pheasants- 

BIRDS? FOOT, n. A plant, the orvithopus. 

BiRDJ?'FOOT-TRE-FOTL, v. A genus of plants. 

BiKDS'NEST, 7?, 1 The nest in which a bird lays eggs, 
and hatches her young. 2. A plant.— 3. In cookery, the 
nest of a small swallow, of China and the neighboring 
countries, delicately tasted, and esteemed a luxury. 

BiRDj-WIT-TED, a. Not having the faculty of attention 

BI-ReME', u. [L. biremis.] A vessel with two banks or lien 
of oars. Jilitford. 

BiRG'AN-DER, 7i. The name of a wild goose. 

Bl-RHOM-BOIDAL, a. Having a surface composed of 
tweive rhombic faces. 

I BiRK'EN, V. t. [from birch. Sax. birce, byre] To beat 
with a birch or rod. 

BI-ROS'TRATE, ) a. [L. bis and rostrum.] Having a 

Bl-ROS'TRA-TED, \ double beak, or process resembling 
a beak. 

BIRT, ft. A fish, called also turbot. 

BiRTH, 71. [Sax. byrd, beorth.] 1. The act of coming into 
life, or of being born. Except in poetry, it b! generally ap- 
plied to human beings. 2. Lineage ; extractir.n , de- 
scent. 3. Tlie condition in which a person is bom. 4 
That which is born •, that which is produced, whether 
animal or vegetable. 5. The act of bringing forth 6. 
Origin ; beginning. 

BiRTH, BERTH, n. A station in which a ship rides. See 

BiKTH'DAY, 71. 1. The day in which any person is bom 
2. The same day of the month in which a person was 
bom, in every succeeding year. 

fBiRTH'DOM, n. Privilege of birth. Shak. 

BiRTH'LNG, 77. Anything added to raise the sides of a 

BiRTH'NIGHT, 7!. The night in which a person is bom ; 
and the annivei-sary of that night in succeeding years. 

BiRTH'PLACE, 72. The town, city, or country, where a 
person is born. 

BiRTH'RiGHT, n. Any right or privilege, to which a per- 
son is entitled by birth. 

BiRTH'-SONG, ?i. A song sung ot the birth of a person. 

BiRTH'-STRAN-GLED, a. Strangled or suffocated in being 
born. Shak. 

BiRTH'WoRT, 71. A genus of plants, aristolochia. 

BI'SA, or BI'ZA, n. A coin of Pegu, of the value of half a 
ducat ; also, a weisht. 

BIS'€0-T1N, n. [Frr] A confection, made of flour, sugar, 
marmelade, and eggs. 

BIS'eUIT, (bis'kit) n. [Fr. ; compounded of L. bis, twice, 
and cj/tt, baked.] 1. A kind of bread, formed into cakes, 
and baked hard for seamen. 2. A cake, variously made, 
for the use of private families. 3. The body o an earth- 
en vessel, in distinction from the glazing. 

BI-SECT', V. t. [L. bis and seco. ] To cut or divide into 
two parts. 

BT-SECT'ED, pp. Divided into two equal parts. 

Bl-SECT'ING, ppr. Dividing into two equal parts. 

Bl-SE€'TION, n. The act of cutting into two equal parts ; 
the division of any line or quantity into two equal parts. 

Bl-SEG'MENT, n. One of the parts of a line divided into 
two equal parts. 

Bl-SEX'OUS, a. Consisting of both sexes. Brown. 

BISH'OP, 71. [L. episcopus ; Gr. ETntrKoirog ; Sax biscop.] 1. 
An overseer ; a spiritual superintendent, mler. or director. 

2. In the privative church, a spiritual overseer ; an elder 
or presbyter ; one who had the pastoral care of a church. 

3. In the Greek, Latin, and some Protestant churches, a 
prelate, or person consecrated for the spiritual government 
and direction of a diocese. 

BISH'OP, n. A cant word for a mixture of wuie, oranges, 
and sugar. Swift. 

BISH OP, V. t. 1. To confirm ; to admit solemnly into the 
church. 2. Among horse-dealers, to use arts to make an 
old horse look like a young one. 

BISHOP-LIKE, a. Resembling a bishop; belonging to a 

BISH'OP-LY, a Belonging to a bishop. 

BISH'OP-Rl€, n. [bishop and ric] 1. A diocese ; the dis- 
trict over which the jarisdiction of a bishop extends. 2. 
The charge of iastructhig and governing in spiritual con- 
cerns , office 

BISH'OPS-V\^EED, t;. A genus of plants, with the generic 
name ammi. 

BISH'OPS-WoRT, 77. A plant. 

BISK, 7). [Fr. bi.=:qxie.] Soup or broth, made by boiling seve 
ral sorts of flesh together. 

BISK'ET, 1?. A biscuit. This orthography is adopted b^ 
many respectable writers. 

BIS'MUTH, 7). [G. 7inssmuth.] A metal of a yellowisli, o 
reddish-white color, and a lamellar texture. 

BTg'MU-THAL, a. Consistinjr of bismuth, or containing it 

BIS MU-THTC, a. Pertaining to bismuth. 

BI'SON, 71. [L.] A quadruped of the bovine genus, usually, 
but improperly, called the buffalo. 

BIS-SEX'TiLE, n. [L. hissertilis.] Leap year, every fourth 
year, in which a day is added to the month of February 
on account of the excess of 6 hours, which the civU yeai 
contains above 365 days. 

BIS-SEXTiLE, a. Pertaining to the leap year 

♦ See {iinopsis MOVE, BQOK. D6VE ;— B1JLL,UNITE.— € as K ; G as J ; S as Z ; CH as SH ; TH a8 in this + Obsolete. 




t BIS'SON, a. [Sax. lisen.] Blind. Shak. 

BIS'TER, n. [Fr. bistre.'\ Among painters, the burnt oil ex- 
tracted from tlie soot of wood ; a brown pigment. 

BISTORT, n. [L. Mstorta.] A plant, a species of polygo- 
num, or many-knotted or angled. 

BIS«TOU-RY, (bis'tu-ry) n. [Fr. Ustouri.] A surgical in- 
stiument for making incisions. 

3l-SUL€'OUS, a. [L. bisulcus.] Cloven-footed, as swine or 

Bl-SUL'PHU-RET, n. In chemistry, a sulphuret with a 
double proportion of sulphur. Silliman. 

BIT, n. [Sax. bitoL] The iron part of a bridle which is in- 
serted m the mouth of a horse, and its appendages, to 
which the reins are fastened. 

BIT, v.t. To put a bridle upon a horse ; to put the bit in 
the mouth. 

BIT, pret. and pp. of bite. Seized or wounded by the teeth. 

BIT, n. [Sax. Mta.] 1. A small piece ; a mouthful, or 
morsel ; a bite. 2. A small piece of any substance. 3, A 
small coin of the West Indies. 4. The point of an auger, 
or other borer ; the bite. — This Avord is used, like jot and 
whit, to express the smallest degree ; as, he is not a bit 
wiser or better. 

BITCH, n. [Sax. bicca, bicce, bice.] 1. The female of the 
canine kind, as of the dog, wolf, and fox. 2. A name of 
reproach for a woman. Pope. 

BITE, V. t. pret. bit ; pp. bit, bitten. [Sax. bitan.] 1. To 
break or crush with the teeth, as in eating ; to pierce with 
the teeth, as a serpent ; to seize with the teeth, as a dog. 
2. To ;>inch or pain, as with cold. 3. To reproach with 
sarcasm ; to treat with severity by words or writing. 4. 
To pierce, cut, or wound. 5. To make to smart. 6. To 
cheat ; to trick. Pope. 7. To enter the ground, and hold 
fast, as the bill and palm of an anchor. 

BITE, n. 1. The seizure of any thing by the teeth of an an- 
imal. 2. The wound made by the teeth. 3, A morsel ; 
a mouthful. 4. A cheat; a trick; a fraud. [.£ loio word.] 
J.. A sharper ; one who cheats. 

BiT'ER, n. 1. One who bites ; that which bites ; a fish 
apt to take bait. 2. One who cheats or defrauds. 

BI-TERN'ATE, a. [L. bis and ternus.] In botany, doubly 

BlT'ING, ppr. Seizing, wounding, or crushing with the 
teeth ; pinching, paining, causing to smart with cold ; re- 
proaching with severity , or treating sarcastically ; cheat- 

BlT'ING, a. Sharp ; severe ; sarcastic. 

BiT'ING-LY, adv. In a sarcastic or jeering manner. 

PIT'LESS, a. Not having a bit or bridle. Fanshaw. 

E^T'MOUTH, n. The bit, or that part of a bridle wlych is 
put in a horse's mouth. 

BIT'TA-€LE, n. The box for the compasses and lights on 
board a ship. See Binnacle. 

BTT'TEN, (bit'tn) pp. of bite. Seized or wounded by the 

BIT'Te'r, a. [Sax. biter.] 1. Sharp or biting to the taste ; 
acrid ; like wormwood. 2. Sharp ; cruel ; severe ; as, 
hitter enmity. Heb. i. 3. Sharp, as words ; reproachful ; 
sarcastic. 4. Sharp to the feeling ; pierchig ; painful ; 
that makes to smart. 5. Painful to the mind ; calami- 
tous ; poignant. 6. Afflicted ; distressed. 7. Hurtful ; 
very sinful. 8. Mournful ; distressing ; expressive of 

BIT'TER, n. A substance that is bitter. See Bitters. 

BIT'TER, n. In marine language, a turn of the cable which 
is round the bitts. 

f BIT'TER-FUL, a. Full of bitterness. 

BIT'TER-GoURD, n. A plant, a species of cucumis. 

BIT'TER-ISH, a. Somewhat bitter ; bitter in a moderate 
degree. Goldsmith. 

BIT'TER-ISH-NESS, n. The quality of being moderately 
bitter. Encyc. 

BIT'TER-LY, adv. 1. With a bitter taste. 2. In a severe 
manner ; in a manner expressing poignant grief. 3. In a 
manner severely reproachful ; sharply ; severely ; an- 

BIT'TERN, n. [D.butoor.] A fowl of the ^mHic order, the 
ard".a stellaris. It has long legs and neck, and stalks 
among reeJs and sedge, feeding upon fish. 

BIT'TERN, n. [from bitter.] In salt works, the brine re- 
maining after the salt is concreted. 

BIT'TER- NESS, n. 1. A bitter taste ; or rather a quality in 
things which excites a biting, disagreeable sensation in the 
tongue. 2. In a j^^wratitje sense, extreme enmity, grudge, 
hatred. 3. Sharpness ; severity of temper. 4. Keenness 
of reproach ; piquancy ; biting sarcasm. 5. Keen sor- 
row ; painful affliction ; vexation ; deep distress of 

BIT'TERS, n. A liquor in which bitter herbs or roots are 

BIT'TER-SALT, n. Epsom salt. 

lUT'TER-SPAR, n. Rhombspar, a mineral. 

BlT'TER-SWEET, n. A species of solanum, a slender, 
climbing plant. Encye. 

BIT'TER-VETCH, n. 1. A species of ervuvi, or lentil, cul- 
tivated for fodder. 2 A genus of plants, known by the 
generic name orobus. 

BIT'TER- VV6RT, n. The plant called gentian. 

BIT'TOUR, or BIT'TOR, n. The bittern. Dryden. 

BITTS, n. plu. A frame of two strong pieces of timber fixed 
perpendicularly in the fore part of a ship, on which to fas- 
ten the cables, wnen she rides at anchor. 

BITT, V. t. To put round the bitts ; as, to bitt the cable. 

BI-TtfME', '«. Bitumen, so written for the sake of the 
rhj'^me. May. 

BI-TuM'ED, a. Smeared with pitch. Shak. 

*BIT'U-MEN, ) ?!, [L.] This name is used to denote va- 

* BI-Tu'MEN, \ rious inflammable substances, of a strong 
smell, and of different consistencies, which are found in 

BI-Tu'MI-NATE, v. t. To impregnate with bitumen. 

BI-Tu'MI-NA-TED, a. Impregnated with bitumen. 

BI-TU-MI-N_lF'ER-OUS, a. Producing bitumen. Kirwan. 

BI-Tu'MI-NiZE, V. t. To form into, or impregnate with 
bitumen. Lit. Mag. 

BI-Tu'MI-NOUS, a. Having the qualities of bitumen ; 
compounded with bitumen ; containing bitumen. 

Bi'VALVE, n. An animal having two valves, or a shell 
consisting of two parts, which open and shut. 

ing two shells or valves which open and shut, as the oys- 
ter, and the seed cases of certain plants. 

Bl-VAULT'ED, a. [L. bis, and vault.] Having two vaults 
or arches. Barlow. 

Bl-VENT'RAL, a. [L. bis and venter.] Having two bellies. 

BIV'I-OUS, a. [L. bivius.] Having two ways, or leading 
two ways. 

BIVOUAC, (biv'wak) n. [Fr.] The guard or watch of a 
whole army, as in cases of great danger of surprise or at- 

BIVOUAC, (biv'wak) v. t. To watch, or be on guard, as a 
whole army. 

BIX'WoRT, n. A plant. 

BIZANTINE. See Byzantine. 

BLAB, tj. i. {W.llavaru.] 1. To utter or tell in a thought- 
less manner ; to publish secrets or trifles without discre- 
tion. 2. To tell or utter ; in a good sense. Shak. 

BLAB, V. i. To tattle ; to tell tales. Shak. 

BLAB, n. A babbler ; a telltale ; one who betrays secrets. 

BLAB'BER, n. A tattler ; a telltale. 

t BLAB'BER, v. i. 1. To whistle to a horse. 2. To falter ; 
to fib. 

BLAB'BER-LIPPED. See Blobber-lipped. 

BLAB'BING, ppr. Telling indiscreetly what ought to be 
concealed ; tattling. 

BLACK, a. [Sax. 6Zac, and &Z(ec.] I. Of the color of night ; 
destitute of light ; dark. 2. Darkened by clouds. 3. Sul- 
len ; having a cloudy looker countenance. 4. Atrocious- 
ly wicked •, horrible. 5. Dismal ; mournful ; calamitous. 
— Black and blue, the dark color of a bruise in the flesh, 
which is accompanied with a mixture of blue. 

BLACK, n. 1. That whicli is destitute of light or white- 
ness ; the darkest color, or rather a destitution of all color. 
2. A negro ; a person whose skin is black. 3. A black 
dress, or mourning. 

BLACK, V. t. To make black ; to blacken ; to soil. 

BLACK' ACT, n. The English statute, 9 Geo. I., which 
makes it felony to appear armed in any park or warren, 
&c., or to hunt or steal deer, &c., with the face blacked, 
or disguised^ 

BLACK' A-MoOR, n. A man by nature of a black complex- 
ion. Locke. 

BLACK '-BALL, n. A composition for blacking shoes. 

BLACK'-BALL, v. t. To reject or negative in choosing, by 
putting black balls into a ballot-box. 

BLACK'BAR, n. A plea obliguig the plaintiff to assign the 
place of trespass. 

BLACK'-BER-RIED-HeATH, n. A plant. 

BLACK'-BER-RY, n. [Sax. blacberian.] The berry of the 
briimible, or rubus. 

BLACK'-BiRD, n. A species of bird ; a singing bh-d with 
a fine note. 

BLA€K'-BOOK, n. 1. The Black-Book of the exchequer in 
England, composed in 1175. 2. Any book which treats of 
necromancy. 3. A book compiled by order of the visitors 
of monasteries, under Henry VIII., containing a detailed 
account of the enormities practised in religious houses, to 
blacken them, and to hasten their dissolution. 

BLACK'-BROWED, a. Having black eye-brows ; gloomy; 
dismal ; threatening. 

BLACK'-BRY'O-NY, n. A plant ; the tamus. 

BLACK'-CAP, w. 1. A bird, the mock-nightingale. 2. In 
cookery, an apple roasted till black. 

BLACK '-CAT-TLE, n. Cattle of the bovine genus, as bulls, 
oxen, and cows. [EnglisJi.] 

BLACK-CHALK, (black'chawk) n. A mineral of a bluish- 
black color' ; a variety of argillaceous slate. 

See Synopsis 

A, K, I, O, V, ■?, long.— FAR, FALL, WHAT ;— PR^Y ;— PlN, MARINE, BIRD ;— f Obsolete. 




l}LACK'-€OeK, n. A fowl, called also black-grous and 


BLACK'-isA-GLE, n. In Scotland, a name given to the 
falco fulcus. 

BLACK EARTH, n. Mold ; earth of a dark color. 

BLA€K'ED, (blakt) pp. Made black ; soiled. 

BLACKEN, (blak'kn) v. t. [Sax. blmcan.^ 1. To make 
black. Franklin. 2. To make dark ; to darken ; to 
cloud. 3. To soil. 4. To sully reputation ; to make in- 

BLA€K EN, v. i. To grow black, or dark. 

BLACKEN-ER, n. He that blackens. 

BLA€K'-EyED, a. Having black eyes. 

BLA€K'-FACED, a. Having a black face. 

BLA€K'-FISH, n. 1. A fish in the Orontes. 2. A fish 
caught on the rocky shores of New-England. 

BLACK '-FOR-EST, n. A forest in Germany. 

BLA€K'-FRi-AR, 71. A name given to the Dominican or- 
der, called also preaching friars. 

BLA€K'-GUARD, n. A vulgar term applied to a mean fel- 
low, who uses abusive, scurrilous language, or treats oth- 
ers with foul abuse. 

BLACK'ING, ppr. Making black, 

BLACK 'TNG, n, A substance used for blacking shoes ; any 
factitious matter for making things black. 

BLACK'ISH, a. Somewhat black ; moderately black or 

BLACK'-JACK, n, 1. A name given by miners to blend. 
2. A leathern cup of old times. 

BLACK'-LEAD, n. A mineral of a dark steel-gray color, 
called plumbago. 

BLACK'-LEGS, n. In some parts of England, a disease 
among calves and sheep. 

BLACK'LY, adv. Darkly ; atrociously. 

BLACK'-MAIL, n. 1. A certain rate anciently paid, in 
the north of England, to certain men, who we're allied to 
robbers, to be by them protected from pillage. 2. Black- 
rent, or rents paid in corn or flesh. 

BLACK'-M6N-DAY, n. Easter Monday, in 34 Ed. III., 
which was misty, obscure, and so cold that men died on 
horseback. Stowc. 

BLACK'-MoNKS. A name given to the Benedictines. 

BLACK'-MOOR, n. A negro ; a black man. 

BLACK'-MOUTHED, a. Using foul or scurrilous language. 

BLACK 'NESS, n. The quality of being black ; black color ; 
darkness •, atrociousness or enormity in wickedness. 

t BLACK'-PeO-PLED, a. Having people of a black color. 

BLACK'-PUD-DING, n. A kind of food made of blood and 

BLACK'-ROD, n. [black and rod.] . In England, the usher 
belonging to the order of the garter ; so called from the 
black rod which he carries. He is of the king's chamber, 
and usher of parliament. 

BLACK'-SEA, n. The Euxine sea. 

BLACK'-SHEEP, n. In oriental history, the ensign or 
standard of a race of Turkmans. 

BLACK'-SMITH, n. A smith who works in iron, and 
makes iron utensils ; more properly an iron-smith. 

BLACK'-TAIL, n. A fish, a kind of perch. 

BLACK'-THORN, n. A species of prunus, called also sloe. 

BLACK'-TIN, ?t. Tin ore, when dressed, stamped, and 
washed, ready for melting. 

BLACK'-VIS-AGED. a. Having a dark visage. 

BLACK'-WADD, n. An ore of manganese. 

BLACK'-WoRK, n. Iron wrought by black-smiths. 

BLAD'-AP-PLE, 71. In botany, a species of cactus. 

BLAD'DER, ??. [Sax. blaidr,' blccdra, bleddra.] 1. A thin, 
membranous bag in animals, which serves as the recepta- 
cle of some secreted fluid, as the urinary bladder, the gall 
bladder, &c. By way of erninence, the word, in common 
language, denotes the urinary bladder. 2. Any vesicle, 
blister, or pustule, especially if filled with air, or a thin, 
watery liquor. 3. In 6o£an?/, a distended, membranaceous 

..<LAD'DERED, a. Swelled like a bladder. 

iJLAD'DER-NUT, n. A genus of plants. 

BLAD'DER-SEN-NA, or bastard-senna, a genus of plants, 
called, in botany, colutea. 

BLAD'DER-Y, a. Resembling a bladder. 

BLADE, n. [Sax. bla:d, bled.] 1. The stalk or spire of a 
plant. 2. A leaf. 3. The cutting part of an instrument, 
as the blade of a knife, or sword. 4. The blade of the 
shoulder, shoulder-blade, or blade-bone, is the scapula, or 
scapular bone. 5. A brisk man ; a bold, forward man ; a 

BLADE, V. t. To furnish with a blade. 

BLADE'-BONE, n. The scapula, or upper bone in the shoul- 

BLaD'ED, pp. 1. Having a blade or blades.— It may be used 
of blade in the sense of a leaf, a spire, or tlie cutting part 
of an instrument. — 2. In mineralogy, composed of long 
and narrow plates, like the blade of a knife. 

BLaDE'-SMITH, n. A sword cutler. 

BLAIN, 71. [Sax. blegene : D. blein.] A pustule ; a botch 
a blister. 

BLAKE, a. Yellow. Grose. [Jforth of England.] 

BLa'MA-BLE, a. Faulty ; culpable ; reprehensible, deserv 
ing of censure Dryden. 

BLa'MA-BLE-NESS, 71. Culpableness •, fault. 

BLa'MA-BLY, adv. Culpably ; in a manner deserving of 

BLAME, V. t. [Fr. bl&mer.] 1. To censure ; to express 
disapprobation of 5 to find fault with. 2. To bring re- 
proach upon ; to blemish ; to injure. [Obs.] Spenser. 

BLAME, n. 1. Censure ; reprehension ; imputation of a 
fault ; disapprobation ; an expression of disapprobation. 2. 
Fault ; crime ; sin ; that which is deserving of censure or 
disapprobation. 3. Hurt; injury. — To blame, in the 
phrase, he is to blame, signifies blamable' to be blamed. 

BLAMED, pp. Censured ; disapproved. 

BLaME'FUL, a. Faulty'; meriting blame ; reprehensible. 

BLAMELESS, a. Without fault; innocent ; guiltless ; not 
nieriting censure. 

BLaME'LESS-LY, adv. Innocently ; without fault. 

BLaME'LESS-NESS, 71. Innocence ; a state of being not 
worthy of censure. Hammond. 

BLaM'ER, ?i. One who blames, finds fault, or censures. 

BLAME'W6R-TH1-NESS, n. The quality of deserving cen- 

BLaME'WoR-THY, a. Deservmg blame ; censurable ; cul- 
pabie ; reprehensible. 

BLaM'ING, ppr. Censuring ; finding fault. 

BLANC'ARD, n. [Fr. blanc] A kind of linen cloth, man- 
ufactured in Normandy. 

BLANCH, V. t. [Fr. blancMr.] 1. To whiten ; to take out 
the color, and make white ; to obliterate. 2. To slur ; 
to balk ; to pass over ; that is, to avoid ; to make empty. 
[Obs.] 3. To strip or peel. 

BLANCH, V. i. To evade ; to shift ; to speak sotlly ; to be 
reserved ; to remain blank, or empty. 

BLANCHED, pp. Whitened. 

BLANCH'ER, 71. One who whitens ; also, one who anneals 
and cleanses money. 

BLANCH-IM'E-TER, 71. [blanch, and Gr. fiSTpov.] An in- 
strument for measuring the bleaching power of oxymuriate 
of lime and potash. 

BLANCH'ING, PP7-. Whitening. — In coinage, the operation 
of giving brightness to pieces of silver. 

BLANC-MAN-GER, (blo-monjei) [Fr. white food.] In cook- 
ery, a preparation of dissolved isinglass, milk, sugar, 
cinnamon, &c., boiled into a thick consistence, and gar- 
nished for the table with blanched almonds. 

BLAND, a. [L. blandus.] Mild ; soft ; gentle ; as, bland 
words. _ 

BLAND-A'TION, 7?. A piece of flattery. Camden. 

BLAND-IL'0-QUENCE, 71. [L. blandus and loguor.] Fair, 
mild, flattering speech. 

BLAND'ISH, v. t. [L. blandior ; Old Eng. blandise ; Chau- 
cer.] To soften ; to caress ; to flatter by kind words or 
affectionate actions. 

BLAND'ISH-ER, n. One that flatters with soft words. 

BLAND'ISH-ING, ppr. Soothing or flattering with fail 

BLAND'ISH-ING, n. Blandishment. 

BLAND'ISH-MENT, n. Soft words; kind speeches; c.a 
resses ; expression of kindness ; words or actions expres- 
sive of affection or kindness, and tending to win the 

BLANK, a. [Fr. blanc] 1. "Void ; empty ; consequently 
white ; as, a blank paper. 2. White or pale. 3. Pale 
from fear or terror ; hence, confused ; confounded ; dis- 
pirited ; dejected. 4. Without rhyme ; as, blank verse 5 
Pure ; entire ; complete. 6. Not containing balls or bullets 

BLANK, n. 1. Any void space ; a void space on pa- 
per, or in any written instrument. 2. A lot by which 
nothing is gained ; a ticket in a lottery which draws 
no prize. 3. A paper unwritten. 4. A paper contain- 
ing the substance of a legal instrument, as a deed, 
with vacant spaces left to be filled. 5. The point to 
which an arrow is directed, marked with white paper. 
[Little used.] 6. Aim; shot. [O65.] Shak. 7. Object to 
which any thing is directed. 8. A small copper coin for- 
merly current in France. — Point blank, in gunnery, the 
shot of a gun leveled horizontally. 

BLANK, V. t. 1. To make void ; to annul. Spenser. 2. To 
deprive of color, the index of health and spirits ; to damp 
the spirits ; to dispirit or confuse. Tillotson. 

BLANKED, pp. Confused ; dispirited. 

BLANK'ET, n. [Fr. blanchet.] 1. A cover for a bed, 
made of wool. 2. A kind of pear. 3. Among printers, 
woolen cloth or white baize, to lay between the tympans 

BLANK'ET, v. t. 1. To toss in a blanket by way of punish 
ment ; an ancient custom. 2. To cover with a blanket. 

BLANK'ET-ING, ppr. Tossing in a blanket. 

BLANK'ET-ING, n. 1. The punishment of tossing in a 
blanket. 2. Cloth for blankets. 

* See Synopsis. MoVE, BOOK, DoVE ;— BULL, UNITE.— € as K ; 6 as J ; S as Z ; CH as SH ; TH as in this, t Obsolete. 




D'lANK'LY, adv. In a blank manner; with paleness or 

BLARE, «.i. [Old Belgic, Mar en ; Tent, blarren.] 1. To 
roar ; to bellow. [Little used.] 2. To sweal, or melt 
away, as a candle. 

BLARE, n. 1. Roar; noise. [Little used.] Barlow. 2. A 
small copper coin of Bern. 

BLASH, c. t. [of the same origin as plash.] To spatter. 

BLASH'Y, a. Dirty; wet. Craven dialect. Thin; poor; 
as, blashy milk, or beer. Grose. 

BLAS-PHi?.ME' «. t. [Gr. 8\aa(priiiE<j).] 1. To speak of the 
Supreme Being in terms of impious irreverence. 2. To 
speak evil of ; to utter abuse or calumny against ; to 
speak reproachfully of. 

BLAS-PHeME, «. i. 1. To utter blasphemy. 2. To arro- 
gate the prerogatives of God. 

BLAS-PHeM'ER, v. One who blasphemes ; one who 
speaks of God in innious and irreverent terms. 

BLAS-PHeM'ING, ppr. Uttering impious or reproachful 
words concerning God. 

BLAS'PHE-iMOUS, a. Containing blasphemy ; calumnious ; 
impiously irreverent to God. 

HLAS PHE-MOUti-LY, adv. Impiously; with impious ir- 
reverence to God. 

BLAS'PHE-MY, n. 1. An indignity offered to God by 
words or writing. 2. That which derogates from the pre- 
rogatives of God. 

BLAisT, n. [Sax. Mast.] 1. A gust or puff of wind ; or a 
sudden gust of wind. 2. The sound made by blowing a 
wind instrument. 3. Any pernicious or destructive influ- 
ence upon animals or plants. 4. The infection of any 
thing pestilential ; a bight on plants, 5. A sudden com- 
pression of air, attended with a shock, caused by the dis- 
charge of cannon. 6. A forcible stream of air from the 
mouth, from a bellows, or the like. 7. A violent explosion 
of gunpowder, in splitting rocks, and the explosion of in- 
flammable air in amhie. 8. The wholeblowhigof a forge 
necessary to melt one supply of ot^ ; a commonuse of the 
word among workiusn in forges in America. 

BLAST, V, t. 1. To make to wither by some pernicious 
influence; to blight, as trees or plants. 2. To affect with 
some sudden violence, plague, or calamity, which de- 
stroys or causes to fail ; as, to blast pride or hopes. 3. To 
confound, or strike with force, by a loud blast or din. 4. 
To split rocks by an explosion of gun-powder. 

BIASTED, pp. Affected by some cause that checks growth, 
injures, impairs, destroys, or renders abortive; split by 
an explosion of gun-powder. 

BLASTER, n. He or that whi-h blasts or destroys. 

BLAST'ING, ppr. Affecting by a blast ; preventing from 
coming to maturity ; frustrating ; splitting by an explo- 
sion of gun-powder. 

BLAST'ING, ?i. A blast ; destruction by a pernicious cause ; 

|BLAST'MENT, 7i. Blast ; sudden stroke of some destruc- 
tive cause. Shak. 

t BLa'TANT, a. Bellowing as a calf. 

BLATCH. See Blotch. 

f BLAT-ER-A'TION, n. [L. Materatio.] Noise. Coles. 

BLAT'TER, v. i. To make a senseless noise. 

BLAT'TER-ER, w. A noisy, blustering boaster. 

BLAY, n. A small river fish, the bleak. 

BLAZE, n. [Sax. blaze.] 1. Flame; the stream of light 
and heat from any body when burning. 2. Publication ; 
wide diffusion of report. 3. A white spot on the fore- 
head or face of a horse. 4. Light ; expanded light. 5. 
Noise ; agitation ; tumult. 

BLAZE, V. i. 1. To flame. 2. To send forth or show a 
bright and expanded light. 3. To be conspicuous. 

BivAZE, v.t. 1. To make public far and ^vide. 2. To 
blazon. [Mot used. See Blazon.] 3. To set a white 
mark on a tree, by paring off a part of the bark. Todd 

BLAZED, pp. Published far and wide. 

BLaZ'ER, n. One who publishes and spreads reports. 

BLaZ ING, ppr. Flaming ; publishing far and wide. 

BLaZ ING, a. Emitting flame, or light. 

BLaZ'ING-STAR, w. a comet ; a star that is accompanied 
with a coma, or train of light. 

BLa'ZON, (bla'zn) v. t. [Fr. blasonver.] 1. To explain, 
in proper terms, the figures on ensigns armorial. 2. To 
deck; to embellish; to adorn. 3. To display ; to set to 
show ; to celebrate by words or writing. 4. To blaze, 
about ; to maKC public far and wide. 

BLAZON, n. 1. The act of drawhig, describing or explain- 
ing coats of arms. 2. Publication ; show ; celebration ; 
pompoKs display. 

BLA ZONED, (bla'znd) pp. Explained, decyphered in the 
manner of heralds ; published abroad ; displayed pom- 

BLA'ZON-ER. (bla'zn-er) n. One that blazons ; a herald ; 
an evil speaker, or propagator of scandal. 

BLa'ZON-ING, ppr. Explaining, describing as heralds ; 
showing ; publishing ; blaznig abroad ; displaying. 

BLa'ZON-RY, (bla'zn-ry) n. The art of describing coats of 
arms in proper terms. 

BLEA^ n. The part of a tree which lies immediately under 
tlie bark. Chambers. 

BLEACH, V. t. [Sax. blacan.] To whiten ; to make whita 
or^whiter ; to take out color. 

BLEACH, V. i. To grow white in any manner. 

BLEACHED, (bleecht) pp. Whitened ; made white. 

BLeACH'ER, n. One who whitens, or whose occupation 
is_to wniten cloth. 

BLeACH'ER-Y, n. A place for bleaching. 

BLeACH'ING, ppr. Whitenhig ; making white ; becoming 

BLeACH'ING, n. The act or art of whitening, especially 

BLeAK, a. [Sax. blac, blmc] 1. Pale. Gower. 2. Open ; 
vacant ; exposed to a free current of air ; as, a bleak hill. 

BLeAK, n. A small river fisli, five or six inches long. 

BLeAK'LY, adv. Coldly. May. 

BLeAK'NESS, n. Openness of situation ; exposure to the 
\vind ; hence, coldness. 

BLeAK'Y, a. Bleak ; open ; unsheltered ; cold. 

BLeAR, a. [D. Maar,] Sore, with a watery rheum ; ap- 
plied only to the eyes. 

BLEAR, v.t. To make sore ; to affect with soreness of 
eyes, or a watery humor. Brijden, 

BLeAR'ED-NESS, n. Tlie state of being bleared, or dim- 
med with rheum. Wiseman. 

BLeAR'E^'ED, a. Havinjg sore eyes ; having the eyes dim 
v/ith rheum ; dim-sighted. 

BLeAT, v. i. [Sax. blcBtan.] To make the noise of a sheep j 
tq^cry as a sheep. 

BLeAT, n. The cry of a sheep. 

BLeAT'ING, ppr. or a. Crying as a sheep. 

BLeAT'ING, n. The cry of a sheep. 

BLEB, n. A little tumor, vesicle or blister. 

BLEB'BY, a. Abounding with blebs. 

BLED, pret. VMdi pp. of bleed. 

t BLEE, 71. [Sax. bleo.] Color ; complexion. Spenser, 

BLEED, V. i. pret. and pp. bled. [Sax. bledan.] 1. To lose 
blood ; to run with blood, by whatever means. 2. To 
die a violent death, or by slaughter. 3. To issue forth, o'- 
drop as blood, from an incision ; to lose sap, gum or juice. 

BLEED, V. t. To let blood ; to take blood from, by opening 
a vein. 

BLEED'ING, ppr. Losing blood ; letting blood ; losing sap 
or juice. 

BLEED'ING, n. A running or issuing of blood, as from the 
nose ; a hemorrhage ; the operation of letting blood, as in 
surgery ; the drawing of sap from a tree or plant. 

BLEIT, or BLATE, a [Ger. Mode.] Bashful ; used in 

Scotland and the north of Eno-lavd. 
LEM'ISH, V. t. 1. To mark with 

BLEM'ISH, V. t. 1. To mark with any deformity ; to in- 
jure or impair any thing which is well formed, or excel- 
lent ; to mar. 2. To tarnish, as reputation or character ; 
to defame. 

BLEM'ISH, 71. 1. Any mark of deformity ; any scar or de- 
ffect that diminishes beauty. 2. Reproach ; disgrace ; 
that which impairs reputation ; taint ; turpitude ; de- 

BLEM'ISHED, pp. Injured or marred by any mark of de- 
formity ; tarnished ; soiled. 

BLEM'ISH-ING, ppr. Marking witli deformitv ; tarnishing. 

BLEM'ISH-LESS, a. Without blemish ; spotless. 

BLEM'ISH-MENT, n. Disgrace. [Little used.] 

BLENCH, V. i. To shrink ; to start back ; to give way. 

BLENCH, V. t. To hinder or obstruct, says Johnson. But, 
in the passage he cites, it means to render ineffectual. 

BLENCH, n. A start. Shak. 

BLENCH'ER^ n. That which frustrates. 

BLENCH'-HoLD-ING, 7z. A tenure of lands upon the pay- 
ment of a small sum in silver. 

BLEND, 71. [Ger. blanden.] An ore of zink. 

BLEND, V. t. [Sax. blendian.] 1. To mix or mingle to- 
gether ; hence, to confound. 2. To pollute by mixture ; 
to spoil or corrupt. [Obs.] Spenser. 3. To blind. [Ofc.] 

BLEND, V. i. To be mixed ; to be united. Irving. 

BLEND'ED, pp. Mixed ; confounded by mixture. 

BLEND'ER, n. One that mingles or confounds. 

BLEND'ING, ppr. Mingling together; confounding by 

BLEND'OUS, a. Pertaining to blend. 

BLEND'-WA-TER, n. A distemper incident to cattle. 

BLEN'NY, 71. [Sax. blinnan.] A genus of fishes, of the 
order of jurrulars. 

BLENT. The obsolete participle of blend. 

BLESS, V. t. pret. and pp. blessed, or blest. [Sax. Medsian.] 
1. To pronounce a wish of liappiness to one ; to express 
a wish or desire of happiness, 2. To make happy ; to 
make successful ; to prosper in temporal concerns. 3. To 
make happy in a future life. 4. To set apart or conse- 
crate to holy purposes ; to make and pronounce holy. 
.5. To consecrate by prayer ; to invoke a blessing upon 

*See r^ynopsis a, E, t. O, t" Y, Zra^.— FAR, FALL, WHi^T ;— PRgY ;— PIN, MARINE, BtRD; 

t Obsolete 




6 To praise ; to glorify, for benefits received. 7. To 
praise ; to magnify ; to extol for excellencies. 

ULESSED, pp. Made happy or prosperous ; extolled ; pro- 
nounced Iiappy 

BLESS'ED, a. Happy 5 prosperous in worldly affairs ; en- 
joying spiritual happiness and the favor of God ; enjoying 
heavenly felicity. 

BLEfe-S'ED-THIS-TLE, n. A plant of the genus cnicus. 

DLESS'ED-L V, adv. Happily ; in a fortunate manner. 

BLESS'ED-NESS, n. 1. Happiness ; felicity ; heavenly 
joys; the favor of God. 2. Sanctity. 

BLESS'Eil, 7). One that blesses or prospers ; one who be- 
stows a blessing. 

BLESS'ING, ppr. Making happy ; wishing happiness to ; 
praising or extolling ; consecrating by prayer. 

BLEfeS'IJN'G, n. 1. Benediction ; a wish of happiness pro- 
nounced ; a prayer imploring happiness upon another. 2. 
A solemn prophetic benediction. .3. Any means of hap- 
piness 5 a gift, benefit or advantage. 4. Among the Jews, 
a present ; a gift. 

BLEST, pp. of bless. 

BLEST, a. 1. Made happy. 2. Making happy ; cheering^. 

BLE'TON-ISM, n. The faculty of perceiving ajid indicating 
subterraneous springs and currents by sensation ; so call- 
ed from one Bleton of France, who possessed this fac- 

BLe TON-IST, n. One who possesses the faculty of per- 
ceiving subterraneous springs by sens;ition. 

BLEW, pret. of Moid. 

BLeYME, 11. An inflammation in the foot of a horse, be- 
tvveeji the sole and the bone. 

BLI-CE' A, n. A small fish. 

BLiGHT, (bllte) n. [qu. Sax. Wsct/ia.] I. A disease inci- 
dent to plants. 2. Any thing nipping or blasting. 

BLIGHT, (bllte) v. t. To affect with blight ; to blast ; to 
prevent growth and fertility ; to frustrate. 

f BLIN, V. t, [Sax. blinnan.] To stop, or cease. 

BLiND, a. [Sax. blivd.] 1. Destitute of the sense of seeing ; 
not having siglit. 2. Not having the faculty of discern- 
ment ; destitute of intellectual light ; unable to under- 
stand or judge ; ignorant. 3. Unseen ; out of public 
view ; private ; dark. 4. Dark ; obscure ; not easy to be 
found ; not easily discernible. 5. Heedless ; inconsider- 
ate ; undeliberating. Jay. 

BLiND, V. t. 1. To make blind ; to deprive of sight. 2. 
To darken ; to obscure to the eye. 3. To darken the un- 
derstanding 4 To darken or obscure to the understand- 
ing. 5. To eclipse. 

BLIND, or BLINDE. See Blend, an ore. 

BLIND, n. 1. Something to hinder the sight. 2. Some- 
thing to mislead the eye or the understanding. 3. A 
skreen ; a cover. 

BLiND'ED, pp. Deprived of sight ; deprived of intellectual 
djscernment 5 made dark or obscure. 

BLiND'FoLD, a. Having the eyes covered ; having the 
mental eye darkened. 

BLiND'FoLD, v. t. To cover the eyes ; to hinder from 

BLIND' FoLD-ED, pp. Having the eyes covered ; hindered 
from seeing. 

BLiNDFoLD-ING, ppr. Covering the eyes 5 hindering 
from seeing. 

BLlND'lNG, ppr. Depriving of sight, or of understanding ; 

BLiND'LY, adv. I. Without sight, or understanding. 2. 
Without dlsoerning the reason; implicitly. 3. Without 

BLiND'MAN'S-BALL, n. A species of fungus. 

BLTND'MAN'S-BtJFF, n. A play in which one person is 
bUndfolded, and hunts out the rest of the company. 

BLiND'NESS, n. Want of bodily sight j want of intellectual 
discernment ; ignorance. 

BLTND'NET-TLE, n. A plant. 

BLINDS, n. In the military art, a defense made of osiere 
or branches interwoven, to shelter and conceal the work- 

BLTND-SER'PENT, n. A reptile. 

BLiND'SiDE, V. The side which is most easily assailed •, 
vveakness -, foible ; weak part. 

BLiND VESSEL. With chemists, a vessel with an opening 
on one side only. 

BLiND'WoRM, n. A small reptile. 

BLINK, V. i. [Sax. blican.l 1. To wink ; to twinkle with 
tlie eye. 2. To see obscurely. Johnson. To see with 
the eyes half shut. 

BLINK, n. A glimpse or glance. Hall. 

BLINK, n. Blink of ice is the dazzling whiteness about the 
horizon, occasioned by the reflection of light from fields 
of ice at sea. 

BLINK'ARD, n. [blink, and ard, kind.] A person who 
blinks, or has bad eyes ; that which twinkles, or glances. 

BLINK'ING, ppi-. Winking ; twinkling. 

BLISS, n. [Sax. bliss.] The highest degree of happiness ; 
blessedness ; felicity ; heavenly joys. 

BLISS'FUI , a. Full of joy and felicity. 

BLISS'FCL-LY, adv. In a blissful manner. 

BlilSS'FLL-NESS, n. Exalted happiness ; felicity , fuUnestj 
of joy. Barrow. 

BLISS' LESS, a. Destitute of bliss. Hawkins. 

BLISSOM, V. i. [W. blys, blysiaw.] To be lustful ; to cat^ 
erwaul. [Little used.] 

BLIS'TER, n. [Ger. blase, and blatter.] 1. A pustule ; a 
thin bladder on the skin, containing watery jnatter or 
serum. 2. Any tumor made by the separation of the film 
or skin, as on plants ; or by the swelling of the substance 
at the surface, as on steel. 3. A vesicatory : a plaster of 
flies, or other matter, applied to raise a vesicle. 

BLIS'TER, V. i. To rise in blisters. JJryden. 

BLIS'TER, V. t. 1. To raise a blister, by any hurt, burn or 
violent action upon the skin. 2. To raise tumors on iron 

BLIS'TERED, pp. Having blisters or tumors. 

BLIS'TER-ING, ppr. Raising a blister ; applying a blister- 
ing plaster, or vesicatory. 

BLITE, n. [L. blitum ; Gr. ^Xitov ] 1 A genus of plants, 
called strawberry spinach. 2. A species of amaranth, or 
flower gentle. 

BLITHE, a. [Sax. blithe.] Gay ; merry joyous ; spright- 
ly ; mirthful. 

BLiTHE'FUL, a. Gay; full of gayety. 

BIvlTHE'LY, adv. In a gay, joyful maniier. 

BLiTHE'NESS, n, Gayety ; sprightliness ; the quality of 
being blithe. 

BLITHE'SoME, a. Gay ; merry ; cheerful. 

BLiTHE'SoME-NESS, n. The quality of being blithesome ; 

BLoAT, V. t. [W. blwth, a puff".] 1. To swell, or make 
turgid, as with air- ; to inflate ; to puff" up ; hence, to 
make vain. 2. To swell or make turgid with water or 
otl7er means. 

BLoAT, V. i. To grow turgid ; to dilate. 

t BLoAT, a. Swelled ; turgid. 

IBLoAT'ED, pp. Swelled ; grown turgid ; inflated. 

BLoAT'ED-NESS, v. A mrgid state ; turgidness ; dilata- 
tion from inflation, or any morbid cause. 

BLoAT iNG, ppr. Swelling; inflating. 

BLOB, n. A bubble. See I^leb. 

BLOB'BER, 7t. [It. plub, or pluibin.] A bubble: pronounced. 
bv the common people in America, blubber. Carew. 

BLOB'BER-LiP, n. A thick lip.Dr?/<ien. 

BLOB'BER -LIPPED, a. Having thick lips. 

BLOB'TALE, n. A telltale ; a blab. 

BLO€K, n. [D. blo/c ; Ger. block.] ]. A heavy piece of 
timber or wood, usually \vith one plain surface. 2 
Any mass of matter with an extended surface. 3. A 
massy body, solid and heavy. 4. The wood on which crim- 
inals are beheaded. 5. Any obstmcticn, or cause of ob- 
struction ; a stop ; hindrance ; obstacle. 6. A piece of 
wood in which a pulley runs. 7. A blockhead ; a stupid 

BLOGIC, V. t. [Fr.] To inclose or shut up, so as to 
hinder egress or passage ; to stop up ; to obstruct. 

BLOCK-aDE', n. [lX..b[occato.] The siege of a place, formed 
by surrounding it with liostile troops or ships. 

BLO€K-aDE', V. t. To shut up a town or fortress by troops 
or ships. 

BLO€K-aD'ED, pp. Shut up or inclosed by an enemy. 

BLO€K-aD'ING, ppr. Besieging by a blockade. 

BLOOK'HEAD, 7(. A stupid fellow ; a dolt ; a person defi- 
cient in understanding. 

BLOOK'HEAD-ED, a. fc-tupid ; dull. Shak. 

BLO€K'HEAD-LY, a. Like a blockhead. 

BLOGK'HOUSE, 71. A house or fortress erected to block up 
a pass, and defend it against the entrance of an enemy. 

BLOCK'ISH, a. Stupid ; dull ; deficient in understanding. 

BLOCK ISH-LY, adv. In a stupid manner. 

BLOCK'ISH-NESS, n. Stupidity ; dullness. 

BLOCK'LlKE, a. Like a block ; stupid. 

BLOCK'-TIN, n. Tin which is pure, and unwrought. 

BLOM'A-RY, n. The first forge through which iron passes, 
after it is melted from the ore. 

tBLONK'ET, a. Grny. Spenser. 

BLOOD, n. [Sax. Sw. and Dan. blodj Ger. blut.] 1. The 
fluid which circulates through the arteries and veins of 
the human body, and of other animals, which is essential 
to the preservation of life. 2. Kindred ; relation by nat- 
ural descent from a common ancestor ; consanguinity. 
3. Royal lineage ; blood royal. 4. Honorable birth : high 
extraction. Shak. 5. Life. C Slaughter ; murder, or 
bloodsheddJng. 7. Temper of mind ; state of t'le passions ; 
but, in this sense, accompanied with cold or warm. 8. A 
hot spark ; a rake. 9. The juice of any thing, especially 
if red. 

BL60D, v.t. 1. To let blood ; to bleed by opening a vem. 
2. To stain with blood. 3. To enter ; to inure to blood : as 
a hound. 4. To heat the blood; to exasperate. [Unu- 

BL60D'-BE-SP0T'TED, a. Spotted with blood. Shak, 

See Synopsis. MOVE, BQOK, D6VE ;— BULL, UNITE.— Cas K; 6as J ; Sas Z ; CH as SH "iH as in this. fObsolUe 




1 BLOOD -BCL'TERED, a. Sprinkled with blood. 

BLoOD'-€ON-SuM'IiNG, a. Wasting the blood. 

BL60D EJD, pp. Bled ; stained with blood ; jnured to blood. 

BLoOD'-FLOW-Ell, n. Ilanvanthus. 

BLoOD'-FRo-ZEN, a. Haviug the blood chilled. 

BLoOD'-Gb'ILT'I-NESS, n. The guilt or crime of shedding 

BL60D-H0T, a. As warm as blood, in its natural temper- 

BLoOD'-HOUND, n. A species of canis, or dog, remarkable 
for the acuteness of its smell. 

BL60D'-I-LY, adv. In a bloody manner ; cruelly ; with 
a disposition to shed blood. 

BLoOD'I-NESS, 71. The state of beuig bloody ; disposition 
to shed blood. 

BLoOD'ING, ppr. Letting blood ; staining with blood ; in- 
uring to blood, as a hound. 

BLoOD'LESS, a. 1. Without blood ; dead. 2. Without 
shedding of blood. 3. Without spirit or activity. 

BLoOD-LET, v. t. To bleed ; to let blood. 

BL60D LET-TER, n. One who lets blood, as in diseases ; 
a phlebotomist. Wiseman. 

BLoOD'-LET'-TING, 71. The act of letting blood, or bleed-- 
ing by op ning a vein. 

BLoODTUD-DlNG, n. A pudduig made with blood and 
other materials. 

BLoOD'-RED, 71. Red as blood. 

BLoOD'-ROOT, n. A plant, so named from its color. 

\ BLoOD'-SHA-KEN, a. Having the blood put in commo- 
tion. B. Jonson. 

BLoOD SHED, n. The shedding or spilling of blood , 
slaughter ; waste of life. 

BLoOD'SHED-DER, n. One who sheds blood. 

BLoOD'SHED-DING, n. The sheddire of blood ; the crmie 
of shedding blood. 

BLoOD'SHOT, a. Red and inflamed by a turgid state of the 
blood vessels. 

BLoOD'SHOT-TEN-NESS, n. The state of being blood- 
shotten, as applicable to the eye. 

BLoOD'-SlZED, a. Smeared or sized with blood. 

BLOOD'-SNAKE, 71. A species of snake. 

BL6()D'-SPAV-IN, n. A dilatation of the vein that runs 
along the inside of the hock of a horse. 

BLoOD'-STAINED, a. Stained with blood ; also, guilty 
of murder. 

BLoOD'STONE, n. A stone, imagined, if worn as an am- 
ulet, to be a good preventive of bleeding at the nose. 

BLOOD SUCK-ER, n. Any animal that sucks blood, as a 
lebcn, a fly, &c. A cruel man ; a murderer. 

BLOOD'-SUCK-ING, a. That sucks or draws blood. 

BLOOD'-SWOLN, a. Suffused with blood. 

BLOOD'-THiRS-TY, a. Desirous to shed blood ; murder- 

BLOOD'-VES-SEL, n. Any vessel in wliich blood circu- 
lates in an animal body, an artery or a vein. 

BLOOD'-WARM, a. Warm as blood ; lukewarm. 

BLOOD'-WiTE, 71. In ancient law, a fine paid as a compo- 
sition for the shedding of blood. 

BLOOD'- WOOD, 71. A name given to log- wood, from its 

BLOOD'WORT, 71. A plant, a species of ruTnez. 

BLOOD'Y, a. 1. Stained with blood. 2. Cruel ; murderous ; 
given to the shedding of blood ; or having a cruel, savage 
disposition. 3. Attended with bloodshed ; marked by 

BLOOD'Y, V. t. To stain with blood. Overbury. 

BLOOD'Y, adv. Very ; as, bloodij sick, bloody drunk. [ TJiis 
is very vulcrji.r.] 

BLOOD'Y-EyED, a. Having bloody or cruel eyes. 

BLOOD'Y-FACED, a. Having a bloody face or appearance. 

BLOOD'Y-FLUX, n. The dysentery. 

f BLOOD'Y-FLUXED, a. Afflicted with the bloody-flux. 

BLOOD'Y-HAND, n. A hand stained with the blood of a 
deer. .dsh. 

BL0OD'Y-HUNT-ING,~c. Hunting for blood. 

BLOOD'Y-MiND-ED, a. Having a cruel, ferocious disposi- 
tion ; barbarous ; inclined to shed blood. 

BLOOD'Y-RED, a. Having the colour of blood. 

BLOOD'Y-SCEP'TRED, a. Having a sceptre obtained by 
blood or slaughter. Shak. 

BLOODY-SWEAT, n. A sweat, accompanied by a dis- 
charge of blood ; also a disease, called siceatinff sickness. 

BLOOM, V. [Goth, bloma.] I. Blossom ; the flower of a 
plant ; an expanded bud. 2. The opening of flowers in 
general; flowers open, or in a state of blossoming. 3. 
The state of youth, resembling that of blossoms ; a state 
of opening manhood, life, beauty, and vigor. 4. The 
blue color upon plums and grapes newly gathered. 

ELOOM, V. i. 1. To produce or yield blossoms ; to flower. 
2. To be in a state of healthful, growing youtJi and vig- 
or ; to show the beauty of youth. 

\ BLOOM, V. t. To pi'l forthas blossoms. 

BLOOM, n, 'Sax. bloma.'] A mass of iron that has 
the blomary, or undergone the first hammering. 

BLOOM'ING, ppr. Opening in blossoms ; flowering j thriv- 
ing in the health, beauty and vigor of youth ; showing 
the beauties of youth. 

BLOOM'ING-LY, adv. In a blooming manner. 

BLOOM'Y, a. Full of bloom ; flowery ; flourishing with 
the vigor of youth ; as, a bloomy spray ; bloomy beau 

t BLORE, 71. The act of blowing 5 a blast. 

BLOS'SOM 71. [Sax. blosm.] 1. The flower or corol of a 
plant ; a general term, applicable to every species of tree 
or plant. 2. This word is used to denote the color of a 
hoi-se, that has his hair white, but intermixed with sorrel 
and bay hairs. 

BLOS'SOM, v.i. 1. To put forth blossoms or flowers 5 to 
bloom ; to blow ; to flower. 2. To flourish and prosper. 

BLOS'SOM-ING, pijr. Putting forth flowers ; blowing. 

BLOS'SOM-ING, n. The blowing or flowering of plants. 

tBLOS'SOM-Y, a. Full of blossoms. 

BLOT, V. t. [Goth, blauthjan.] 1. To spot with ink 5 to 
stain or bespatter with ink. 2. To obliterate writing or 
letters with ink. 3. To efface ; to erase ; to cause to be 
unseen, or forgotten ; to destroy. 4. To stain with infa- 
my ; to tarnish ; to disgrace ; to disfigure. 5. To darken 

BLOT, 71. 1. A spot or stain on paper, usually applied to ink 
2. An obliteration of something written or printed. 3 
A spot in reputation ; a stain ; a disgrace ; a reproach ; 
a blemish. 4. Censure; scorn; reproach. 5. In back- 
gammon, when a single man lies open to be taken up. 

BLOTCH, 71. [Sax. blcectha.] A pustule upon the skui ; an 
eruption, usually of a large kind. 

BLOTCH, V. t. To blacken. Harmar. 

BLOTE, V. t. To dry and smoke. 

BLoT'ED, pp. Smoked and dried. 

BLOT'TED, pp. Stained ; spotted ; erased. 

BLOT'TER, 71. In counting houses, a waste book. 

BLOT'TING, ppr. Spotting Avith ink ; obliterating ; stain- 

BLoW, 71. 1. The act of striking ; more generally the 
stroke. 2. The fatal stroke ; a stroke that kills ; hence, 
death. 3. An act of hostility. 4. A sudden calamity ; 
a sudden or severe evU. 5. A single act ; a sudden event. 
6._ An ovum, or egg deposited by a fly. 

BLoW, V. i. pret. blew ; pp. bloivn. [Sax. blawen, blowan.] 
1. To make a current of air ; to move as air. 2. To pant ; 
to puff ; to breathe hard or quick. 3. To breathe. 4. To 
sound with being blown, as a horn or trumpet. 5. To 
flower; to blossom ; to bloom ; as plants. — To blow over, 
to pass av/ay without effect ; to cease or be dissipated. — 
7'o blow up, to rise in the air ; also, to be broken and scat- 
tered by the explosion of gun-powder. 

BLoW, V. t. 1. To throw or drive a current of air upon. 2. 
To drive by a current of air ; to impel. 3. To breathe upon, 
for the purpose of warming, 4. To sound a wind instru- 
ment. .5. To spread by report. 6. To deposit eggs, as flies. 
7. To form bubbles by blowing. 8. To swell and inflate, 
as veal. 9. To form glass into a particular shape by tlie 
breath, as in glass manufactories. 10. To melt tin, after 
being first burnt to destroy the mundic. — To bloio away 
to dissipate; to scatter with wind. — To Moid dowv, t; 
prostrate by wind. — To blow off, to shake down by wind 
as to blow off fruit from trees ; to drive from land ; as, to 
blow off a ship. — To biota out, to extinguish by a current 
of air, as a candle. — To blow up. 1. To fill with air ; to 
swell. 2. To infiate ; to puff up. 3. To kindle. 4. To 
burst, to raise into the air, or to scatter, by the explosion 
of gunpowder. Figuratively, to scatter or bring to naught 
suddenly. — To blow upon, to make stale. 

BLoW, 7i. I. A flower ; a blossom. This word is in general 
use in the United States. In the Tatler, it is used for 
blossoms in general. 2. Among seaTneTi, a gale of wind 
This also is in general use in the United States. 

BLoW'-BALL, n. The flower of the dandelion. 

BLoW'ER," n. 1. One who blows ; one who is employed in 
melting tin. 2. A plate of iron for drawing up a fire in a 
stove chunney. 

BLOWING , ^jpr. Making a cun-ent of air ; breathing quick ; 
sounding a wind instrument ; inflating ; impelling by 
vnnd ; melting tin. 

BLOWING, n. The motion of wind, or act of blowing. 

BLoWN, pp. Driven by wind ; fanned ; sounded by blow 
ing ; spread by report ; swelled ; inflated ; expanded as 
a blossom. 

BLoW'-PiPE, 71. An instrument by which a blast or current 
of air is driven tlirough the flame of a lamp or candle, an'd 
that flame directed upon a mineral substance, to fuse or 
vitrify it. 

BLoW-POINT, 71. A kind of play among children. 

BLoWTH, 7). [Ir. blath, blaith.] Bloom, or blossom, or 
that which is expanded ; the state of blossoming. 

BLOWZE, (blowz) n. A ruddy, fat-faced woman. 

BLOWZ'Y, a. Ruddy-faced ; fat and ruddy ; high-colored. 

t BLUB, V. t. To swell. See Bleb. 

BLUB'BER, n. [See Blobber, Blob, and Bleb.] 1. A 
blobber or bubble ; a common, vulgar word. 2. The fat of 

See Synopsis A, E, I, O, U, Y, long.— FaR, FALL, WHAT ;— PREY;— PiN, MARiNE BiRD 




whales and other large sea animals, of which is made 
train-oil. 3. Sea-nettle, or sea-Dlubber, the medusa. 

BLUB'BER, V. i. Ta weep in such a manner as to swell 
the cheeks. 

BLUB'BER, V. t. To swell tne cheeks, or disfigure the face, 
with weeping. 

BLUB BERED, p;?. Swelled; big 5 turgid. 

BLUB'BER-ING, ppr. Weeping so as to swell the cheeks. 

BLUD'6E0N, 71 [Goth, blyggwan.} A short stick, with 
one end loaded, or thicker and heavier than the other, 
and used as an offensive weapon. 

BLUE, (bill) a. [Sax. hleo, bleoh, bleoio.] One of the seven 
colors, into which the rays of light divide themselves, 
when refracted through a glass prism. There are various 
shades of blue, as sky-blue,or azure, Prussian blue, indigo 
blue, smalt blue, &c. 

BLUE, V. t. To make blue ; to dye of a blue color ; to 
make blue by heating, as metals, &c. 

BLCiE'BiRD, n. A small bird, a species of motacilla. 

BLuE'-BON-NET, n. A plant, a species of centaurea. 

BLuE'-BOT-TLE, n. 1. A plant, a species of centaurea. 
2._ A fly with a large, blue belly. 

BLuE'-€AP, n. A fish of the salmon kind. 

BL^E'-EyED, a. Having blue eyes, Dryden. 

BLuE'-FISH, n. A fish, a species of coryphoiHa. 

BLuE'-HAIREO, a. Having hair of a blue color. 

BLuE'-JOHN, 11. Among miners, jlaor spar, a mineral. 

BLuE'LY, adv. With a blue color. Swift. 

BLuE'NESS, n. The quality of being blue ; a blue color. 

BLuE'-THRoAT, n. A bird with a tawny breast. 

BLuE'-VEINED, a. Having blue veins or streaks. 

BLUFF, a. Big ; surly ; blustering. Dryden. 

BLUFF, 71. A high bank, almost perpendicular, projecting 
into the sea ; a high bank presenting a steep front. Bel- 
knap. Mar. Diet. 

BLUFF'-BOWED, a. Having broad and flat bows. 

BLUFF'-HEAD-ED, a. Having an upright stem. 

BLUFF'NESS, n. A swelling or bloatedness ; surliness. 

BLu'ISH, a. Blue in a small degree. Pope. 

BLu'ISH-NESS, n. A small degree of blue color. 

BLUN'DER, V. i. 1. To mistake grossly ; to err widely or 
stupidly. 2. To move without direction, or steady guid- 
ance ; to plunge at an object ; to move, speak, or write 
with sudden and blind precipitance. 3. To stumble, as a 

BLUN'DER, n. A mistake through precipitance, or without 
due exercise of judgment ; a gross mistake. 

BLUN'DER-BUSS, 71. [blunder, and D. bus.] A short gun, 
or fire-arm, with a large bore, capable of holding a number 
of balls, and intended to do execution without exact aim. 

BLUN'DER-ER, n. One who is apt to blunder, or to make 
gross mistakes ; a careless person. 

BLUN'DER-HEAD, n. A stupid fellow ; one who blunders. 
L'' Estrange. 

BLUN'DER-ING, ppr. Moving or acting with blind precip- 
itance ; mistaking grossly ; stumbling. 

BLUN'DER-ING-LY, adv. In a blundering manner. 

BLUNT, a. \. Having a thick edge or point, as an instru- 
ment ; dull ; not sharp. 2. Dull in understanding ; slow 
of discernment. 3. Abrupt in address ; plain ; uncere- 
monious ; wanting the forms of civility ; rough in man- 
ners or speech. 4. Hard to penetrate ;' [unusual.'] 

BLUNT, V. t. 1. To dull the edge or point, by making it 
thicker. 2. To repress or weaken any appetite, desire or 
power of the mind. 

BLUNT'ED, pp. Made dull ; weakened ; impaired ; re- 

BLUNT'ING, ppr. Making dull •, repressing ; impairing. 

BLUNT'ING, n. Restraint. Taijlor. 

BLUNT'LY, adv. In a blunt manner ; coarsely ; plainly ; 
abruptly ; without delicacy, or the usual forms of civility. 

BLUNT'NESS, 71. 1. Want of edge or point ; dullness ; ob- 
tuseness ; want of sharpness. 2. Coarseness of address ; 
roughness of manners ; rude sincerity or plainness. 

BLUNl 'WIT-TED, a. Dull; stupid. Skak. 

BLUR, n. A dark spot ; a stain ; a blot, whether upon paper 
or other substance, or upon reputation. 

BLUR, V. t. 1. To obscure by a dark spot, or by any foul 
matter, without quite effacing 2. To sully ; to stain ; 
to blemish. 

BLURRED, (bliurd) pp. Darkened or stained ; obscured. 

BLUR'RING, ppr. Darkening or staining ; spotting. 

BLURT, V. t. To throw out, or throw at random, hastily, 
or unadvisedly ; to utter suddenly or inadvertently. 

BliUSIl', V. i. [D. bloozen.] 1. To redden in the cheeks or 
face ; to be suddenly suffused with a red color in the 
cheeks or face, from a sense of guilt, shame, confusion, 
modesty, diffidence or surprise. 2. To bear a blooming 
red color, or any soft, bright color.— Shakspeare has used 
this word in a transitive sense, to make red. 

BLUSH, 7(. 1. A red color suffusi]ig the cheeks only, or the 
face generally, and excited by confusion, which may 

spring from shame, guilt, modesty, diffidence or surprise 
2. A red or reddish color. 3. Sudden appearance ; a 
glance. Locke. 

t BLUSH, V. t. To make red. Shak. 

tBLUSH'ET, n. A young, modest girl. 

fBLUSH'FUL, ft. Full of blushes. Thomson. 

BLUSH'ING, ppr. Reddening in the cheeks or face ; bear- 
ing a bright color. 

BLUSH'LESS, a. Unblushing ; jjast blushing ; impudent. 

BLUSH'Y, a. Like a blush ; having the color of a blush. 

BLUS'TER, V. i. 1. To be loud, noisy or swaggering ; to 
bully ; to puff; to swagger 2 To roar, and be tumultu 
ous, as wind ; to be boisterous , to be windy ; to hurry. 

t BLUS'TER, V. t. To blow down. 

IBLUS'TER, 7J. Noise ; tumult ; boasting ; boisterousness ; 
turbulence ; roar of a tempest ; violent wind ; hurry ; 
any irregular noise and tumult from wind, or from van 

BLUS'TER-ER, n. A swaggerer ; a bully ; a noisy, tmnul 
tuous fellow, who makes great pretensions from vanity 

BLUS'TER-ING, ppr. Making a noise , pufling ; boasting- 

BLUS'TER-ING, a. Noisy ; tumultuous ; windy. 

BLUS'TROUS, a. Noisy ; tumultuous ; boastful. 

BO, excl. [W. bic] A word of terror ; a customary sound 
uttered by children to frighten their fellows. 

Bo'A, n. A genus of serpents, of the class amphibia, the 
charactei-s of which are, the belly and tail are furnished 
with scuta. It includes the largest species of serpent, the 
constrictor, sometimes 30 or 40 feet long. 

BoAR, 71. [Sax. bar ; Corn, bora.] The male of swine not 

BoAR'-SPeAR, n. A spear used in hunting boars. 

BoAR, V. i. In the manege, a horse is said to boar, when 
he shoots out his nose, raising it as high as his ears, and 
tosses his nose in the wind. 

Board, n. [Sax. bord.] 1. A piece of timber sawed thin, 
and of considerable length and breadth, compared with 
the tliickness, used for building and other purposes. 2. A 
tabie. 3. Entertainment ; food ; diet. 4. A table at 
which a council or court is held . 5. The deck of a ship ; 
the interior part of a ship or boat. 6. The side of a ship. 
[Fr. bordi Sp. borda.] 7. The line over which a ship 
runs between tack and tack. 8. A table for artificers to sit 
or work on. 9. A table or frame for a game. 10. A body 
of men constituting a quorum in session ; a court, or 

Board, v. t. L To lay or spread with boards ; to cover 
with boards. 2. To enter a sliip by force in combat, which 
answers to storming a city or fort on land. 3. To attack ; 
to make the first attempt upon a man. In Spejiser, to ac- 
cost. [Fr. aborder.] [Obs.] 4. To place at board, for a 
compensation, as a lodger. 5. To furnish with food, or 
food and lodging, for a compensation. 

Board, v. L To receive food or diet as a lodger or without 
jodgings, for a compensation. 

BoARD'A-BLE, a. That may be boarded, as a ship. 

BoARD'ED, pp. Covered with boards ; entered by armed 
men, as a ship ; furnished with food for a compensation. 

BoARD'ER, n. 1. One who has food or diet and lodging in 
another's family for a reward. 2. One who boards a ship 
in action ; one who is selected to board ships. 

BoARD'ING, ppr. Covering with boards; entering a ship 
by force ; furnishing or receiving board. 

BoARD'ING-SCHOOL, n. A school, the scholars of which 
board with tlie teacher. 

BoARD'-WA-GES, 72. Wages allowed to servants to keep 
themselves in victuals. 

BoAR'ISH, a. Swinish ; brutal ; cruel. Shak. 

BoAST, w.i. [W.bostiaw.] 1. To brag, or vaunt one's self ; 
to make an ostentatious display, in speech, of one's own 
wortli, property, or actions. 2. To glory ; to speak with 
laudable pride and ostentation of meritorious persons or 
tilings. 3. To exalt one's self. 

BoAST, V. i. 1. To display in ostentatious language ; to 
speak of witli pride, vanity or exultation, with a view to 
self commendation. 2. To magnify or exalt. 3. To exult 
m confident expectation. 

BoAST, n. 1. Expression of ostentation, pride or vanity ; a 
vaunting, 2. The cause of boasting ; occasion of pride, 
vanity, or laudable exultation. 

BoAST'ER, n. One who boasts, glories or vaunts ostenla 

BoAST'FUL, a. Given to boasting ; ostentatious of person- 
al worth or actions. 

Bc3AST'ING,ppr. Talking ostentatiously ; glorying; vaunt- 

BoASTTNG, n. Ostentatious display of personal worth, or 
actions : a glorying or vauntijng. 

BoAST'ING-LY, adv. In an ostentatious manner; with 

BoAST'IVE, a. Presumptuous. [Unusual.] 

BoAST'LESS, a. Without ostentation. Thomson 

Boat, n. [Sax, and Sw. hat.] 1. A small open vessel, or 
water craft, usually moved by oars, or rowing. 2. A 

♦ See Synopsis. MOVE, BOQK, D6VE ,— BIJLL, UNITE.— € as K ; C as J ; S as Z ; CH as SH ; TH as in tJiis. f Obsolete 




small vessel carrying a mast and sails ; but usually de- 
scribed by another word, as, a packet-boat. 

BoA'J', V. t. To transjwrl in a boat ; as, loboat goods across 
a lake. jSs/i. 

Bo \T A-BLE, a. Navigable for boats, or small river craft, 

BoAT-BILL, n. A genus of birds, (he cancroma. 

BoAT'-FLV, or BoAT'-lJSf-SE€T, ii. A genus of insects. 

BoAT'-HOOK, /I. An iron hook with a point on the back, 
fiAed 10 a long pole, to pull or push a boat. 

Boat [NG,ppr. Transporting in boats. 

RoAT iNG, It. 1. The act or practice of transporting in 
boats. — -2. In Persia, a punishment of capital otfeudei-s by 
lajirig tliem on the back in a boat which is covered, 
where they perish. 

f BU-A''J'tON, )i. [L. boo.] A crying out ; a roar. 

BoAT'MAJN', or BoATS'MAN, n. A man who manages a 
b-iat ; a rower of a boat. 

BoA'i''-ROP£, 11. A rope to fasten a boat, usually called a 

boAT -SHAPE]1, a. Having the shape of a boat ^ navicu- 
lar ; cymbiform ; hollow, like a boat. 

*BoATiSWA[N, n. {in familiar speech, pronounced ho'sn.) 
[Sax. batswein.] An officer on board' of ships, who has 
charge of the boats, sails, rigging, colors, anchors, cables 
and cordage. 

BOB, n. 1. Any little round thing, that plays loosely at the 
end of a string, cord, or movable maciiine , a little orna- 
ment or pendant, that hangs so as to play loosely. 2. The 
words repeated at the end of a stanza. 3. A blow ; a 
shake or jog ■, a jeer or flout. 4. The ball of a short pen- 
dulum. 5. A mode of ringing. 6. A bob-wig. 

BOB, V. t. 1. To beat ; to shake or jog. 2. To cheat ; to 
gam by fraud. 3. To mock or delude. 4, To cut short. 

BOB, 0. i. 1. To play backward and forward ; to play loose- 
ly against any thing. 2. To angle or fish for eels, or to 
catch eels with a bob 

t BO- BANCE', (bo-bans') n. A boasting. Chancer. 

BOBBED, pp. Beat or shaken ; cheated 5 gained by fraud ; 
dc uded 

BOB'BIiV, n. [Fr. bohine ; D. babijn.] A small pin or cylin- 
drical piece of wood, with a head, on which thread is 
wound for making lace. A similar instrument, used in 
spiiming ; a spool. 

BOB'BING, ppr. Playing back and forth ; striking ; cheat- 
ing ; angling for eels. 

BOB'BIN-WoRK, n. Work woven with bobbins. 

'BOB BISH, a. In familiar discourse, used for being hearty ; 
in good spirits. 

BOB-CllIi^R-RY, n. Among children, a play in which a 
cherry is hung so as to oob against the mouth. 

Bo'BO, n. A Mexican fish, two feet long. 

BOH'Sl'AYS, 71. Ropes to confine the bowsprit of a ship 
downward to the stem. 

BOB' TAIL, n. 1. A short tail, or a tail cut short. 2. The 
rabble ; used in contempt. 

BOB'-T AILED, a. Having the hair cut short. 

BOB-WIG, r. A short wig. Spectator. 

BOeAClUE, or BO€AKE, n. An animal found on the 
banks of the Dnieper. 

BO€'A-SlNE, n. [Fr.] A sort of fine linen or buckram. 

BOCE, n. The sparus, a beautiful fish. .ash. 

RO^^'F T FT ) 

BOf'k'E ret' ( ^" ^ ^"^^ of long-winged hawk. 

BO€K'LANd' [See Bookland.] Encyc. 

BODE, V t. [Sax. bodian, hodigan.] To portend ; to fore- 
show ; to presage ; to indicate something future by signs ; 
to be the omen of. 

BODE, V. i. To foreshow ; to presage. Dryden. 

BODE, n. 1. An omen. Chaucer. 2. A stop. See Abide. 

tBoDE'MENT, n. An omen ; portent ; prognostic. 

t BODgE, v. i. To boggle ; to slop. Shale. 

t BODGE. 71. A botch. Whitlock. 

BODICE, 71. Stays; a waistcoat, quilted with whalebone, 
worn by women. 

BOD lED, a. Having a body. Shale. 

BOD'I-LESS, a. Having no body or material form ; incor- 

■t BOD I-LI-NESS, 71. Corporality. Minshen. 

BOD'I-LY, a. 1. Having or containing a body, or ma*^erial 
form ; corporeal. 2. Relating or pertaining to the body, 
in distinction from the mind. 3. Real •, actual. 

BOD'I-LY, adv. Corporeally ; united with a body or matter. 

BoD'ING, ppr. Foreshowing-, presaging. 

BoD'ING, 71. An omen. Bp. Ward. 

BODKIN, n. 1. An instrument for making holes by pierc- 
ing. An instrument with an eye, for drawing thread, 
tape, or riband through a loop, &c. An instrumoitlo dress 
the hair. 2. A dagger ; [not in use.] 

BOD'LEI-AN, a. Pertaining to Sir Thomas Bodley. 

BODY, V. [Pax. bodig.] 1. The frame of an anima! ; the 
material substance of an animal. 2. Matter, as opposed 
to spirit. Hooker. 3. A person •, a human being ; some- 
times alone ; more generally, with some or no ; as, .sonic- 

boggy or swampy 

body ; nobody. 4. Reality, as opposed to repiesentatiou 
5. A collective mass ; a number of individuals or particu 
lars united. 6. The main army ; any number of forces. 
7. A corporation ; a nun)ber of men, united by a common 
tie, by one form of government, or by occupation. S. The 
main part ; the bulk ; as, the body of a tree. 9. Any ox- 
tended, solid substance ; matter ; any substance or masa 
distinct from others. 10 A pandect ; a general collec- 
tion ; a code ; a system. 11. Strength ; as, windof agoo^ 

BODY, V. t. To produce in some form. 

BOD'Y-CLOTHES, n. plii. Clothing or covering for tb 
body, as for a horse, jiddison, 

BOD'Y-GUaRD, n. The guard that protects or defends tb& 
person ; the life-guard. Hence, security. 

BOG, 71. [Ir. bog.] 1. A quagmire covered with grass or 
other plants. 2. A little elevated spot or clump of earth, 
in marslies and swamps, filled with roots and grass. JVcw 

BOG, v.t. To whelm or plunge, as in mud and mire. 

BOG'-BkAN, n. Menyanthes, a plant. 

BOG'-BER-RY, 71. Vaccinium ; a name of the cranberry 
growing in marshy places. 

BOG'GLE, v. i. 1. To doubt ; to hesitate ; to stop, as if 
afraid to proceed, or as if impeded by unforeseen difficul- 
ties ; to play fast and loose. 2. To dissemble. 

BOG'GLE, V. t. To embarrass with difficulties; a popular 
or vulgar iLse of the word in the United States. 

BOG'GLED, pp. Perplexed and impeded by sudden difficul 
ties ; embarrassed. 

BOG'GLER, n. A doubter ; a timorous man. 

BOG'GLING, ppr. Starting or stopping at difficulties ; hesi- 

t BOG'GLISH, a. Doubtful. Taylor. 

BOG'GY, a. Containing bogs ; full of bogs. 

BOG'HOUSE, 71. A house of office. 

BOG'-LAND, a. Living in or pertaining to a marshy coon- 
try. Dryden. 

BO'GLE, or BOG'GLE, n. [W. bwg.] A tugbear. 

BOG'-ORE. n. An ore of iron found in be 

BOG'-RUSH, 71. 1. A rush that grows in bogs. 2. A bird, a 
species of warbler. 

BOG'-SPA V-TN, 71. In horses, an encysted tumor on the in- 
side of the hough. 

BOG'-TROT-TER, n. One who lives in a boggy country 

BOG'-WHoRT, n. The bilberry or whortleberry, growing 
in low lands. 

BO-HkA', (bo-he') n. [Grosier informs us that this is named 
from a mountain in China, called Vou-y, or Voo~y.] A 
species of coarse or low-priced tea from China ; a species 
of black tea. 

BOl'AR, or BOY'AR, n. In the Russian empire, a noble- 
man ; a lord ; a person of quality ; a soldier. 

BOI'A-RIN, n. In Russia, a gentleman. 

BOI-GUA'€U, 71. The largest of the serpent kind. 

BOIL, V. i. [Fr. bouiUir : L. huUio.] 1. To swell, heave, or 
be agitated by the action of heat ; to bubble ; to rise in 
bubbles. 2. To be agitated by any other cause than 
heat. 3. To be hot or fervid ; to swell by native heat, 
vigor or irritation. 4. To be in boiling water ; to suffer 
boiling heat in water 01 other liquid, for cookery or other 
purpose. 5. To bubble ; to effervesce ; as a mixture of 
acid and alkali. — To boil airay, to evaporate by boiling. 
— To boil over, is to run over the top "of a vessel. 

BOIL, V. t. 1. To dress or cook in boiling water ; to seethe ; 
to extract the juice or quality of any thing by boiling. 
2. To prepare for some use in boiling liquor. To form by 
boiling and evaporation. 

BOIL, 71. [D. buil ; Ger. heule ; Dan. bylde ; Sax. bile.] A 
tumor upon the flesh, accompanied with soreness and in- 
flammation •, a sore, angry swelling. 

BOILED, pp. Dressed or cooked by boiling ; subjected to 
the action of boihng liquor. 

BOIL'ER, 71. 1. A person who boils. 2. A vessel in which 
any thing is boiled. 

BOTL'ER-Y, 71. A place for boiling and the apparatus. 

BOIL'ING, ppr. Bubbling ; heaving in bubbles ; being agi 
tated, as boiling liquor ; swelling with heat, ardor or pas- 
sion ; dressing or preparing for some purpose by hot 

BOIL'ING, V. The act or state of bubbling ; agitation by 
heat ; ebullition ; the act of dressing by hot water ; the 
act of preparing by hot water, or of evaporating by heat. 

BOI-O'BI, V. A green snake, found in America. 

BOIS'TER-OUS, a. [D. byster ; W. biryst.] 1. Loud ; roar- 
ing •, violent ; stormy. 2. Turbulent ; furious ; tumultu- 
ous ; noisy. 3. Large ; unwieldy ; huge ; clumsily vio 
lent. [Obs.] 4 Violent. 

BOIS'TER-OTJS-LY, adv. Violently ; furiously ; with loud 
noise ; tumultuouslv. 

BOrS'TER-OUS-NESS, n. The state or quality of being 
boisterous ; turbulence ; disorder ; tumultuousness. 

* See Synopms A, E, I, Xj, Y, long — FAR, FALL, WHAT ;— PREY v—PIN, MARINE^ BlRD ;- f Obsolete 




HOl-TI-A'PO, n. A Brazilian serpent. 

Bo'LA-RY, a. Pertaining to bole or clay, or partaking of 

its nature and qualities. Brown. 
BOL'Bl-TINE, a. An epithet given to one of the channels 

or mouths of the Nile. 
Bold, a. [Sax. bald, beald.] 1. Daring ; coui'ageous 5 brave ; 
intrepid ; fearless. 2. Requiring courage in the execution ; 
executed with spirit or boldness ; planned with courage 
nnd spirit. 3. Confident ; not timorous. — 4. In an ill 
seme, rude, forward, impudent. 5. Licentious ; show- 
ing great liberty of fiction or expression. 6. Standing out 
to view j striking to tlie eye ; as uuld figures in painting. 
7. Steep ; abrupt ; prominent ; as, a bold shore. — To make 
bold, to take freedoms ; a common, but not a correct 
phrase. To be bold is better. 
tBoLD, ^. t. To make daring. Hall. 
BoLD'EN, (bold'dn) v. t. To make bold ; to give confi- 
dence. This is nearly disused. Jlscham. 
BoLD'-FACE, n Impudence ; sauciness ; a term of repre- 
hension ani reproach. 
BoLD'-FACED, a. Impudent. Bramhall. 
BoLD'LY, adv. In a bold manner ; courageously 5 intrep- 
idly ; without timidity or fear ; with confidence. Some- 
times, perhaps, in a bad sense, for impudently. 
BoLD'xVESS, 91. 1. Courage -, bravery ; intrepidity ; spirit ; 
fearlessness. 2. Prominence ; the quality of exceeding 
the ordinary rules of scrupulous nicety and caution. 3. 
Freedom from timidity ; liberty. 4. Confidence 5 confi- 
dent trust. 5. Freedom from bashfulness ; assurance ; 
confident mien. 6. Prominence ; steepness. 7. Excess 
of freedom, bordering on im.pudence. 
EOLE, n. [Sw. bol.'\ 1. The body, or stem of a tree. 
[A'ct in use.'\ 2. A measure of corn, containing six 
BOLE, n. A kind of fine clay, often highly colored by iron. 
BO-LET'I€, a. Boletic acid is the acid of boletus. 
BO-Le'TUS, 71. [L.] A genus of mushrooms. 
Bo'LIS, 71. [L.] A fire-ball darting through the air, follow- 
ed by a train of light or sparks. 
BoLL, 71. [W. bul ,' Sax. bolla.] The pod or capsule of a 
plant, as of flax ; a pericarp. Bule, a measure of six 
bushels, is sometimes written in this manner. 
BoLL, V. i. To form into a pericarp or seed-vessel. 
BoLL'INGS, 71. pi. Pollard-trees, whose heads and branch- 
es are cut off, and only the bodies left. Ray. 
BO-Lo'GNI-AN STONE, (bo-lo'ne-an-stone) Radiated sul- 
phate of barytes, first discovered near Bologna. 
BoL'STER, 71. [Sax. and Sw. bolster.] 1. A long pillow or 
cushion, used to support the head of persons lying on a 
bed. 2. A pad, or quilt. — 3. In saddlery, a part of a sad- 
dle raised upon the bows or hinder part, to hold the rider's 
tliigh. — 4. In skips, a cushion or bag, filled with tarred 
canvas, used to preserve the stays from being worn or 
chafed by the masts. 
BoL'STER, V. t. 1. To support with a bolster, pillow or any 
soft pad or quilt. 2. To support ; to hold up ; to maintain. 
3. To aflford a bed to. [Unu^-^ual.] Shak. 
BoL'STERED, a. Swelled out. 
BoL'STER-ER, n. A supporter. 
BoL'STER-ING, n. A prop or support. Taylor. 
BoLT, n. [Dan. bolt.] 1. An arrow; a dart; a pointed 
shaft. Dryden. 2. A strong cylindrical pin, of iron or 
other metal, used to fasten a door, a plank, a chain, &c. 
3. A thunder-bolt ; a stream of lightning, so named from 
its darting like a bolt. 4. The quantity of twenty-eight 
ells of canvas. 
BoLT, V. t. 1. To fasten or secure with a bolt, or iron pin, 
whether a door, a plank, fetters, or any thing else. 2. To 
fasten ; to shackle ; to restrain. Shak'. 3. To blurt out ; 
to utter or throw out precipitately. 4. [Norm, baiter, a 
bolting sieve. Glu. Fr. blutcr.] To sift or separate bran 
from flour. — 5. Among sportsmen, to start or dislodge, used 
of conys. 6. To examine by sifting. [Inelcirant.] 7. 
To purify; to purge. lUimsual.'] Shak. 8. To discuss or 
BoLT, V. i. To slioot forth suddenly ; to spring out with 

speed and suddenness ; to start forth like a bolt. 
BoLT'-AU-GER, 71. A large borer, used in ship-building. 
BoLT'-BoAT, n. A strong boat that will endure a rough 

sea. Msh. 
BoLT'ED, pp. Made fast with a bolt ; shot forth ; sifted ; 

BoLT'ER, n. 1. An instrument or machine for separating 

bran from flour. 2. A kind of net. 
tBoLT'SR, «. t. To besmear. Shak. 
BoLT'-I-IEAD, n. A long, straigiit-necked glass vessel for 

chemical distillations, called also a matrass or receiver 
BoLT'ING, ppr. Fastening with a bolt, or bolts ; blurting 
out ; shooting forth suddenly ; separating bran from flour ; 
sifting ; examinmg ; discTissing ; dislodging. 
BoLT'ING, 7^. The act of fastening with a bolt or bolts ; a 

sifting ; discussion. 
Bolt ING-CLOTH, 7i. a Hnen or hair cloth, of wliich bolt- 
ers are made for sifting meal . 

BoLT'ING-HOLTSE, n. The house or place where meal is 

BoLT'iNG-IIUTCPI, n. A tub for bolted flour. 
BoLT'ING-?.IILL, 77. A machine or engine for sifting 

meal . 
BoLT'ING-TUB, 71. a tub to sift meal in. 
BoLT'-ROPE, n. A rope to which the edges of sails are 

sewed to strengthen them. 
BoLT'-SPRIT. See Bowsprit. 
BO'1-.US, 7!. [L.] A soft mass of any thing medicinal, to be 

swallowed at once, like a pill. 
BOM, 71. A large serpent found in America. 
B6MB, (bum) n. [L. bo7nbus ,• Gr. jSo/ijSof.] 1. A great noise 

2. A large shell of cast iron, round and hollow, wit?-, a veiit 

to receive a fusee, which is made of wood. This being 

fiDed with gunpowder, and the fusee set on fire, the bomb 

is thrown from a mortar, in such a direction as to fall into 

a fort, city, or enemy's camp. 3. The stroke upon a bell. 
f BoMB, V. t. To attack with bombs ; to bombard. 
BOMB, V. i. To sound. Ben Jovson. 
BoM'BARD, ?i. \¥r.bombarde.] 1. A piece of short, thick 

ordnance. 2. An attack with bombs ; bombardment. 

Barlow. 3. A barrel ; a drinking vessel ; [O&s.] 
BoSI-BARD', V. t. To attack with bombs thrown from 

BoM-BaRD'ED, pp. Attacked with bombs. 
BoM-BAED-IeR , n. 1. One whose business is to attend 

the loading and firing of mortars. 2. Carabus, a genus of 

BoM-BARD'ING, ppr. Attacking with shells or bombs. 
B6M-BaRD MENT, n. An attack with bombs ; the act of 

throwing bombs into a town, fort, or sliip. 
BoM-BaR'DO, 71. A musical instrument of the wind kind, 

much like the bassoon, and used as a bass to the hautboy. 

BoM-BA-S'iN', 71. A name given to two sorts of stufls, one 

of silk, the other crossed of cotton. 

* EoM'BAST, 77. Originally, a stuff of soft, loose texture, 
used to swell garments. Hence, high-sounding words ; 
an inflated style ; fustian. 

* BoM'BAST, a. High-sounding ; inflated ; big without 
meaning. Swift. 

t E6M-BAST', v.t. To inflate. Bp. Hall. 

Bo]M-BAST'I€, a. Swelled ; high-sounding ; bombast. 

E6MBAST-RY, 7;. Swelling words without much mean- 
ing ; fustian. Swift. 

BoMB'-CHEST, 7i. A chest filled with bombs, or only with 
gunpowder, placed under ground, to make destruction by 
its displosion. 

BOM'BI-AT, 77. A salt formed by the bombic acid and any 
base saturated. Lavoisier. 

BOM'BIC, a. Pertaining to the silk-wonn. 

BOM-BI-La'TION, 72. [Ij.bombilo.] Sound; report, noise. 
Brown. [Little used.] 

BoMB'-KLTCH, ) 71. A small ship or vessel, constructed 

B6IMB'-VES-SEL, \ for throwmg bombs. 

BOM-BYC'I-NOUS, a. [L. bombycinus.] 1. Silken ; made 
of silk. 2. Being of the color of the silk-worm ; trans- 
parent, with a yellow tint. 

BOM'BYX, 7!. [Gr. iSof/i3u|.] The silk-worm. 

Bo'NA-Fi'DE. [L.] With good faith ; without fraud or 

Bo-NA-Ro-BA, 7!. [It.] A showy wanton. Shak. 

t BO-NAIR', a. [It. bonai-io.] Complaisant ; yielding. 

BO-Na'SUS, 7i. [LJ A species of 60s, or wild ox. 

BON'-CHTeF, 7?.. [Fr. 6071 chef. ] Good consequence. 

BON CHRETIEN, 71. [Fr.] A species of pear. 

BOND, 7?. [Sax. bond.] 1. Any thing that binds, as a cord, 
a band. 2. Ligament ; that which holds things together. 
3. Union ; connection ; a binding. — 4. In the plural, 
chains, imprisonment ; captivity. 5. Cause of union ; 
cement which unites ; link of connection. 6. An obhga- 
tion imposing a moral duty, as by a vow, or promise, by 
law or other means. — 7. In /«;;•, an obligation or deed, by 
wliich a person binds himself, his heirs, executors, and 
administrators, to pay a certain sum, on or before a future 
day appointed. 

BOND, a. [for bound.] In a state of servitude, or slavery j 

BOND, V. t. To give bond for ; to secure payment of, by 
giving a bond. fVar in Disnruise. 

BOND' AGE, n. 1. Slavery, or invr^^Uintary servitude ; cap- 
tivity ; imprisonment ; restraint of a person's Uberty by 
compulsion. 2. Obligation; tie of duty. 

BOND'ED, pp. Secured by bond, as duties. Bonded goods 
are those for the duties on which bonds are given at the 

BOND'MaID, 7!. A female slave. 

BOND'MAN, 77. A man slave. 

BOND'SER-VANT, n. A slave. 

BOND'SER-VlCE, 71. The condition of a bond-servant .; 

BONDSLAVE, 77. A person in a state of slavery. 

See Synopsis. MOVE, BOOK, D6VE ;— BIJLL, UNITE.— € as K ; G as J ; S as Z ; CH as RH ; TH as in this, f Obsolete 



BONDS'MAN, n. 1. A slave. [O&s.] 2. A surety ; one who 
is bound, or who gives security, tor another. 

BONDS'WOM-AN, or B0ND'-W5M-AN, n. A woman 
slave. Ben Jonson. 

BON'DU€, n. A species of g-uilandina, ornickar-tree 

BONE, n. [Sax. ban.] 1. A firm, hard substance, of a dull 
white color, composing some part of the frame of an animal 
body. 2. A piece of bone, with Qragments of meat adhering 
to it. — To be upon the bones, is to attack. [Little used, and 
vulgar.']— To make no bones, is to make no scruple. 

BONE, V. t. 1. To take out bones from the flesh, as in 
coc kery. Johnson. 2. To put whale-bone into stays. Ash. 

BONES, n. A sort of bobbins, made of trotter bones, for 
weaving lace ; also dice. 

BoNE'- -ACE. n A game at cards. 

BoNE' -a€HE, n. Pain in the bones. Shak. 

BoNE]), pp. Deprived of bones, as in cookery. 

EoNE]), a. Having bones ; used in composition. 

fBoNE'LACE, n. A lace made of linen thread, so called 
because made with bobbins of bone, or for its stiffness. 

BoNE' LESS, a. Without bones ; wanting bones. 

BoNE'-SET, v.t. To set a dislocated bone ; to unite broken 
bones. Wiseman. 

BoNE'-SET, n. A plant ; the thoroughwort. 

BoNE'-SET-TER, n. One whose occupation is to set, and 
restore broken and dislocated bones. 

BoNE'-SET-TlNG, n. That branch of surgery which con- 
sists in replacing broken and luxated bones ; the practice 
of setting bones. 

BoNE'-SPAV-IN, n. A bony excrescence, or hard swelling, 
on the inside of the hock of a liorse's leg. 

BO-NET'TA, n. A sea fish. Herbert. 

BON'FIRE, n. [Fr. bon, and fire.] A fire made as an ex- 
pression of public joy and exultation. 

f BON'GRACE, n. [Fr. bonne, and grace.] A covering for 
the forehead. Beaumont. 

■f BON'I-FY, u. t. To convert into good. Cudworth. 

BO-Nl'TO, n. [Sp.] A fish of the tunny kind. 

jBON'I-TY, 71. Goodness. 

BON'MOT, n. [Fr. hon and mot.] A jest ; a witty repartee. 
This word is not anglicized, and may be pronounced 

BON'NET, 71. [Fr. bonnet.] 1. A covering for the head. — 
2. In fortification, a small work with two faces, having 
only a narapet, with two rows of palisades. 

t BON'NET, V. i. To pull off the bonnet ; to make obei- 
sance. Shak. 

BON'NET-PEP-PER, n. A species of capsicum. 

BON'NI-BEL, 71. [Fr. bonne and belle.] A handsome girl. 

BON'NI-LASS, n. A beautiful girl. Spenser. 

BON'NI-LY, adv. Gayly ; handsomely ; plumply. 

BON'NI-NESS, n. Gayety ; handsomeness ; plumpness. 
[Little used.] 

BON'NY, a. [Fr. bon, bonne.] 1. Handsome ; beautiful. 
2. Gay ; merry ; frolicksome ; cheerful ; blithe.— 3. In 
familiar language, plump. 

BON'NY, n. Among miners, a bed of ore. 

BON'NY-€LAB-BER, n. A word used in Ireland for sour 
buttermilk. It is used in America for any milk that is 
turned, or become thick, in the process of souring. 

BON'TEN, n. A narrow Avoolen stufi". 

Bo'NUM MAG'NUM. [L.] A species of plum. 

Bo'NUS, n. [L.J A premium given for a charter or other 

Bo'NY, a. 1. Consisting of bones 5 full of bones ; pertain- 
ing to bones. 2. Having large or prominent bones ; stout ; 

BON'ZE, (bon'zy) n. An Indian priest. 

BOOBY, n. [Bp.bobo.] J. A dunce ; a stupid fellow 5 a 
lubber. 2. A fowl of the pelican genus. 

BOOK, n. [Sax. boc] 1. A general name of every literary 
co"mposition which is printed ; but appropriatehj, a printed 
composition bound ; a volume. 2. A particular part of a 
literary composition ; a division of a subject in the same 
volume. 3. A volume or collection of sheets for writing, 
or in which accounts are kept. — Li books, in kind remem- 
brance ; in favor. Without book, by memory ; without 
reading ; without notes ; without authority. 

BOOK, V. t. To enter, write, or register in a book. 

b0QK-A€-€OUNT', 71. An account or register of debt or 
credit in a book. 

BOOK'BiND-ER, n. One whose occupation it is to bind 
books _ 

BOOK'BlND-ING, n. The art or practice of binding books ; 
or of sewing the sheets, and covering them with leather 
or other material. 

BOOK'CASE, 71. A case for holding books. 

BOOKED, pp Written in a book -, registered. 

BOOK'FUL, a Full of notions gleaned from books ; crowded 
with undigested learning. 

BOOK'ING, jjpr. Registering in a book. 

BOOK'ISH, a. Given to reading ; fond of study ; more ac- 
quainted with books than with men. 

BOOK'ISH-LY, fflJt). In the way of being addicted to Looks 
or much reading. 

BOOK'ISH-NESS, n. Addictedness to books. 

B06k'-KEEP-ER, n. One who keeps accounts, or the aiv 
counts of another. 

BOOK'-KEEP-ING, n. The art of recording mercantile 
transactions in a regular and systematic manner ; the art 
of keeping accounts. 

BOOK'LAND, or BOCK'LAND, n. In old English la^ns. 
charter land, the same as free socage land. 

BOOK'LEARN-ED, a. Versed in books ; acquainted with 
books and literature. 

BOOK'LEARN-ING, 71. Learning acquired by reading ; 
acquaintance with books and literature. 

BOOK'LESS, a. Without books ; unlearned. 

B60K MA-KING, n. The practice of writing and publish 
ing books. 

BOOK'MAN, n. A man whose profession is the study of 

BOOK'MATE, n. A school-fellow. Shak. 

BQOK'oATH, 7u The oath made on the Book, or Bible. 

b66K'SEL-LER, 71 One whose occupation is to sell books. 

B06K'ST0RE, n What are called booksellers' shops, in 
England, are, in the United States, called bookstores. 
Pickering's Vocabulary. 

BOOK'WoRM, 71. 1. A worm or mite that eats holes in 
books. 2. A student closely attached to books, or addict- 
ed to study. 

BOO'LEY, n. In Ireland, one who has no settled habitation 

BOOM, 7!. [D. boom.] I. A long pole, or spar, run out from 
various parts of a ship, or other vessel, for the purpose of 
extending the bottom of particular sails. 2. A strong iron 
chain, fastened to spars, and extended across a river, or 
the mouth of a harbor. 3. A pole set up as a mark to 
direct seamen. 

BOOM, v.i. [Sax. byma, byme.] 1. In marine language, to 
rush with violence, as a ship under a press of sail. 2. To 
swell ; to roll and roar, as waves. 3. To crj' as the bit- 

BOOM'KIN. See Bumkin. 

boon, n. [L. bonus ; Fr. bon ; Norm, boon.] I. A gift ; a 
grant ; a benefaction ; a present ; a favor granted, Addi- 
son. 2. [Dan. 6071.] A prayer, or petition. 

BOON, a. [Fr. bon ; L. bonus.] Gay ; merry ; kind ; boun- 
tiful ; as, a boon companion. Milton. 

BO'OPS, 71. The pike-headed whale. 

BOOR, n. [Sax. gebtir ; D. boer.] A countryman ; a peas- 
ant ; a rustic ; a plowman ; a clown . 

BOOR'ISH, a. Clownish ; rustic ; awkwEird in manners ; 
illiterate. Shak. 

BOOR'ISH-LY, adv. In a clownish manner. 

BOOR'ISH-NESS, 7). Clownishness ; rusticity; coarseness 
of manners. 

f BOOSE, 71. [Sax. bosig, bosg.] A stall or inclosuiefor an 
ox, cow, or other cattle. 

BOOSE, or BOUSE, (booz) v. i. [W. bozi.] To drink hard ; 
to guzzle. [ Vulgar.] 

BOO'SY, (boo'zy) a. A little intoxicated ; merry with liquor. 
[ Vulgar.] 

BOOST, v.t. To lift or raise by pushing : to push up. [A 
common, vulvar word in JSTew England.] 

BOOT, v.t. [Sax. bot, bote.] I. ^To profit; to advantage. 
Hooker. 2. To enrich ; to benefit. [Obs.] Shak. 

BOOT, n. 1. Profit ; gain ; advantage ; that which is giv- 
en to make the exchange equal. 2. To boot, in addilion 
to; over and above. 3. Spoil ; plunder. [See Booty.] 

BOOT, 71. [Fr. botte.] 1. A covering for the leg, made of 
leather, and united with a shoe. 2. A kind of rack for 
the leg, formerly used to torture criminals. 3. A box 
covered with leather in the fore part of a coach. Also, 
an apron or leathern cover for a gig or chair, to defend per- 
sons from rain and mud. This latter application is local 
and improper. 

BOOT, V. t. To put on boots. 

t BOOT'€ATCH-ER, n. The person at an inn whose busi- 
ness is to pull off boots. Sicift. 

BOOT'ED, pp. Having boots on. Dryden. 

BOOT-EE', 71. A word sometimes used for a half or short 

BO-o'TES, 71. A northern constellation. 

BOOTH, 71. [W. bwth ; Ir. boith, or both.] A house or shed 
built of boards, boughs of trees, or other slight materials, 
for a temporary residence. 

BOOT'-HOSE, n. Stocking-hose or spatterdashes, in lieu of 

BOOT'LEG, n. Leather cut out for the leg of a boot. 

BOOT'LESS, a. Unavailing ; unprofitable ; useless ; with- 
out advantage or success. Shak. 

BQOT'LESS-LY, adv. Without iise or profit. 

BOOT'-TOP-PING, n. The operation of cleansing a ship's 
bottom, near the surface of the water. 

BOOT'- TREE, or BOOT'-LAST, n. An instrument to 
stretch and" widen the leg of a boot. 

* See Synopsis. A, E, T, O, C, 1?, long.— FA'R, PALL, WHAT ;— PREY ;— PIN, MARINE, BIRD ;— f Obsolete 




BOOT'Y. n. [Sw. byU ; Dan. bytte.] 1. Spoil taken from an 
enemy' in war ; plunder ; pillage. 2. That which is 
seized by violence and robbery. — To play booty, is to plsiy 
dishonestly, with an intent to lose. 
BO-PEEP', n. The act of looking out or from behind some- 
thing, and drawing back, as children in play, for the pur- 
pose of frightening each other. 

BoR'A-BLE, a. That may be bored. [Little used.] 
BO-RACH'IO, n. [Sp. borracho.] 1. A drunkard. 2. A 
bottle or cask ; [not used,] 

Bo-RAC'I€, a. Pertaining to, or produced from, borax. 

BoRA-CiTE, n. Borate of magnesia. 

Bo'R A-CI-TED, a. Combined with boracic acid. 

Bo EA-€OUS AC ID, The base of boracic acid, partially 
saturated with oxygen. 

B6S A6E, (bur'rage) ?». A plant of the genus borage. 

BOR'A-MEZ, n. The Scythian lamb. Brown. 

Bo'RATE, n. A salt formed by a combination of boracic 
acid with any base saturated. 

Bo RAX, 71. [Russ. ittra.] Sub-borate of soda. 

BOR'BO-RYGM, n. [Gr, /Jop/Sootjy/iOf.] A term in medicine 
for a rumbling noise in the guts. 

BoRD'AGE. See Bordlands. 

BORD'EL, or BOR-DEL'LO, 71. [Fr. bordel ; It. bordello.] A 
brothel ; a bawdy-house ; a house devoted to prostitution. 

BORD'EL-LER, 71. The keeper of a brothel. Oower. 

BORD'ER, 71. [Fr. bord.] The outer edge of any thing ; the 
extreme part or surrounding line ; the confine or exterior 
limit of a country ; the edge of a garment ; a bank raised 
at the side of a garden. 

BORDER, V. i. 1. To confine ; to touch at the edge, side, 
or end ; to be contiguous or adjacent ; with o?t or upon. 
2. To approach near to. 

BORD'ER, t5. f. 1. To make a border; to adorn with a 
border of ornaments. 2. To reach to ; to touch at the 
edge or end ; to confine upon ; to be contiguous to. 3. 
To confine within bounds ■, to limit ; [not used.] 

BORD'ERED, pp. Adorned or furnished with a border. 

BORD'ER-ER, n. One who dwells on a border, or at the 
extreme part or confines of a country, region, or tract of 
land ; one who dwells near to a place. 

BORD'ER-ING, ppr. Lying adjacent to ; forming a border. 

B6RD'-HALF-PEN-NY, n. Money paid for setting up 
boards or a stall in market. Biirn. 

BoRD'-LAND, n. In old Imo, the demain land which a 
lord kept in his hands for the maintenance of his bord, 
board, or table. 

BoRD'-LODE, or BoARD'-LoAD, n. The service required 
of a tenant to carry timber from the woods to the lord's 

BoPcD'-MAN, n. A tenant of bord-land, who supplied his 
lord with provisions. 

T BORD'-RA-GING, n. An incursion upon the borders of a 
country. Spenser. 

BoRD'-SER-ViCE, n. The tenure by which bord-land was 

BORD'URE, 71. In heraldry, a tract or compass of metal, 
within the escutcheon, and around it, 

BORE, V. t. [Sax. borian.] 1. To perforate or penetrate a 
solid body, and make around hole. 2. To eat out or make 
a hollow by gnawing or corroding, as a worm. 3. To pen- 
etrate or break through by turning or labor. 

BORE, V. i. 1. To be pierced or penetrated by an instru- 
ment that turns. 2. To pierce or enter by boring. 3. To 
push forward toward a certain point. — 4. With horsemen, 
a horse bores, when he carries his nose to the ground. — 5. 
In a transitive or intransitive sense, to pierce the earth 
with scooping irons, which, when drawn out, bring with 
them samples of the different stratums, through which 
they pass. This is a method of discovering veins of ore 
and coal without opening a mine. 

BORE, 77. 1. The hole made by boring ; the cavity or hollow 
of a gun, or other fire-arm ; the caliber. 2. Any instrument 
for making holes by boring or turning, as an auger, gimblet 
or wimble. 3. Any thing tedious is called a bore. 

BORE, n. A tide swelling above another tide. 

BORE, pret. of bear. See Bear. 

BoRE'-COLE, n. A species of cabbage. 

Bo'RE-AL, a. [L. borealis.] Northern ; pertaining to the 
north or the north wind. Pope. 

Bo'RE-AS, n. [L.] The northern wind ; a cold, northerly 

BoRED, pp. Perforated by an auger or other turning instru- 
ment ; made hollow. 

BO-REE', n. [Fr.] A certain dance. 

BOR'ER, 71. 1. One who bores ; also, an instrument to make 
holes with by turning. 2. Terebella, the piercer, a genus 
of sea worms, that pierce wood. 

BORN, pp. of bear. Brought forth, as an animal. — To be 
born, is to be produced, or brought into life. 

BoRNE, pp. of bear. Carried j conveyed ; supported ; de- 

BoRNE, n. The more correct orthography of bourn, a limit 
or boimdary. See Bourn. 

Bo'RON, 71. The combustible base of boracic acid. 

BoR'OUGH, (bur'ro) n. [Goth, tairgs ; Sax. burg, burh ; 
Fr. bnnrg.] Originally, a fortified city or town. At;jreo- 
e7it, the name is given, ap,propriatcly, to such town^ and 
villages as send representatives or burgesses to parlia- 

BoR'OUGH, rbur'ro) n. [Sax. borlioe.] In Saxon times, a 
main pledge, or association of men, who were sureties or 
free pledges to the king for the good behavior of each 
other. — In Connecticut, this word, borough, is used for a 
town, or a part of a town, or a village, incorporated with 
certain privileges. — In Scotland, a borough is a body cor- 
porate, consisting of the inhabitants of a certain district. 

Borough English is a customary descent of lands and tene- 
ments to the youngest son, instead of the eldest. 

Borough-head, the same as head-borough, the chief of a bor- 

BoR'OUGH-H6LD-ER, n. A head-borough ; a borsholder. 

B6R'0UGH-MAS-TER, n. The mayor, governor or bailiff 
of a borough, .^sh. 

BOR-RACH'IO, n. The caoutchouc, India rubber, or elastic 
gum. See Caoutchouc. 

t BOR'REL, a. Rustic, rude. Spenser. 

BOR'REL-ISTS, ?i. In church history, a sect of Christians in 
Holland, so called from Barrel. 

BOR'RoW, V. t. [Sax. borgian.] 1. To take from another 
by request and consent, with a view to use the thing 
taken for a time, and return it. 2. To take from another, 
for one's own use ; to copy or select from the writings of 
another author. 3. To take or adopt for one's oMm use, 
sentunents, principles, doctrines and the like. 4. To take 
for use something that belongs to another ; to assume, 
copy or imitate. 

t BOR'RoW, n. A borrowing ; the act of borrowing. 

BOR'RoWED, ^^'^ Taken by consent of another, to be re- 
turned, or its equivalent, in kind ; copied ; assumed. 

BOR'RoW-ER, «. 1. One who borrows. 2. One who takes 
whatjbelongs to another to use as one's own. 

BOR'RoW-ING, ppr. Taking by consent to use and return, 
or to return its equivalent 5 taking what belongs to an- 
other to use as one's own •, copying ; assuming ; imitat- 

BOR'RoW-ING, n. The act of borrowing. 

BORS'HoLD-ER, n. [a contraction of burh's ealdor ] The 
iiead or chief of a tithing or burg of ten men ; the head 

EOS, n. [L.] In zoology, the technical name of a genus of 

B0S€'A6E, 71. [Fr. boscage, now bocage.] 1. Wood ; un- 
der-wood ; a thicket. — 2. In old laws, food or sustenance 
for cattle, which is yielded by bushes and trees. 3. With 
painters, a landscape, representing thickets of wood. 

BOSCHAS, n. The common wild duck. 

BOSH, 72. Outline ; figure. Todd. 

BOSK'ET, BOS'aUET, or BUSK'ET, n. [It. boschetto.] In 
gardening, a grove ; a compartment formed by branches 
of trees. 

BOSK'Y, a. Woody ; covered with thickets. 

*BO'S!OM, 7?. [Sax. bosm, bosum.] 1. The breast of a hu- 
man being, and the parts adjacent. 2. The folds or cover- 
ing of clothes about the breast. 3. Embrace, as with the 
aiTOS ; inclosure ; compass. 4. The breast, as inclosing 
the heart ; or the interior of the breast, considered as the 
seat of the passions. 5. The breast, or its interior, con- 
sidered as a close place, the receptacle of secrets. 6. Any 
inclosed place ; the interior. 7. The tender afl;ections ; 
kindness ; favor. 8. The arms, or embrace of the arms. 
9. Inclination ; desire. [JSfoi used.] — Bosom, in composi- 
tion, implies intimacy, affection and confidence ; as, a 

Bo'SOM, V. t. 1. To inclose in the bosom ; to keep with 
care. 2. To conceal ; to hide from view. 

BO'gOMED, pp. Inclosed in. the breast ; concealed. 

Bo'SON, n. A boatswain ; a popular, but corrupt pronuncia- 
tion . 

EOS-Po'RI-AN, a. Pertaining to a bosporus, a strait or nar- 
row sea between two seas, or a sea and a lake. 

BOS'PO-RUS, 7!. [Gr. (iov; and Tropo?.] A narrow sea or a 
strait, between two seas, or between a sea and a lake, so 
called, it is supposed, as being an ox-passage, a strait over 
which an ox may swim. The term has been particularly 
applied to the strait between the Propontis and the Eux- 

BOSS, 71. [Fr. basse.] I. A stud or Knob ; a protuberant 
ornament, of silver, ivory, or other material, used on 
bridles, harness, &c. 2. A protuberant part -, a promi 
nence. 3. A round or swelling body of any kind. 4. A 
water-conduit, in form of a tun-bellied figure. 

BOSS' AGE, n. [Fr.] ]. A stone in a building which has a 
projecture. 2. Rustic work, consisting of stones which 
advance beyond the naked or level of the building. 

BOSSED, pp. Studded ; ornamented with bosses. 

BOSS'IVE, a. Crooked ; deformed. Osborne. 

BOSS'Y. a. Containing a boss ; ornamented with bosses. 

* See ^apsia M5VE, BQQK, D6VE ;— BULL, UNITE.— € as K ; 6 as J ; S as Z ; CH as SH ; TH as in this t ObsoUte 




BOS'TEY-€HITE n, [Gr. l3oaTpvx°s ] A gem in the form 
of a lock of hair. ~35fe. 

BOS'VELj 71. A plant, a species of crowfoot 

BOT. See Bots. 

t BO-TAN'I€, n. One who is skilled in botany. 

BO-TAN'I€, I a. Pertaining to botany ; relating to 

BO-TAX'I-€AL, \ plants in general ; also, containing 

BO-TAN'I-€AJ)-Ly, adv. According to the system of bot- 

BOT'A-NIST, 71. One skilled in botany ; one versed in tlie 
knowledge of plants or vegetables. 

BOT'A-XiZE, V. i. To seek for plants ; to investigate the 
vegetable kiagdom ; to study plants. J^iebuhr, Trans. 

B0T-A-N0L'0-6Y, n. [Gr. ^oravrj and \oyoi.'\ A dis- 
course upon plants. 

BOT-A-NOM'AN-CY, n. [Gr. ^oravrj and fiavTSia.] An an- 
cient species of divination by means of plants. 

BOT'A-NY, n. [Gr. (^oravrj.] That branch of natural histo- 
ry which treats of vegetables. 

BO-TaR'GO, n. [Sp.] A relishing sort of food, made of the 
roes of the mullet. 

BOTCH, 71. [It. boiza.'\ 1. A swelling on tlie skin j a large 
ulcerous affection. 2. A patch, or the part of a garment 
patched or mended in a clumsy manner ; ill-finished work 
in mending. 3. That which resembles a botch ; a part 
added clumsUy ; adventitious or ill-applied words. 

BOTCH, V. t. 1. To mend or patch in a clumsy manner, as 
a garment. Hudibras. 2. To put together unsuitably, or 
unskilfully ; to make use of unsuitable pieces. 3. To 
mark with botches. 

BOTCHED, pp. Patched clumsily •, mended unskilfully ; 
marked with botches. 

BOTCH'ER, 7!. A clumsy workman at mending ; a m-ender 
of old clothes, whether a tailor or cobbler. 

t BOTCH'ER-LY, a. Clumsy ; patched. 

t BOTCH'ER-Y. n. A clumsv addition ; patch-work. 

BOTCH'Y, a. Marked with botches ; full of botches. 

BOTE, 72. [The old orthography of boot, but retained in law, 
in composition. See Boot. J 1. In lair, compensation ; 
amends ; satisfaction ; as, man-bote, a compensation for a 
man slain. 2. A privilege or allowance of necessaries, 
used in composition as equivalent to the French estovers, 
supplies, necessaries ; as, house-bote, a sufficiency of wood 
to repair a house, or for fuel. 

BoTE'LESS, a. In vain. See Bootless. 

BO-TET'TO, 7). A small, thick fish of Mexico. 

BoTH, a. [Sax. butu, buticu, or batica.] Two, considered 
as distinct from others, or by themselves ; the one and the 
other. This word is often placed before the nouns with 
which it is connected ; as. He understands how to man- 
age both public and private concerns. Guth. Quintilian, 
p 4. It is often used as a substitute for nouns ; as. And 
Abraham took sheep and oxen, and gave them to Abime- 
lech ; and both of them made a covenant. Gen. xxi. 
Both often represents two members of a sentence ; as, He 
will not bear the loss of his rank, because he can bear the 
loss of his estate ; but he will bear both, because he is pre- 
pared for both. BoUn^brokc on Exile. Both often pertains 
to adjectives or attributes, and in this case generally pre- 
cedes them in construction •, as, He endeavored to render 
commerce loth disadvantageous and infamous. Jdickle's 

BOTH'ER. The vulgar pronunciation of pother. See 

BOTH'NI€, or BOTH'NI-AX, a. Pertaining to Bothnia, a 
province of Sweden, and to a gulf of the Baltic sea. 

BO-To'TOE, n. A bird of the parrot kind. 

Bo'TRY-OID, ) a. [Gr. /^o-puj and ett^oj.] Having the 

BO-TRY-OI'DAL, \ form of a bunch of grapes ; like 

B5 TRY-0-LTTE, ti. [Gr. ^or^vs and XtQoj.] Literally, 
grape-stone -, a mineral. 

BOTS, 7!. Generally used in tlie plural. A species of small 
worms found in the intestines of horses. 

BOTTLE, V. [Fr. bouteillc] 1. A hollow vessel of glass, 
wood, leather or other material, with a narrow mouth, 
for holding and can-ying liquors. 2. The contents of a 
bottle ; as much as a bottle contains. 3. A quantity of 
hav m a bundle •, a bundle of hay. 

BOTTLE, r. t. To put into bottles. 

BOT TLE-ALE, 7?. Bottled ale. Shak. 

friend or comjAiuiGn in drinking. 

BOT TLED, pp. 1 . Put into bottles ; inclosed in bottles. 2. 
Having a protuberant belly. Shak. 

BOT'TLE-FLOW-ER. n. A plant, the cyanus. 

BOT TLE-NOSED a- Having an extraordinary large nose. 

BOT'TLE-S€REW, n. .-^ screw to draw corks out of bot- 

BOT'TLING, ppr. Putting into bottles. 

HOT TLING, n The act of putting into bottles and corking. 

BOT'TOM, n. [Sax. botm.] 1. The lowest part of any 
thing. 2. The ground under any body of water. 3. The 
foundation or ground-work of any thing, as of an edifice • 
the base. 4. A low ground a dale ; a valley ; applied, 
in the U. States, to the flat lands adjoining rivers, ^c It 
is so used in some parts of England. Jtlitford. 5 The 
deepest part ; that which is most remote from the view. 
6. Bound ; limit. 7. The utmost extent or depth of cavi- 
ty, or of intellect, whether deep or shallow. 8. The foun- 
dation, considered as the cause, spring or origin ; the first 
moving cause. 9. A ship or vessel. 10. A ball of thread. 
[W. botwin.] 11. The bottom of a lane or alley is the 
lowest end. 12. The bottam of beer, or other liquor, is the 
grounds or dregs. — 13. In the language of jockeys, stami- 
na, native strength. 

BOT'TOM, V. t. 1. To found or build upon ; to fix upon as 
a support. 2. To furnish with a seat or bottom. 3. To 
wind round something, as in making a ball of thread. 

BOT'TOM, V. i. To rest upon, as its ultimate support. 

BOT'TOM-LAJS'DS. See Bottom, JVo. 4. 

BOT'TOMED, pp. Furnished with a bottom ; having a 
bottom. Often used in composition ; as, a fiat-bottomed 

BOT'TOM-ING, ppr. Founding ; building upon ; furnishing 
with a bottom. 

BOT'TOM-LESS, a. Without a bottom ; fathomless. 

BOT'TOM-RY, n. The act of borrowing money, and pledg- 
ing the keel, or bottom of the ship, that is, the ship itself, 
as security. 

BOT'TO-NY, 7). In heralary, a cross bottony terminates at 
eacli end in three buds, knots or buttons. 

BOUCHE. See Bouge. 

BoU-cHET', 7?. [Fr.] A sort of pear. 

BOUD, ?!. An insect that breeds in malt or other grain ; call 
ed also a weevil. Diet. 

B(5U6E, (booj) v.i. [Fr. bouge.'] To swell out. [Little 

t BOUGE, 77. Provisions. Jonson. 

BOUGH, (bou) n [Sax. bog, boh, or bogh.} The branch of a 

BOUGHT, (bawt) pret. and pp. of buy. See But. 

BOUGHT, (bawt) n. [D. bogt. See Bight.] 1. A twist ; a 
link ; a knot •, a flexure, or bend. Milton. 2. The part 
of a sling that contains the stone. 

BOUGHT'Y, (baw'te) a. Bending. Sherwood. 

BOU-GIk', (boo-jE') 71. [Fr,] In surgery, a long, slender in- 
strument, that is introduced through the urethra into the 
bladder, to remove obstructions. 

BOUIL'LON, (bool'yon) n. [Fr.] Broth ; soup. 

BOUKE, or BOWKE, v. i. To nauseate so as to be ready to 
vomit and to belch. Sometimes pronounced boke. Groee 
Craven dialect. 

BoUL'DER-WALL, v.. [rather bowlder-wall. See Bowt- 
DER.] A wail fauilt of round flints or pebbles laid in a 
strong mortar. 

BoU-LET', n. [Fr. boule.] In the manege, a horse Is so 
called, when the fetlock or pastern joint bends forward, 
and out of its natural position. 

BOU'LI-MY. See Bulimy. 

B6ULT, an incorrect orthography. See Bolt. 

BoUL'TIN, 7!. [Sp. bulto.] In architecture, a molding, the 
convexity of which is just one fourth of a circle. 

BOUNCE, V. i. [D. bonzen.] 1. To leap or spring ; to fly or 
rush out suddenly. 2. To springer leap against any thing, 
so as to rebound ; to beat or thump by a spring. 3. To 
beat hard, or thump, so as to make a sudden noise. 4. To 
boast or bully ; used in familiar speech. 5. To be bold o? 

BOUNCE, 7!. ] . A heavy blow, thnist or thump with a large, 
solid body. 2 A loud, heavy sound, as by an explosion. 
3. A boast ; a ttirent ; in low language. 4. A fish ; a spe- 
cies of . or shark. 

BOUN'CER, n. A boaster ; a bully. 

BOUN'CING, ppr. Leaping ; bounding with violence, as a 
heavy body ; springing out ; thumping with a loud noise ; 
boasting ; moving with force, as a heavy, bounding body. 

BOUN'CTNG, a. Stout ; strong ; large and heavy ; a cus- 
tomary sense in the United States ; as, a bouncing lass. 

BOUN'CING-LY, adv. Eoastingly. 

BOUND, 7!. [Norm, bonne, boune.] 1. A limit ; the line 
which comprehends the whole of any given object or 
space. 2. A limit by which any excursion is restrained ; 
the limit of indulgence or desire. 3. [Fr. bovdir.] A leap , 
a spring ; a jump ; a rebound. — 4. In dancing, a spring 
from one foot to the other. 

BOUND, V. t. I- To limit ; to terminate ; to r°.strain or con- 
fine. 2. To make to bound. 

BOUND, r. i. [Fr. bondir.] To leap ; to jump ; to spring , 
to move forward by leaps ; to rebound. 

BOUND, pret. and pp. of bind. 1. As a participle, made fasit 
by a band, or by chains or fetters ; obliged by moral ties , 
confined ; restrained. 2. As a participle, or, perhaps, mort' 
properly an adj., destined ; tending ; going, or intending 
to go. — Bound is used in composition, as in ice-bound, 

* See Synopsis a, E, T, 0, U, ^, long —FAR, FALL, WHAT ;— PREY ;— PiN, MARINE, BiRD ;— \ Obsolete 




wind-bound, when a ship is confined or prevented from 
sailing by ice or by contrary winds. 

BOUND' A-E.Y, n. A limit ; a bound ; a visible mark desig- 
nating a limit. 

BOUND-BaI'-LIFF, n. An officer appointed by a sheriff to 
execute process. Blackstone. 

BOUND'ED, pp. Limited ; confined ; restrained. 

BOUND'ENjjj;;. of bind. See Bind, and pp. Bound. 

t BOUND'EN-L\r, ado. In a dutiful manner. 

BOUND'ER, n. One that limits ; a boundary. 

BOUND'ING, ppr. Limiting ; confining ; restraining ; leap- 
ing •, springing ; rebounding ; advancing with leaps. 

play with. Dryden. 

BOUNDLESS, a. Unlimited ; unconfined ; immeasurable ; 

BOUND'LESS-NESS, n. The quality of being without lim- 

BOUN'TE-OUS, a. Liberal in charity ; disposed to give 
freely ; generous •, munificent ; beneficent ; free in be- 
stowing gifts. 

BOUN'TE-OUS-LY, adv. Liberally 5 generously ; largely ; 

BOUN'TE-OUS-NESS, n. Liberality in bestowing gifts or 
favors ; munificence •, kindness. 

BOUN'TI-FTJL, a. Free to give ; liberal in bestowing gifts 
and favors ; munificent ; generous. 

BOUN'TI-FUL-LY, adv. Liberally ; largely ; in a bountiful 

BOUN'TI-FUL-NESS, n. The quality of being bountiful ; 
liberality iii the bestowment of gifts and favors. 

t BOUN'TI-HEDE, or f BOUN'TI-HEAD, n. Goodness. 

BOUN'TY, n. [Fr. bontd.] 1. Liberality in bestowing gifts 
and favors 5 generosity 5 munificence. 2. A premium of- 
fered or given, to induce men to enlist into the public ser- 
vice, or to encourage any branch of industry. 

B5U-aUET, (boo-kd') n. [Fr.] A nosegay ; a bunch of 

fBoURD, n. A jest. Spenser. 

t BoURD'ER, n, A jester. 

BOUR-6EOIS', (bur-joisO n. [Fr.] A small kind of printing 
types, in size between long primer and brevier. 

BOUR'6EON, (bur'jun) v. i. [Fr. boiLrgeon.^ To sprout ; 
to put forth buds ;_to shoot forth as a branch. 

*B6URN, rather BoRNE, n. [Fr. borne.} 1. A bound ; a 
limit. 2. A brook ; a ton'ent ; a rivulet ; [obs.'] 

BoUR'NON-ITE, n. Antimonidi sulphuret of lead. 

BOURSE. See Burse. 

Bouse, or booze, (booz) v. L [Arm. beuzi.} To drink 
freely ; to tope ; to guzzle. [./? vulgar word.} Spenser. 

B5US'Y, (boo'zy) a. Drunken j intoxicated. [Vulgar.] 

BOUT, 71. [Fr bout.] A turn ; as much of an action as is 
performed at one time ; a single part of an action carried 
on at successive intervals ; essay ; attempt. 

BOUT, 71. ' [It. beuita, or bev2ita.] We use this word tauto- 
logically in the phrase, a drinking-bout. 

BOU-TaDE', 71. [Fr.] Properly, a start ; hence, a whim. 
[Mot English.] Swift. 

BoUTE FEu, 71. [Pr.] An incendiary ; a make-bate. [J\''ot 
English.] _Bacon. 

•f BoU'TI-SaLE, 71. A cheap sale ; or, according to others, 
a sale by a lighted match, during the burning of which a 
man may bid. 

Bo VATE, n. [In law L. bovato.] An ox-gate, or as much 
2and as anox can plow in a year. 

Bo'VEY-€oAL, n. Brown lignite, an inflammable fossil. 

Bo VINE, a. [Low L. bovinus.] Pertaining to oxen and 
cows, or the quadrupeds of the genus bos. 

BOW, v.t. [Sax. bugan,bygan.] 1. To bend ; to inflect. 
2. To bend the body in token of respect or civility. 3. To 
bend or incline towards, in condescension. 4. To de- 
press ; to crush ; to subdue. 

BOW, v.i. 1. To bend ; to curve ; to be inflected ; to 
bend, in token of reverence, respect, or civility ; often 
with doion. 2. To stoop ; to fall upon the knees. 3. To 
sink under pressure. 

BOW, 71. An inclination of the head, or a bending of the 
body, in token of reverence, respect, civility, or submis- 

BoW, n. 1. An instrument of war and hunting, made of 
wood, or other elastic matter, with a string fastened to 
each end, to throw arrows. 2. Any thing bent, or in form 
of a cui-ve ; the rainbow ; the doubling of a string in a 
knot ; the part of a yoke which embraces the neck ; &c. 
'3. A small machine, formed with a stick and hairs, which, 
being drawn over the strings of an instrument of music, 
causes it to sound. 4. A beam of wood or brass, with 
three long screws, that direct a lathe of wood or steel to 
any arch. 5. An instrument for taking the sun's altitude